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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471567/targeting-hepatitis-d
#1
Mario Rizzetto
New therapeutic strategies to treat chronic hepatitis D are directed to deprive the hepatitis D virus (HDV) of functions necessary to complete its life cycle that are provided by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and by the host. Current options are (1) the block by the synthetic peptide Myrcludex B of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) entry into cells through the inhibition of the sodium taurocholate cotransporting receptor; (2) the inhibition with lonafarnib of the farnesylation of the large HD antigen, required for virion assembly; (3) the presumed reduction by the nucleic acid polymer REP 2139 of the release of the HBsAg and subviral HBV particles necessary for HD virion morphogenesis...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471443/board-invited-review-immunomodulatory-potential-of-dietary-soybean-derived-isoflavones-and-saponins-in-pigs
#2
B N Smith, R N Dilger
In this review, the potential for use of soy-derived bioactive compounds as immunomodulatory feed additives in pigs is discussed. Soy is a major component of the modern U.S. swine diet in today's commercial industry, providing the bulk of dietary AA necessary for growth and production. However, soy use has generally been limited in early growth phases, during which the risks of immunological insult and disease are among the highest. Improvements of soybean processing and development of soy protein products with little to no antinutritional factors have made soy more appropriate for use in young pigs but additional processing may impact bioactive compound levels in the feed...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470620/dengue-viruses-and-promising-envelope-protein-domain-iii-based-vaccines
#3
REVIEW
Hossein Fahimi, Mahshid Mohammadipour, Hamed Haddad Kashani, Farshid Parvini, Majid Sadeghizadeh
Dengue viruses are emerging mosquito-borne pathogens belonging to Flaviviridae family which are transmitted to humans via the bites of infected mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Because of the wide distribution of these mosquito vectors, more than 2.5 billion people are approximately at risk of dengue infection. Dengue viruses cause dengue fever and severe life-threatening illnesses as well as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. All four serotypes of dengue virus can cause dengue diseases, but the manifestations are nearly different depending on type of the virus in consequent infections...
February 22, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468970/comparative-genetic-variability-in-hiv-1-subtype-c-vpu-gene-in-early-age-groups-of-infants
#4
Uma Sharma, Poonam Gupta, Sunil Gupta, S Venkatesh, Mohammad Husain
OBJECTIVE: Identifying the genetic variability in vertically transmitted viruses in early infancy is important to understand the disease progression. Being important in HIV-1 disease pathogenesis, vpu gene, isolated from young infants was investigated to understand the viral characteristics. METHOD: Blood samples were obtained from 80 HIV-1 positive infants, categorized in two age groups; acute (<6 months) and early (>6-18 months). A total of 77 PCR positive samples, amplified for vpu gene, were sequenced and analyzed...
February 19, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468660/spatiotemporal-homogeneity-and-distinctness-of-the-t-cell-receptor-%C3%AE-chain-repertoires-in-epstein-barr-virus-associated-primary-and-metastatic-nasopharyngeal-carcinomas
#5
Yih-Lin Chung, Mei-Ling Wu
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoepithelioma. The aim of the present study was to characterize the homogeneity and distinctness of the T-cell repertoires within and between primary and metastatic NPCs. We used ultra-deep sequencing of the hypervariably rearranged antigen-binding CDR3 regions of T-cell receptor beta (TCRbeta ) to comprehensively profile the T-cell repertoires in NPC patients receiving definitive chemoradiotherapy with long-term follow-up. We observed not only various spatially heterogeneous patient-specific TCRbeta clone compositions that changed with time but also several commonly enriched TCRbeta subclones that were constantly shared between primary NPCs in the head and neck regions, locally recurrent tumors after treatment, and later-developed distant metastatic tumors in the liver, lung and bone...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467897/prognostic-significance-of-c-met-%C3%AE-catenin-and-fak-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-following-surgery
#6
Xue-Yi Gong, Ning Ma, Hong-Xu Xu, Fan Chen, Xiao-Hui Huang, Qian Wang
The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of specific molecular markers in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had received surgery. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to measure the expression of hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met), β-catenin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in patients with HCC. c-Met expression was identified to be high in patients with larger tumors, higher α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, higher Edmondson grades, portal vein invasion and higher tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467847/mirna-223-3p-regulates-nlrp3-to-promote-apoptosis-and-inhibit-proliferation-of-hep3b-cells
#7
Lingfeng Wan, Xin Yuan, Mantian Liu, Boyu Xue
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major malignant tumor type with a high incidence and mortality. Infection with hepatitis virus is a high-risk factor. Previous studies have demonstrated that microRNA (miR)-223 was downregulated in HCC tissues. NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3)-is a potential target of miR-223 and has a vital role in hepatitis infection. The present study was performed to investigate the role of miR-223 in the proliferation and apoptosis of HCC cells through regulating NLRP3...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467582/neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-among-patients-treated-for-nonmetastatic-breast-cancer-in-a-population-with-a-high-hiv-prevalence-in-johannesburg-south-africa
#8
Paul Ruff, Herbert Cubasch, Maureen Joffe, Evan Rosenbaum, Nivashni Murugan, Ming-Chih Tsai, Oluwatosin Ayeni, Katherine D Crew, Judith S Jacobson, Alfred I Neugut
Background: Neoadjuvant (primary) chemotherapy (NACT) is the standard of care for locally advanced breast cancer. It also allows for the short-term assessment of chemotherapy response; a pathological complete responses correspond to improved long-term breast cancer outcomes. In sub-Saharan Africa, many patients are diagnosed with large nonresectable tumors. We examined NACT use in breast cancer patients who visited public hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods: We assessed demographic characteristics, tumor stage and grade, hormone receptor status, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status of female patients diagnosed with nonmetastatic invasive carcinoma of the breast at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2011...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467319/escape-of-hepatitis-c-virus-from-epitope-i-neutralization-increases-sensitivity-of-other-neutralization-epitopes
#9
Jun Gu, Joshua Hardy, Irene Boo, Patricia Vietheer, Kathleen McCaffrey, Yousef Alhammad, Abha Chopra, Silvana Gaudieri, Pantelis Poumbourios, Fasséli Coulibaly, Heidi E Drummer
The Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) E2 glycoprotein is a major target of the neutralizing antibody response with multiple type-specific and broadly neutralizing antibody epitopes identified. The 412-423 region can generate broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnNAbs) that block interaction with the cell surface receptor CD81, with activity towards multiple HCV genotypes. In this study we reveal the structure of the rodent MAb24 with an extensive contact area towards a peptide spanning the 412-423 region. The crystal structure of the MAb24-peptide 412-423 complex reveals the paratope bound to a peptide hairpin, highly similar to that observed with human MAb HCV1, but with a different angle of approach...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467317/bovine-nebovirus-interacts-with-a-wide-spectrum-of-histo-blood-group-antigens
#10
Eun-Hyo Cho, Mahmoud Soliman, Mia Madel Alfajaro, Ji-Yun Kim, Ja-Young Seo, Jun-Gyu Park, Deok-Song Kim, Yeong-Bin Baek, Mun-Il Kang, Sang-Ik Park, Jacques Le Pendu, Kyoung-Oh Cho
Some viruses within the Caliciviridae family initiate their replication cycle by attachment to cell surface carbohydrate moieties, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) and/or terminal sialic acids (SAs). Although bovine nebovirus (BNeV), one of the enteric caliciviruses, is an important causative agent of acute gastroenteritis in cattle, its attachment factors and possibly other cellular receptors remain unknown. Using a comprehensive series of protein-ligand biochemical assays, we sought to determine whether BNeV recognizes cell surface HBGAs and/or SAs as attachment factors...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467312/fibronectin-facilitates-ev71-infection-by-mediating-its-entry
#11
Qiao-Qiao He, Sheng Ren, Zhang-Chuan Xia, Zhi-Kui Cheng, Nan-Fang Peng, Ying Zhu
Fibronectin (FN) is a high molecular weight extracellular matrix protein that contains RGDS motif, which is required to bind to integrins. Synthetic RGDS peptides have been reported to compete with FN to bind to the cell surface and inhibit the function of FN. Here, we identified that synthetic RGDS peptides significantly inhibit human enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in cell cultures. In addition, mice treated with RGDS peptides and infected with EV71 had a significantly higher survival rate and a lower viral load than the control group...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467286/viral-insulin-like-peptides-activate-human-insulin-and-igf-1-receptor-signaling-a-paradigm-shift-for-host-microbe-interactions
#12
Emrah Altindis, Weikang Cai, Masaji Sakaguchi, Fa Zhang, Wang GuoXiao, Fa Liu, Pierre De Meyts, Vasily Gelfanov, Hui Pan, Richard DiMarchi, C Ronald Kahn
Viruses are the most abundant biological entities and carry a wide variety of genetic material, including the ability to encode host-like proteins. Here we show that viruses carry sequences with significant homology to several human peptide hormones including insulin, insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-1 and -2, FGF-19 and -21, endothelin-1, inhibin, adiponectin, and resistin. Among the strongest homologies were those for four viral insulin/IGF-1-like peptides (VILPs), each encoded by a different member of the family Iridoviridae VILPs show up to 50% homology to human insulin/IGF-1, contain all critical cysteine residues, and are predicted to form similar 3D structures...
February 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466439/liver-macrophage-associated-inflammation-correlates-with-siv-burden-and-is-substantially-reduced-following-cart
#13
Bridget S Fisher, Richard R Green, Rachel R Brown, Matthew P Wood, Tiffany Hensley-McBain, Cole Fisher, Jean Chang, Andrew D Miller, William J Bosche, Jeffrey D Lifson, Maud Mavigner, Charlene J Miller, Michael Gale, Guido Silvestri, Ann Chahroudi, Nichole R Klatt, Donald L Sodora
Liver disease is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality during HIV infection, despite the use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The precise mechanisms of liver disease during HIV infection are poorly understood partially due to the difficulty in obtaining human liver samples as well as the presence of confounding factors (e.g. hepatitis co-infection, alcohol use). Utilizing the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque model, a controlled study was conducted to evaluate the factors associated with liver inflammation and the impact of cART...
February 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466428/hemagglutinin-specific-neutralization-of-subacute-sclerosing-panencephalitis-viruses
#14
Miguel Ángel Muñoz-Alía, Claude P Muller, Stephen J Russell
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive, lethal complication of measles caused by particular mutants of measles virus (MeV) that persist in the brain despite high levels of neutralizing antibodies. We addressed the hypothesis that antigenic drift is involved in the pathogenetic mechanism of SSPE by analyzing antigenic alterations in the MeV envelope hemagglutinin protein (MeV-H) found in patients with SSPE in relation to major circulating MeV genotypes. To this aim, we obtained cDNA for the MeV-H gene from tissue taken at brain autopsy from 3 deceased persons with SSPE who had short (3-4 months, SMa79), average (3...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465575/impact-of-vitamin-d-receptor-and-binding-protein-gene-polymorphisms-in-clinical-and-laboratory-data-of-hcv-patients-cross-sectional-study
#15
Letícia de Paula Scalioni, Betânia Rodrigues Dos Santos, Poli Mara Spritzer, Cristiane Alves Villela-Nogueira, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Priscila Pollo-Flores, Eliane Bordalo Cathalá Esberard, Carlos Eduardo Brandão-Mello, Elisabeth Lampe, Livia Melo Villar
Potential relationship of vitamin D, vitamin D receptor (VDR), and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) have been suggested in the pathophysiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of this observational study is to determine vitamin D levels, and VDR and DBP genetic polymorphism according demographic and laboratory data in chronic HCV patients (CHC).A total of 148 CHC patients gave serum samples for testing 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH)D) level by immunochemiluminometric assay (<20 ng/mL defined as deficient) and donated blood samples to allelic discrimination analysis using TaqMan assays...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464572/brain-renin-angiotensin-system-blockade-attenuates-methamphetamine-induced-hyperlocomotion-and-neurotoxicity
#16
Linhong Jiang, Ruiming Zhu, Qian Bu, Yan Li, Xue Shao, Hui Gu, Jueying Kong, Li Luo, Hailei Long, Wei Guo, Jingwei Tian, Yinglan Zhao, Xiaobo Cen
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse has become a major public health concern worldwide without approved pharmacotherapies. The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the regulation of neuronal function as well as neurological disorders. Angiotensin II (Ang II), which interacts with Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1 -R) in the brain, plays an important role as a neuromodulator in dopaminergic transmission. However, the role of brain RAS in METH-induced behavior is largely unknown. Here, we revealed that repeated METH administration significantly upregulated the expression of AT1 -R in the striatum of mice, but downregulated dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) expression...
February 20, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464200/polyomavirus-bk-nephropathy-associated-transcriptomic-signatures-a-critical-reevaluation
#17
Ling Pan, Zili Lyu, Benjamin Adam, Gang Zeng, Zijie Wang, Yuchen Huang, Zahidur Abedin, Parmjeet Randhawa
Background: Recent work using DNA microarrays has suggested that genes related to DNA replication, RNA polymerase assembly, and pathogen recognition receptors can serve as surrogate tissue biomarkers for polyomavirus BK nephropathy (BKPyVN). Methods: We have examined this premise by looking for differential regulation of these genes using a different technology platform (RNA-seq) and an independent set 25 biopsies covering a wide spectrum of diagnoses. Results: RNA-seq could discriminate T cell-mediated rejection from other common lesions seen in formalin fixed biopsy material...
February 2018: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463753/signal-peptide-of-hiv-envelope-protein-impacts-glycosylation-and-antigenicity-of-gp120
#18
Jason Yolitz, Catherine Schwing, Julia Chang, Donald Van Ryk, Fatima Nawaz, Danlan Wei, Claudia Cicala, James Arthos, Anthony S Fauci
The HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) of early-replicating viruses encodes several distinct transmission signatures. One such signature involves a reduced number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGs). This transmission signature underscores the importance of posttranslational modifications in the fitness of early-replicating isolates. An additional signature in Env involves the overrepresentation of basic amino acid residues at a specific position in the Env signal peptide (SP). In this report, we investigated the potential impact of this SP signature on gp120 glycosylation and antigenicity...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463725/tim-3-co-stimulation-promotes-short-lived-effector-t-cells-restricts-memory-precursors-and-is-dispensable-for-t-cell-exhaustion
#19
Lyndsay Avery, Jessica Filderman, Andrea L Szymczak-Workman, Lawrence P Kane
Tim-3 is highly expressed on a subset of T cells during T cell exhaustion in settings of chronic viral infection and tumors. Using lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) Clone 13, a model for chronic infection, we found that Tim-3 was neither necessary nor sufficient for the development of T cell exhaustion. Nonetheless, expression of Tim-3 was sufficient to drive resistance to PD-L1 blockade therapy during chronic infection. Strikingly, expression of Tim-3 promoted the development of short-lived effector T cells, at the expense of memory precursor development, after acute LCMV infection...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462897/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-a-wild-eggplant-solanum-aculeatissimum-nbs-lrr-gene-involved-in-plant-resistance-to-meloidogyne-incognita
#20
Xiaohui Zhou, Jun Liu, Shengyou Bao, Yan Yang, Yong Zhuang
Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., cause considerable damage in eggplant production. Transferring of resistance genes from wild relatives would be valuable for the continued improvement of eggplant. Solanum aculeatissimum , a wild relative of eggplant possessing resistance to Meloidogyne incognita , is potentially useful for genetically enhancing eggplant. In the present study, we have isolated and characterized a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance gene, designated as SacMi ...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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