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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647381/leukotriene-receptor-antagonist-attenuated-airway-inflammation-and-hyperresponsiveness-in-a-double-stranded-rna-induced-asthma-exacerbation-model
#1
Mariko Ujino, Naoya Sugimoto, Yuta Koizumi, Shoki Ro, Yasuhiro Kojima, Kamiyama-Hara Asae, Naomi Yamashita, Ken Ohta, Hiroyuki Nagase
BACKGROUND: Viral infections are the most common triggers of asthma exacerbation, but the key molecules involved in this process have not been fully identified. Although cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) have been postulated as the key mediators, their precise roles remain largely unclear. To investigate the roles of cysLTs in virus-induced asthma exacerbation, we developed a murine model using a viral double-stranded RNA analog, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), and analyzed the effect of leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) administration...
June 21, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647346/sting-is-involved-in-antiviral-immune-response-against-vzv-infection-via-the-induction-of-type-i-and-iii-ifn-pathways
#2
Ji-Ae Kim, Seul-Ki Park, Seong-Wook Seo, Chan-Hee Lee, Ok Sarah Shin
Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) is a human-restricted α-herpesvirus that exhibits tropism for the skin. The VZV host receptors and downstream signaling pathways responsible for the antiviral innate immune response in the skin are not completely understood. Here, we show that stimulator of interferon genes (STING) mediates an important host defense against VZV infection in dermal cells including human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and HaCaT keratinocytes. Inhibition of STING using small interfering RNA (siRNA) or short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene disruption resulted in enhanced viral replication but diminished IRF3 phosphorylation and induction of IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646884/the-increased-concentration-of-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-in-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-tick-borne-encephalitis
#3
Sambor Grygorczuk, Miłosz Parczewski, Renata Świerzbińska, Piotr Czupryna, Anna Moniuszko, Justyna Dunaj, Maciej Kondrusik, Sławomir Pancewicz
BACKGROUND: Host factors determining the clinical presentation of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are not fully elucidated. The peripheral inflammatory response to TBE virus is hypothesized to facilitate its entry into central nervous system by disrupting the blood-brain barrier with the involvement of a signaling route including Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and pro-inflammatory cytokines macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646802/dampness-can-promote-the-influenza-a-virus-and-worsen-its-prognosis-by-upregulating-the-tlr7-signaling-pathway
#4
Deng Li, Xu Huachong, Pang Peng, Zheng Ke, Nie Jiao, Wu Xianlin, Yu Bin, Chen Jia, Chen Xiaoyin
Context • Outbreaks of the influenza A virus (IAV) are increasingly recognized as a global public health issue, affecting a large proportion of the world's population. A number of studies have provided epidemiologic evidence that dampness and mold are consistently associated with multiple allergic and respiratory effects, but they focused on dampness-related pathogenic microorganisms leading to allergy rather than the dampness itself. Objective • The current study intended to examine the effects of a damp environment on the promotion of the IAV and determine the adverse effects on its prognosis through upregulation of the toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7)-signaling pathway in the lung...
June 23, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646038/aging-impairs-alveolar-macrophage-phagocytosis-and-increases-influenza-induced-mortality-in-mice
#5
Christine K Wong, Candice A Smith, Koji Sakamoto, Naftali Kaminski, Jonathan L Koff, Daniel R Goldstein
Influenza viral infections often lead to increased mortality in older people. However, the mechanisms by which aging impacts immunity to influenza lung infection remain unclear. We employed a murine model of influenza infection to identify these mechanisms. With aging, we found reduced numbers of alveolar macrophages, cells essential for lung homeostasis. We also determined that these macrophages are critical for influenza-induced mortality with aging. Furthermore, aging vastly alters the transcriptional profile and specifically downregulates cell cycling pathways in alveolar macrophages...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646017/ror%C3%AE-modulates-semaphorin-3e-transcription-and-neurovascular-interaction-in-pathological-retinal-angiogenesis
#6
Ye Sun, Chi-Hsiu Liu, Zhongxiao Wang, Steven S Meng, Samuel B Burnim, John Paul SanGiovanni, Theodore M Kamenecka, Laura A Solt, Jing Chen
Pathological proliferation of retinal blood vessels commonly causes vision impairment in proliferative retinopathies, including retinopathy of prematurity. Dysregulated crosstalk between the vasculature and retinal neurons is increasingly recognized as a major factor contributing to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Class 3 semaphorins (SEMA3s), a group of neuron-secreted axonal and vascular guidance factors, suppress pathological vascular growth in retinopathy. However, the upstream transcriptional regulators that mediate the function of SEMA3s in vascular growth are poorly understood...
June 23, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645623/identification-of-a-coumarin-based-antihistamine-as-an-anti-filoviral-entry-inhibitor
#7
Han Cheng, Adam Schafer, Veronica Soloveva, Dima Gharaibeh, Tara Kenny, Cary Retterer, Rouzbeh Zamani, Sina Bavari, Norton P Peet, Lijun Rong
Filoviruses, consisting of Ebola virus, Marburg virus and Cuevavirus, cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans with high mortality rates up to 90%. Currently, there is no approved vaccine or therapy available for the prevention and treatment of filovirus infection in humans. The recent 2013-2015 West African Ebola epidemic underscores the urgency to develop antiviral therapeutics against these infectious diseases. Our previous study showed that GPCR antagonists, particularly histamine receptor antagonists (antihistamines) inhibit Ebola and Marburg virus entry...
June 20, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645238/new-world-arenavirus-biology
#8
Nicolás Sarute, Susan R Ross
Hemorrhagic fevers caused by viruses were identified in the late 1950s in South America. These viruses have existed in their hosts, the New World rodents, for millions of years. Their emergence as infectious agents in humans coincided with changes in the environment and farming practices that caused explosions in their host rodent populations. Zoonosis into humans likely occurs because the pathogenic New World arenaviruses use human transferrin receptor 1 to enter cells. The mortality rate after infection with these viruses is high, but the mechanism by which disease is induced is still not clear...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643847/ncr1-deficiency-diminishes-the-generation-of-protective-murine-cytomegalovirus-antibodies-by-limiting-follicular-helper-t-cell-maturation
#9
Antonija Miletic, Maja Lenartic, Branka Popovic, Ilija Brizic, Tihana Trsan, Karmela Miklic, Ofer Mandelboim, Astrid Krmpotic, Stipan Jonjic
NKp46/NCR1 is an activating NK-cell receptor implicated in the control of various viral and bacterial infections. Recent findings also suggest that it plays a role in shaping the adaptive immune response to pathogens. Using NCR1-deficient (NCR1(gfp/gfp) ) mice we provide evidence for the role of NCR1 in antibody response to mouse cytomegalovirus infection (MCMV). The absence of NCR1 resulted in impaired maturation, function and NK-cell migration to regional lymph nodes. In addition, CD4(+) T-cell activation and follicular helper T-cell (Tfh) generation were reduced, leading to inferior germinal center (GC) B-cell maturation...
June 23, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642978/ectopic-delivery-of-mir-200c-diminishes-hepatitis-c-virus-infectivity-through-transcriptional-and-translational-repression-of-occludin
#10
Dalia S Elhelw, Sarah E Riad, Heba Shawer, Nada El-Ekiaby, Ayman Salah, Abdelrahman Zekri, Asma Amleh, Gamal Esmat, Ahmed Ihab Abdelaziz
Occludin (OCLN) is an essential factor for HCV entry through interacting with other surface receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the epigenetic regulation of Occludin expression and to study its impact on viral infectivity. microRNAs expression was assessed using qRT-PCR, while OCLN protein expression was investigated by indirect immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Viral infectivity was assessed by measuring viral-load using qRT-PCR. In silico analysis predicted that miR-200c targeted the OCLN 3'UTR, which was further experimentally confirmed...
June 22, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642758/time-and-antigen-stimulation-history-influence-memory-cd8-t-cell-bystander-responses
#11
Matthew D Martin, Qiang Shan, Hai-Hui Xue, Vladimir P Badovinac
Memory CD8 T cells can be activated and induced to produce cytokines and increase stores of cytolytic proteins not only in response to cognate antigen (Ag) but also in response to inflammatory cytokines (bystander responses). Importantly, bystander memory CD8 T cell functions have been shown to be dependent upon memory CD8 T cell fitness, since exhausted CD8 T cells have diminished capacity to respond to inflammatory cues. While it is known that memory CD8 T cell functional abilities, including ability to produce cytokines in response to cognate Ag, change with time after initial Ag encounter and upon multiple Ag stimulations (e...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642743/hiv-1-nef-signaling-in-intestinal-mucosa-epithelium-suggests-the-existence-of-an-active-inter-kingdom-crosstalk-mediated-by-exosomes
#12
REVIEW
Cristina Felli, Olimpia Vincentini, Marco Silano, Andrea Masotti
The human intestinal mucosal surface represents the first defense against pathogens and regulates the immune response through the combination of epithelial cell (EC) functions and immunological factors. ECs act as sensors of luminal stimuli and interact with the immune cells through signal-transduction pathways, thus representing the first barrier that HIV-1 virus encounters during infection. In particular, the HIV-1 Nef protein plays a crucial role in viral invasion and replication. Nef is expressed early during viral infection and interacts with numerous cellular proteins as a scaffold/adaptor...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642032/apoptosis-and-necroptosis-as-host-defense-strategies-to-prevent-viral-infection
#13
REVIEW
Megan H Orzalli, Jonathan C Kagan
Antiviral transcriptional responses and regulated cell death are crucial components of the host response to virus infection. However, in contrast to the signaling pathways that promote antiviral transcription, those that initiate cell death following virus infection are less understood. Several recent studies have identified pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the mammalian innate immune system that activate cell death pathways. These same receptors also have established roles in the induction of antiviral gene expression...
June 19, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641051/beneficial-role-of-citrus-fruit-polyphenols-against-hepatic-dysfunctions-a-review
#14
Md Mohabbulla Mohib, Kazi Afnan, Tasfiq Zaman Paran, Salma Khan, Juthika Sarker, Nahid Hasan, Istiaque Hasan, Md Abu Taher Sagor
Alcoholic liver diseases and virus-induced hepatic dysfunctions are prevalent in western countries. Evidence also suggests that hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are key players in the development of hepatic diseases and their complications. Since the comorbid diseases like obesity, diabetes and vascular dysfunctions primarily affect liver, the modern therapies against other hepatic dysfunctions are becoming a major challenge to treat. In addition to these, polypharmacy and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are further aggravating the phenomenon...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639618/htlv-1-induced-leukotriene-b4-secretion-by-t-cells-promotes-t-cell-recruitment-and-virus-propagation
#15
Florent Percher, Céline Curis, Eléonore Pérès, Maria Artesi, Nicolas Rosewick, Patricia Jeannin, Antoine Gessain, Olivier Gout, Renaud Mahieux, Pierre-Emmanuel Ceccaldi, Anne Van den Broeke, Madeleine Duc Dodon, Philippe V Afonso
The human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is efficiently transmitted through cellular contacts. While the molecular mechanisms of viral cell-to-cell propagation have been extensively studied in vitro, those facilitating the encounter between infected and target cells remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that HTLV-1-infected CD4 T cells secrete a potent chemoattractant, leukotriene B4 (LTB4). LTB4 secretion is dependent on Tax-induced transactivation of the pla2g4c gene, which encodes the cytosolic phospholipase A2 gamma...
June 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639033/functional-restoration-of-cd56-bright-nk-cells-facilitates-immune-control-via-il-15-and-nkg2d-in-patients-under-antiviral-treatment-for-chronic-hepatitis-b
#16
Tao Chen, Lin Zhu, Aichao Shi, Lin Ding, Xiaoping Zhang, Zhenmin Tan, Wei Guo, Weiming Yan, Meifang Han, Jidong Jia, Xiaoping Luo, Detlef Schuppan, Qin Ning
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is intrinsically immunogenic, with long-lasting immune control in many patients. However, the mechanisms and key cell types underlying effective immune control are incompletely understood. METHODS: We studied the restoration of natural killer (NK) cell numbers and function post antiviral treatment in 52 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who received telbivudine (LdT) for 48 weeks...
June 20, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638457/upregulation-of-coxsackie-adenovirus-receptor-sensitizes-cisplatin-resistant-lung-cancer-cells-to-crad-induced-inhibition
#17
Ali Sakhawat, Yanan Liu, Ling Ma, Tahir Muhammad, Shensen Wang, Lina Zhang, Xianling Cong, Yinghui Huang
Objective. Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) have been proven potent oncolytic viruses in previous studies. They selectively replicate in the tumor cells because of incorporated survivin promoter and ultimately lead to their killing with minimal side effects on normal tissue. Chemotherapy with cisplatin is commonly employed for treating tumors, but its cytotoxic effects and development of resistance remained major concerns to be dealt with. The aim of this study was to explore the anticancer potential of survivin regulated CRAd alone or in combination with cisplatin in the A549 lung cancer cell line and cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cell line, A549-DDPR...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637685/milk-oligosaccharides-inhibit-human-rotavirus-infectivity-in-ma104-cells
#18
Daniel R Laucirica, Vassilis Triantis, Ruud Schoemaker, Mary K Estes, Sasirekha Ramani
Background: Oligosaccharides in milk act as soluble decoy receptors and prevent pathogen adhesion to the infant gut. Milk oligosaccharides reduce infectivity of a porcine rotavirus strain; however, the effects on human rotaviruses are less well understood.Objective: In this study, we determined the effect of specific and abundant milk oligosaccharides on the infectivity of 2 globally dominant human rotavirus strains.Methods: Four milk oligosaccharides-2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), 3'-sialyllactose (3'SL), 6'-sialyllactose (6'SL), and galacto-oligosaccharides-were tested for their effects on the infectivity of human rotaviruses G1P[8] and G2P[4] through fluorescent focus assays on African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (MA104 cells)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636653/the-ebola-virus-vp35-protein-binds-viral-immunostimulatory-and-host-rnas-identified-through-deep-sequencing
#19
Kari A Dilley, Alexander A Voorhies, Priya Luthra, Vinita Puri, Timothy B Stockwell, Hernan Lorenzi, Christopher F Basler, Reed S Shabman
Ebola virus and Marburg virus are members of the Filovirdae family and causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with high fatality rates in humans. Filovirus virulence is partially attributed to the VP35 protein, a well-characterized inhibitor of the RIG-I-like receptor pathway that triggers the antiviral interferon (IFN) response. Prior work demonstrates the ability of VP35 to block potent RIG-I activators, such as Sendai virus (SeV), and this IFN-antagonist activity is directly correlated with its ability to bind RNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636603/trans-kingdom-mimicry-underlies-ribosome-customization-by-a-poxvirus-kinase
#20
Sujata Jha, Madeline G Rollins, Gabriele Fuchs, Dean J Procter, Elizabeth A Hall, Kira Cozzolino, Peter Sarnow, Jeffrey N Savas, Derek Walsh
Ribosomes have the capacity to selectively control translation through changes in their composition that enable recognition of specific RNA elements. However, beyond differential subunit expression during development, evidence for regulated ribosome specification within individual cells has remained elusive. Here we report that a poxvirus kinase phosphorylates serine/threonine residues in the human small ribosomal subunit protein, receptor for activated C kinase (RACK1), that are not phosphorylated in uninfected cells or cells infected by other viruses...
June 21, 2017: Nature
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