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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245018/regulation-of-mavs-activation-through-post-translational-modifications
#1
REVIEW
Bingyu Liu, Chengjiang Gao
RLRs (including RIG-I and MDA5) are the main receptors that recognize cytoplasmic viral RNA. Upon binding of viral RNA, RIG-I and MDA5 recruit mitochondria-localized MAVS to activate the downstream antiviral signaling. MAVS forms prion-like aggregates on the mitochondria after virus infection. The regulatory mechanisms for MAVS activation have been defined in various studies. Here, we summarize the recent advances about MAVS roles in antiviral immunity, discuss the regulation of MAVS activation, and suggest interesting areas for future research...
December 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244863/a-parapoxviral-virion-protein-targets-the-retinoblastoma-protein-to-inhibit-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#2
Ponnuraj Nagendraprabhu, Sushil Khatiwada, Sabal Chaulagain, Gustavo Delhon, Daniel L Rock
Poxviruses have evolved multiple strategies to subvert signaling by Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB), a crucial regulator of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe an orf virus (ORFV) virion-associated protein, ORFV119, which inhibits NF-κB signaling very early in infection (≤ 30 min post infection). ORFV119 NF-κB inhibitory activity was found unimpaired upon translation inhibition, suggesting that virion ORFV119 alone is responsible for early interference in signaling. A C-terminal LxCxE motif in ORFV119 enabled the protein to interact with the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) a multifunctional protein best known for its tumor suppressor activity...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244806/cellular-selectivity-of-aav-serotypes-for-gene-delivery-in-neurons-and-astrocytes-by-neonatal-intracerebroventricular-injection
#3
Sean L Hammond, Ashley N Leek, Evan H Richman, Ronald B Tjalkens
The non-pathogenic parvovirus, adeno-associated virus (AAV), is an efficient vector for transgene expression in vivo and shows promise for treatment of brain disorders in clinical trials. Currently, there are more than 100 AAV serotypes identified that differ in the binding capacity of capsid proteins to specific cell surface receptors that can transduce different cell types and brain regions in the CNS. In the current study, multiple AAV serotypes expressing a GFP reporter (AAV1, AAV2/1, AAVDJ, AAV8, AAVDJ8, AAV9, AAVDJ9) were screened for their infectivity in both primary murine astrocyte and neuronal cell cultures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243131/analysis-of-variability-of-urinary-excreted-jc-virus-strains-in-patients-infected-with-hiv-and-healthy-donors
#4
Danijela Karalic, Ivana Lazarevic, Ana Banko, Maja Cupic, Djordje Jevtovic, Tanja Jovanovic
In immunocompromised individuals, especially in patients with T cell immunodeficiency, reactivation of JCPyV can cause serious life-threatening diseases. Nowadays, HIV infection is one of the most important factor for reactivation of JCPyV and the development of of the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Mutations in the outer loops of the VP1 region can lead to the selection of the viral variants with changed tropism and increased pathological potential. The aims of this study were to determine sequence variation and amino acid changes within VP1 loops and the structure of non-coding control region (NCCR) of urinary excreted JCPyV isolates among HIV-infected patients and healthy donors...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242836/vaccination-with-a-recombinant-h7-hemagglutinin-based-influenza-virus-vaccine-induces-broadly-reactive-antibodies-in-humans
#5
Daniel Stadlbauer, Arvind Rajabhathor, Fatima Amanat, Daniel Kaplan, Abusaleh Masud, John J Treanor, Ruvim Izikson, Manon M Cox, Raffael Nachbagauer, Florian Krammer
Human influenza virus infections with avian subtype H7N9 viruses are a major public health concern and have encouraged the development of effective H7 prepandemic vaccines. In this study, baseline and postvaccination serum samples of individuals aged 18 years and older who received a recombinant H7 hemagglutinin vaccine with and without an oil-in-water emulsion (SE) adjuvant were analyzed using a panel of serological assays. While only a small proportion of individuals seroconverted to H7N9 as measured by the conventional hemagglutination inhibition assay, our data show strong induction of anti-H7 hemagglutinin antibodies as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242186/biased-igh-vdj-gene-repertoire-and-clonal-expansions-in-b-cells-of-chronically-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-individuals
#6
Felicia A Tucci, Simo Kitanovski, Patricia Johansson, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Alisan Kahraman, Jan Dürig, Daniel Hoffmann, Ralf Küppers
Patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) frequently develop mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), a monoclonal expansion of IgM+ autoreactive B cells, and also have an increased B cell lymphoma risk. Whether HCV infection also impacts the B cell compartment and the B cell receptor repertoire in patients not affected by MC or lymphomas is poorly understood. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood B cells of 30 MC-negative HCV-infected patients and 15 healthy controls revealed that frequencies of class-switched memory B cells were increased in the patients, whereas frequencies of transitional and naive B cells were decreased...
December 14, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241687/mechanisms-of-carrier-formation-during-clathrin-independent-endocytosis
#7
REVIEW
Antonio P A Ferreira, Emmanuel Boucrot
Clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) mediates the cellular uptake of many extracellular ligands, receptors, and pathogens, including several life-threatening bacterial toxins and viruses. So far, our understanding of CIE carrier formation has lagged behind that of clathrin-coated vesicles. Impediments have been the imprecise definition of some CIE pathways, the lack of specific cargoes being transported and of exclusive cytosolic markers and regulators. Notwithstanding these limitations, three distinct molecular mechanisms by which CIE carriers form can be defined...
December 11, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239247/correlations-between-polymorphisms-in-the-uridine-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase-1a-and-c-c-motif-chemokine-receptor-5-genes-and-infection-with-the-hepatitis-b-virus-in-three-ethnic-groups-in-china
#8
Chan Zhang, Yan He, Ke-Ren Shan, Kui Tan, Ting Zhang, Chan-Juan Wang, Zhi-Zhong Guan
Objective To determine whether genetic polymorphisms in the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A ( UGT1A) and the C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 ( CCR5) genes are associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Yi, Yao and Han ethnic groups in the Guizhou Province of China. Methods The study enrolled subjects with and without HBV infection. Whole blood was used for DNA genotyping using standard techniques. The study determined the frequencies of several polymorphic alleles ( UGT1A6 [rs2070959], UGT1A1 [rs8175347], CCR5-59029 [rs1799987] and CCR5Δ32 [rs333]) and then characterized their relationship with HBV infection...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238342/breastfeeding-behaviors-and-the-innate-immune-system-of-human-milk-working-together-to-protect-infants-against-inflammation-hiv-1-and-other-infections
#9
REVIEW
Bethany M Henrick, Xiao-Dan Yao, Laila Nasser, Ava Roozrogousheh, Kenneth L Rosenthal
The majority of infants' breastfeeding from their HIV-infected mothers do not acquire HIV-1 infection despite exposure to cell-free virus and cell-associated virus in HIV-infected breast milk. Paradoxically, exclusive breastfeeding regardless of the HIV status of the mother has led to a significant decrease in mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) compared with non-exclusive breastfeeding. Although it remains unclear how these HIV-exposed infants remain uninfected despite repeated and prolonged exposure to HIV-1, the low rate of transmission is suggestive of a multitude of protective, short-lived bioactive innate immune factors in breast milk...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238292/effect-of-vegf-on-inflammatory-regulation-neural-survival-and-functional-improvement-in-rats-following-a-complete-spinal-cord-transection
#10
Jing Li, Shuangxi Chen, Zhikai Zhao, Yunhao Luo, Yuhui Hou, Heng Li, Liumin He, Libing Zhou, Wutian Wu
After complete transection of the thoracic spinal segment, neonatal rats exhibit spontaneous locomotor recovery of hindlimbs, but this recovery is not found in adult rats after similar injury. The potential mechanism related to the difference in recovery of neonatal and adult rats remains unknown. In this study, 342 animals were analyzed. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level in spinal segments below injury sites was significantly higher in postnatal day 1 rats (P1) compared with 28-day-old adult rats (P28) following a complete T9 transection...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237840/human-cytomegalovirus-ul111a-and-us27-gene-products-enhance-the-cxcl12-cxcr4-signaling-axis-via-distinct-mechanisms
#11
Carolyn C Tu, Kathleen L Arnolds, Christine M O'Connor, Juliet V Spencer
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a prevalent pathogen that establishes lifelong infection in the host. Virus persistence is aided by extensive manipulation of the host immune system, particularly cytokine and chemokine signaling pathways. The HCMV UL111A gene encodes cmvIL-10, an ortholog of human interleukin-10 that has many immunomodulatory effects. We found that cmvIL-10 increased signaling outcomes from human CXCR4, a chemokine receptor with essential roles in hematopoiesis and immune cell trafficking, in response to its natural ligand CXCL12...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237830/axl-can-serve-as-entry-factor-for-lassa-virus-depending-on-the-functional-glycosylation-of-dystroglycan
#12
Chiara Fedeli, Giulia Torriani, Clara Galan-Navarro, Marie-Laurence Moraz, Hector Moreno, Gisa Gerold, Stefan Kunz
Fatal infection with the highly pathogenic Lassa virus (LASV) is characterized by extensive viral dissemination, indicating broad tissue tropism. The major cellular receptor for LASV is the highly conserved extracellular matrix receptor dystroglycan (DG). Binding of LASV depends on DG's tissue-specific post-translational modification with the unusual O-linked polysaccharide matriglycan. Interestingly, functional glycosylation of DG does not always correlate with viral tropism observed in vivo The broadly expressed phosphatidylserine (PS) receptors Axl and Tyro3 were recently identified as alternative LASV receptor candidates...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237829/unexpected-functional-divergence-of-bat-influenza-virus-ns1-proteins
#13
Hannah L Turkington, Mindaugas Juozapaitis, Nikos Tsolakos, Eugenia Corrales-Aguilar, Martin Schwemmle, Benjamin G Hale
Recently, two influenza A virus (FLUAV) genomes were identified in Central and South American bats. These sequences exhibit notable divergence from classical FLUAV counterparts, and functionally, bat FLUAV glycoproteins lack canonical receptor binding and destroying activity. Nevertheless, other features that distinguish these viruses from classical FLUAVs have yet to be explored. Here, we studied the viral non-structural protein, NS1, a virulence factor that modulates host signaling to promote efficient propagation...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237726/transmission-evolution-and-endogenization-lessons-learned-from-recent-retroviral-invasions
#14
REVIEW
Alex D Greenwood, Yasuko Ishida, Sean P O'Brien, Alfred L Roca, Maribeth V Eiden
Viruses of the subfamily Orthoretrovirinae are defined by the ability to reverse transcribe an RNA genome into DNA that integrates into the host cell genome during the intracellular virus life cycle. Exogenous retroviruses (XRVs) are horizontally transmitted between host individuals, with disease outcome depending on interactions between the retrovirus and the host organism. When retroviruses infect germ line cells of the host, they may become endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are permanent elements in the host germ line that are subject to vertical transmission...
March 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237189/-management-of-penile-cancer-patients-new-aspects-of-a-rare-tumour-entity
#15
M Roiner, O Maurer, S Lebentrau, C Gilfrich, C Schäfer, C Haberl, S D Brookman-May, M Burger, M May, O W Hakenberg
Over the past few decades, some principles in the treatment of penile cancer have changed fundamentally. While 15 years ago a negative surgical margin of at least 2 cm was considered mandatory, organ-sparing surgery permitting minimal negative surgical margins has a high priority nowadays. The current treatment principle requires as much organ preservation as possible and as much radicality as necessary. The implementation of organ-sparing and reconstructive surgical techniques has improved the quality of life of surviving patients...
December 13, 2017: Aktuelle Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236069/a-portrait-of-the-sialyl-glycan-receptor-specificity-of-the-h10-influenza-virus-hemagglutinin-a-picture-of-an-avian-virus-on-the-verge-of-becoming-a-pandemic
#16
REVIEW
Elena K Schneider, Jian Li, Tony Velkov
Pandemic influenza is a constant global threat to human health. In particular, the pandemic potential of novel avian influenza viruses such as the H10N7 and H10N8 avian strains, which recently managed to cross the species barrier from birds to humans, are always of great concern as we are unlikely to have any prior immunity. Human and avian isolates of H10 influenza display the ability to rapidly adapt to replication in mammalian hosts. Fortunately, so far there is no evidence of efficient human-to-human transmission of any avian influenza virus...
December 13, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235977/proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-inhibits-hepatitis-c-virus-replication-through-interacting-with-ns5a
#17
Zhubing Li, Qiang Liu
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a serine protease actively involved in regulating lipid homeostasis. Although PCSK9 has been shown to inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry and replication, the underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly characterized. Moreover, whether PCSK9 regulates HCV translation and assembly/secretion has not been determined. We therefore further studied the effects of PCSK9 on the HCV life cycle. We showed that PCSK9 did not affect HCV translation or assembly/secretion...
December 13, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235261/interferon-%C3%AE-2-and-interferon-%C3%AE-induce-the-degranulation-independent-production-of-vegf-a-and-il-1-receptor-antagonist-and-other-mediators-from-human-mast-cells
#18
Sharon A Oldford, Suzanne P Salsman, Liliana Portales-Cervantes, Raidan Alyazidi, Robert Anderson, Ian D Haidl, Jean S Marshall
BACKGROUND: Mast cells are resident immune effector cells, often studied in the context of allergic disease. Found in substantial numbers at sites of potential infection they are increased at sites of angiogenesis and can be pivotal for the sensing and clearance of a variety of pathogens. Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that are critical for host defence against intracellular pathogens. Increased levels of IFNs are observed during viral infection and in autoimmune diseases. IFNs are also widely used therapeutically and have been examined in the therapy of severe asthma...
December 13, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234527/sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-modulates-cntf-induced-axonal-growth-and-neuroprotection-in-the-mouse-visual-system
#19
Sandrine Joly, Deniz Dalkara, Vincent Pernet
The lack of axonal regeneration and neuronal cell death causes permanent neurological deficits in the injured CNS. Using the classical CNS injury model of optic nerve crush in mice, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was found to stimulate retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and axonal growth, but in an incomplete fashion. The elucidation of molecular mechanisms impairing CNTF-induced axonal regeneration is paramount to promote visual recovery. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the contribution of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) to the neuroprotective and regenerative effects of CNTF...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234324/long-non-coding-rnas-emerging-and-versatile-regulators-in-host-virus-interactions
#20
REVIEW
Xing-Yu Meng, Yuzi Luo, Muhammad Naveed Anwar, Yuan Sun, Yao Gao, Huawei Zhang, Muhammad Munir, Hua-Ji Qiu
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding RNA molecules, which are involved in various biological processes, including chromatin modification, cell differentiation, pre-mRNA transcription and splicing, protein translation, etc. During the last decade, increasing evidence has suggested the involvement of lncRNAs in both immune and antiviral responses as positive or negative regulators. The immunity-associated lncRNAs modulate diverse and multilayered immune checkpoints, including activation or repression of innate immune signaling components, such as interleukin (IL)-8, IL-10, retinoic acid inducible gene I, toll-like receptors 1, 3, and 8, and interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 7, transcriptional regulation of various IFN-stimulated genes, and initiation of the cell apoptosis pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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