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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050325/toll-like-receptor-3-pathway-restricts-marek-s-disease-virus-infection
#1
Haitao Zou, Ruixue Su, Jing Ruan, Hongxia Shao, Kun Qian, Jianqiang Ye, Aijian Qin
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an α-herpesvirus that causes immune suppression and T lymphoma in chickens. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is critical for the host immune response against MDV infection. Previously, our team demonstrated that pre-treatment of TLR3 agonist poly (I:C) inhibited Marek's disease virus infection in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). However, whether TLR3 inhibits the aggravation of MDV infection is unknown. In the current study, we found that TLR3 activation in MDV-infected CEFs effectively inhibited virus spread...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049310/molecular-epidemiology-of-influenza-b-virus-among-hospitalized-pediatric-patients-in-northern-italy-during-the-2015-16-season
#2
Antonio Piralla, Giovanna Lunghi, Luca Ruggiero, Alessia Girello, Sonia Bianchini, Francesca Rovida, Silvia Caimmi, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Nicola Principi, Fausto Baldanti, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: The influenza B viruses belong to two lineages distinguished by their genetic and antigenic characteristics, which are referred to as the Yamagata and Victoria lineages, designated after their original isolates, B/Yamagata/16/88 and B/Victoria/2/87. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular characteristics of influenza B viruses circulating in a region of Northern Italy, Lombardia, during the influenza season of 2015-2016. METHODS: Influenza B virus was detected using a respiratory virus panel of assays and an influenza B-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049306/protein-structural-disorder-of-the-envelope-v3-loop-contributes-to-the-switch-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-cell-tropism
#3
Xiaowei Jiang, Felix Feyertag, David L Robertson
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope gp120 is partly an intrinsically disordered (unstructured/disordered) protein as it contains regions that do not fold into well-defined protein structures. These disordered regions play important roles in HIV's life cycle, particularly, V3 loop-dependent cell entry, which determines how the virus uses two coreceptors on immune cells, the chemokine receptors CCR5 (R5), CXCR4 (X4) or both (R5X4 virus). Most infecting HIV-1 variants utilise CCR5, while a switch to CXCR4-use occurs in the majority of infections...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047178/the-effect-of-montelukast-on-early-life-wheezing-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-study
#4
Ozlem Keskin, Ebru Arik Yilmaz, Christine Motzkus, Cansin Sackesen, Craig M Lilly, Omer Kalayci
BACKGROUND: Cysteinyl-leukotrienes are increased in the airways of infants with virus-associated wheezing. We aimed to determine the effects of a cysteinyl-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonist on symptoms during an early-life wheezing illness and to investigate the factors that affect the response to this drug. METHOD: This placebo-controlled double-blinded randomized controlled trial recruited children aged 3-36 months with wheezing illness and randomized to active drug or placebo for 56 days...
October 19, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046675/interpreting-t-cell-cross-reactivity-through-structure-implications-for-tcr-based-cancer-immunotherapy
#5
Dinler A Antunes, Maurício M Rigo, Martiela V Freitas, Marcus F A Mendes, Marialva Sinigaglia, Gregory Lizée, Lydia E Kavraki, Liisa K Selin, Markus Cornberg, Gustavo F Vieira
Immunotherapy has become one of the most promising avenues for cancer treatment, making use of the patient's own immune system to eliminate cancer cells. Clinical trials with T-cell-based immunotherapies have shown dramatic tumor regressions, being effective in multiple cancer types and for many different patients. Unfortunately, this progress was tempered by reports of serious (even fatal) side effects. Such therapies rely on the use of cytotoxic T-cell lymphocytes, an essential part of the adaptive immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046453/murine-hepatitis-virus-nsp14-exoribonuclease-activity-is-required-for-resistance-to-innate-immunity
#6
James Brett Case, Yize Li, Ruth Elliott, Xiaotao Lu, Kevin W Graepel, Nicole R Sexton, Everett Clinton Smith, Susan R Weiss, Mark R Denison
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are positive-sense RNA viruses that infect numerous mammalian and avian species and are capable of causing severe and lethal disease in humans. CoVs encode several innate immune antagonists that counteract the host innate immune response to facilitate efficient viral replication. CoV non-structural protein 14 (nsp14) encodes 3' -to-5' exoribonuclease activity (ExoN), which performs a proofreading function and is required for high-fidelity replication. Outside of the order Nidovirales, arenaviruses are the only RNA viruses that encode an ExoN, which functions to degrade dsRNA replication intermediates...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046448/in-vitro-neutralization-is-not-predictive-of-prophylactic-efficacy-of-broadly-neutralizing-monoclonal-antibodies-cr6261-and-cr9114-against-lethal-h2-influenza-virus-challenge-in-mice
#7
Troy C Sutton, Elaine W Lamirande, Kevin W Bock, Ian N Moore, Wouter Koudstaal, Muniza Rehman, Gerrit Jan Weverling, Jaap Goudsmit, Kanta Subbarao
Influenza viruses of the H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 subtypes have caused previous pandemics. H2 influenza viruses represent a pandemic threat due to continued circulation in wild birds and limited immunity in the human population. In the event of a pandemic, anti-viral agents are the mainstay for treatment, but broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) may be a viable alternative for short-term prophylaxis or treatment. The hemagglutinin stem binding bNAbs CR6261 and CR9114 have been shown to protect mice from severe disease following challenge with H1N1 and H5N1, and H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B viruses, respectively...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046441/structure-function-dissection-of-the-pseudorabies-virus-glycoprotein-b-fusion-loops
#8
Melina Vallbracht, Delphine Brun, Matteo Tassinari, Marie-Christine Vaney, Gérard Pehau-Arnaudet, Pablo Guardado-Calvo, Ahmed Haouz, Barbara G Klupp, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Felix A Rey, Marija Backovic
Conserved across the Herpesviridae family, glycoprotein B (gB) is responsible for driving fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane for entry upon receptor binding and activation by the viral gH/gL complex. Although crystal structures of the gB ectodomain of several herpesviruses have been reported, the membrane fusion mechanism has remained elusive. Here, we report the X-ray structure of the Pseudorabies virus (PrV) gB ectodomain, revealing a typical class III post-fusion trimer that binds membranes via its fusion loops (FLs) in a cholesterol-dependent manner...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046433/a-multimechanistic-antibody-targeting-the-receptor-binding-site-potently-cross-protects-against-influenza-b-viruses
#9
Chenguang Shen, Junyu Chen, Rui Li, Mengya Zhang, Guosong Wang, Svetlana Stegalkina, Limin Zhang, Jing Chen, Jianli Cao, Xingjian Bi, Stephen F Anderson, Timothy Alefantis, Minwei Zhang, Xiaoyang Cai, Kunyu Yang, Qingbing Zheng, Mujing Fang, Hai Yu, Wenxin Luo, Zizheng Zheng, Quan Yuan, Jun Zhang, James Wai-Kuo Shih, Harry Kleanthous, Honglin Chen, Yixin Chen, Ningshao Xia
Influenza B virus causes considerable disease burden worldwide annually, highlighting the limitations of current influenza vaccines and antiviral drugs. In recent years, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against hemagglutinin (HA) have emerged as a new approach for combating influenza. We describe the generation and characterization of a chimeric monoclonal antibody, C12G6, that cross-neutralizes representative viruses spanning the 76 years of influenza B antigenic evolution since 1940, including viruses belonging to the Yamagata, Victoria, and earlier lineages...
October 18, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046357/structural-and-thermodynamic-analyses-reveal-critical-features-of-glycopeptide-recognition-by-the-human-pilr%C3%AE-immune-cell-receptor
#10
Atsushi Furukawa, Kosuke Kakita, Tomoki Yamada, Mikihiro Ishizuka, Jiro Sakamoto, Nanao Hatori, Naoyoshi Maeda, Fumina Ohsaka, Takashi Saitoh, Takao Nomura, Kimiko Kuroki, Hisanori Nambu, Hisashi Arase, Shigeki Matsunaga, Masahiro Anada, Toyoyuki Ose, Shunichi Hashimoto, Katsumi Maenaka
Before entering host cells, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) uses its envelope glycoprotein B (gB) to bind paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor α (PILRα) on immune cells. PILRα belongs to the Siglec (sialic acid (SA)-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin)-like family, members of which bind SA. PILRα is the only Siglec member to recognize not only the sialylated O-linked sugar T antigen (sTn) but also its attached peptide region. We previously determined the crystal structure of PILRα complexed with the sTn-linked glycopeptide of gB, revealing the simultaneous recognition of sTn and peptide by the receptor...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046115/bone-and-the-immune-system
#11
M Neale Weitzmann
Osteoporosis increases fracture risk, a cause of crippling morbidity and mortality. The immunoskeletal interface (ISI) is a centralization of cell and cytokine effectors shared between skeletal and immune systems. Consequently, the immune system mediates powerful effects on bone turnover. Physiologically, B cells secrete osteoprotegerin (OPG), a potent anti-osteoclastogenic factor that preserves bone mass. However, activated T cells and B cells secrete pro-osteoclastogenic factors including receptor activator of Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB) ligand (RANKL), Interleukin (IL)-17A, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α promoting bone loss in inflammatory states such as rheumatoid arthritis...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042860/toll-like-receptor-8-is-a-major-sensor-of-group-b-streptococcus-but-not-escherichia-coli-in-human-primary-monocytes-and-macrophages
#12
Birgitta Ehrnström, Kai Sandvold Beckwith, Mariia Yurchenko, Siv Helen Moen, June Frengen Kojen, Germana Lentini, Giuseppe Teti, Jan Kristian Damås, Terje Espevik, Jørgen Stenvik
TLR8 is the major endosomal sensor of degraded RNA in human monocytes and macrophages. It has been implicated in the sensing of viruses and more recently also bacteria. We previously identified a TLR8-IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) signaling pathway that mediates IFNβ and interleukin-12 (IL-12) induction by Staphylococcus aureus and is antagonized by TLR2. The relative importance of TLR8 for the sensing of various bacterial species is however still unclear. We here compared the role of TLR8 and IRF5 for the sensing of Group B Streptococcus (GBS), S...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042674/knockout-of-maternal-cd163-protects-fetuses-from-infection-with-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv
#13
Randall S Prather, Kevin D Wells, Kristin M Whitworth, Maureen A Kerrigan, Melissa S Samuel, Alan Mileham, Luca N Popescu, Raymond R R Rowland
After infection of the porcine dam at about 90 days of gestation, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) crosses the placenta and begins to infect fetuses. Outcomes of include abortion, fetal death and respiratory disease in newborn piglets. CD163 is the receptor for the virus. In this study, CD163-positive fetuses, recovered between 109 days of gestation or 20 days after maternal infection, were completely protected from PRRSV in dams possessing a complete knockout of the CD163 receptor...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039048/sclerosing-and-obstructive-cholangiopathy-in-biliary-atresia-mechanisms-and-association-with-biliary-innate-immunity
#14
REVIEW
Kenichi Harada
Biliary atresia (BA) is histologically characterized by a progressive, sclerosing cholangitis and the obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts. In terms of the etiology and pathogenesis of BA, several viral infections consisting of dsRNA, including Reoviridae, have been implicated. Human biliary epithelial cells (BECs) possess an innate immune system consisting of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). BECs have negative regulatory mechanisms of TLR tolerance to avoid an excessive inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a TLR4 ligand; however, they lack the tolerance to poly(I:C) (a synthetic analog of viral dsRNA), a TLR3 ligand...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038620/dengue-virus-induces-nk-cell-activation-through-trail-expression-during-infection
#15
Mariana Gandini, Fabienne Petitinga-Paiva, Cíntia Ferreira Marinho, Gladys Correa, Luzia Maria De Oliveira-Pinto, Luiz José de Souza, Rivaldo Venâncio Cunha, Claire Fernandes Kubelka, Elzinandes Leal de Azeredo
Dengue is an acute febrile illness with a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms ranging from mild to severe forms characterized by plasma leakage that can be fatal. NK cells are one of the main effectors in early infection and may play an important role in dengue pathogenesis. We investigated NK cell involvement during dengue infection. A higher frequency of NK cell subsets and TRAIL+NK cells was found in mild DF cases when compared to that in severe cases or healthy donors. NK activation markers such as CD107a and TLR3 were upregulated in patients' cells compared to those in healthy donors...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037857/exploring-the-role-of-il-32-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-related-kaposi-sarcoma
#16
George Semango, Bas Heinhuis, Theo S Plantinga, Willeke A M Blokx, Gibson Kibiki, Tolbert Sonda, Daudi Mavura, Elisante John Masenga, Mramba Nyindo, Andre J A M van der Ven, Leo A B Joosten
The intracellular pro-inflammatory mediator interleukin (IL)-32 is associated with tumor progression; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. We studied the IL-32 mRNA expression as well as other pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the pro-angiogenic and anti-apoptotic enzyme COX-2, the IL-8 receptor CXCR1, and the intracellular kinase FAK-1. The interaction of IL-32 expression with expression of IL-6, TNFα, IL-8, and COX-2 was also investigated...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037754/antiviral-effects-of-lactobacillus-crispatus-against-hsv-2-in-mammalian-cell-lines
#17
Elham Mousavi, Manoochehr Makvandi, Ali Teimoori, Angila Ataei, Shokouh Ghafari, Alireza Samarbaf-Zadeh
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infectious disease is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases. As regards, vaginal lactobacilli play an important role in protecting host against the urogenital pathogens; here we assessed the potential antiviral activity of Lactobacillus crispatus against HSV-2 infection in vitro. METHODS: Both Vero and HeLa cell lines were treated by L. crispatus before, during and after HSV-2 infection. The pre-incubation assay was also performed for the evaluating of virus adsorption by L...
October 13, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035786/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-networks-of-genes-activated-in-the-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci-when-fed-on-tomato-plants-infected-with-tomato-yellow-leaf-curl-virus
#18
Daniel K Hasegawa, Wenbo Chen, Yi Zheng, Navneet Kaur, William M Wintermantel, Alvin M Simmons, Zhangjun Fei, Kai-Shu Ling
The whitefly Bemisia tabaci can transmit hundreds of viruses to numerous agricultural crops in the world. Five genera of viruses, including Begomovirus and Crinivirus, are transmitted by B. tabaci. There is little knowledge about the genes involved in virus acquisition and transmission by whiteflies. Using a comparative transcriptomics approach, we evaluated the gene expression profiles of whiteflies (B. tabaci MEAM1) after feeding on tomato infected by a begomovirus, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), in comparison to a recent study, in which whiteflies were fed on tomato infected by the crinivirus, Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV)...
October 13, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034905/the-hygiene-hypothesis-in-autoimmunity-the-role-of-pathogens-and-commensals
#19
REVIEW
Jean-François Bach
The incidence of autoimmune diseases has been steadily rising. Concomitantly, the incidence of most infectious diseases has declined. This observation gave rise to the hygiene hypothesis, which postulates that a reduction in the frequency of infections contributes directly to the increase in the frequency of autoimmune and allergic diseases. This hypothesis is supported by robust epidemiological data, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Pathogens are known to be important, as autoimmune disease is prevented in various experimental models by infection with different bacteria, viruses and parasites...
October 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034326/bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-destabilizes-influenza-viruses
#20
Christopher Bandoro, Jonathan A Runstadler
Depending on the specific viral pathogen, commensal bacteria can promote or reduce the severity of viral infection and disease progression in their hosts. Influenza A virus (IAV) has a broad host range, comprises many subtypes, and utilizes different routes of transmission, including the fecal-oral route in wild birds. It has been previously demonstrated that commensal bacteria can interact with the host's immune system to protect against IAV pathogenesis. However, it is unclear whether bacteria and their products may be interacting directly with IAV to impact virion stability...
September 2017: MSphere
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