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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445497/prostaglandin-e2-produced-following-infection-with-theiler-s-virus-promotes-the-pathogenesis-of-demyelinating-disease
#1
Seung Jae Kim, Young-Hee Jin, Byung S Kim
Infection of various cells with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) activates the TLR- and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)-dependent pathways, resulting in the production of IL-1β via the activation of caspase-1 upon assembly of the node-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. The role of IL-1β in the pathogenesis of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease was previously investigated. However, the signaling effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) downstream of the NLRP3 inflammasome on the immune responses to viral determinants and the pathogenesis of demyelinating disease are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445479/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antivirus-activity-of-an-anti-programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-rat-bovine-chimeric-antibody-against-bovine-leukemia-virus-infection
#2
Asami Nishimori, Satoru Konnai, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naoya Maekawa, Ryoyo Ikebuchi, Shinya Goto, Yamato Sajiki, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Junko Kohara, Satoshi Ogasawara, Yukinari Kato, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
Programmed death-1 (PD-1), an immunoinhibitory receptor on T cells, is known to be involved in immune evasion through its binding to PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in many chronic diseases. We previously found that PD-L1 expression was upregulated in cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and that an antibody that blocked the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction reactivated T-cell function in vitro. Therefore, this study assessed its antivirus activities in vivo. First, we inoculated the anti-bovine PD-L1 rat monoclonal antibody 4G12 into a BLV-infected cow...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445307/alteration-of-serum-high-mobility-group-protein-1-hmgb1-levels-in-children-with-enterovirus-71-induced-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#3
Weikun Zheng, Haifan Shi, Yiping Chen, Zhiwei Xu, Jie Chen, Longteng Jin
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric disease caused by enterovirus infection. It typically presents as a fever along with flat, discolored spots and bumps on the hands, feet, and mouth. Compared with other viruses, enterovirus 71 (EV71)-induced HFMD is more prone to cause severe complications in children, such as brainstem encephalitis, cardiopulmonary disorders, and even death. More in-depth studies are still necessary to understand the characteristics of EV71-induced HFMD, although some related research has been reported so far...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445152/multiplexed-gene-expression-profiling-identifies-the-fgfr4-pathway-as-a-novel-biomarker-in-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#4
Changhoon Yoo, Jihoon Kang, Deokhoon Kim, Kyu-Pyo Kim, Baek-Yeol Ryoo, Seung-Mo Hong, Jung Jin Hwang, Seong-Yun Jeong, Shin Hwang, Ki-Hun Kim, Young-Joo Lee, Klaus P Hoeflich, Oleg Schmidt-Kittler, Stephen Miller, Eun Kyung Choi
BACKGROUND: The fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) pathway is an essential regulatory component of bile acid synthesis, and its relationship with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been reported. We investigated the gene expression and clinical significance of FGFR4 and related pathways in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). RESULTS: The median age was 56 years (range 30-78) and 34 patients (74%) were male. Six patients (13%) had hepatitis B virus infection, with or without liver cirrhosis...
April 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443566/atypical-chemokine-receptor-1-polymorphism-can-not-affect-susceptibility-to-hepatitis-c-virus
#5
Shu Ting Zhang, Ming Shi, Lin Nan Shao, Shi Hang Zhou, Wei Jian Yu, Mei Chen, Nan Xiao, Ying Duan, Ling Zi Pan, Ni Wang, Wen Qian Song, Yue Xin Xia, Li Zhang, Ning Qi, Ming Liu
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has infected 130 to 150 million individuals globally. A significant number of chronically infected patients will develop liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular cancer and liver failure. Atypical Chemokine Receptor 1 (ACKR1) has become the focus because of its diverse roles in diseases. However, little is known regarding the association of ACKR1 polymorphism with the susceptibility to HCV. AIMS: The purpose of the present study is to determine the association of the ACKR1 polymorphisms (rs12075) with HCV susceptibility...
April 6, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443114/tadir1-2-a-wheat-ortholog-of-lipid-transfer-protein-atdir1-contributes-to-negative-regulation-of-wheat-resistance-against-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici
#6
Soyed M Ahmed, Peng Liu, Qinghe Xue, Changan Ji, Tuo Qi, Jia Guo, Jun Guo, Zhensheng Kang
Very few LTPs have been shown to act through plasma membrane receptors or to be involved in the hypersensitive response (HR). DIR1, a new type of plant LTP interacts with lipids in vitro, moves to distant tissues during systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and therefore is thought to be involved in long-distance signaling during SAR. However, the exact functions of DIR1 orthologs in cereal species under biotic and abiotic stresses have not been thoroughly defined. In this study, a novel wheat ortholog of the DIR1 gene, TaDIR1-2, was isolated from Suwon11, a Chinese cultivar of wheat and functionally characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443092/disarming-cellular-alarm-systems-manipulation-of-stress-induced-nkg2d-ligands-by-human-herpesviruses
#7
REVIEW
Dominik Schmiedel, Ofer Mandelboim
The coevolution of viruses and their hosts led to the repeated emergence of cellular alert signals and viral strategies to counteract them. The herpesvirus family of viruses displays the most sophisticated repertoire of immune escape mechanisms enabling infected cells to evade immune recognition and thereby maintain infection. The herpesvirus family consists of nine viruses that are capable of infecting humans: herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), roseoloviruses (HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7), and Kaposi's-sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443089/japanese-encephalitis-virus-exploits-dopamine-d2-receptor-phospholipase-c-to-target-dopaminergic-human-neuronal-cells
#8
Yogy Simanjuntak, Jian-Jong Liang, Yi-Ling Lee, Yi-Ling Lin
Despite the availability of vaccines for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the re-emerging virus remains a clinically important pathogen that causes acute encephalitis and permanent neuropsychiatric sequels. JEV highly targets dopaminergic neuron-rich brain regions including the thalamus and midbrain. The molecular mechanism contributing to the high susceptibility of these particular brain regions remains largely unclear. This study addressed whether this tissue tropism of JEV is associated with signaling of dopaminergic neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442998/glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gene-delivery-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-delicate-balance-between-neuroprotection-trophic-effects-and-unwanted-compensatory-mechanisms
#9
REVIEW
Liliane Tenenbaum, Marie Humbert-Claude
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and Neurturin (NRTN) bind to a receptor complex consisting of a member of the GDNF family receptor (GFR)-α and the Ret tyrosine kinase. Both factors were shown to protect nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons and reduce motor symptoms when applied terminally in toxin-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) models. However, clinical trials based on intraputaminal GDNF protein administration or recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated NRTN gene delivery have been disappointing...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442771/double-stranded-dna-induces-a-prothrombotic-phenotype-in-the-vascular-endothelium
#10
Erik Gaitzsch, Thomas Czermak, Andrea Ribeiro, Yvonn Heun, Monica Bohmer, Monika Merkle, Hanna Mannell, Christian Schulz, Markus Wörnle, Joachim Pircher
Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) constitutes a potent activator of innate immunity, given its ability to bind intracellular pattern recognition receptors during viral infections or sterile tissue damage. While effects of dsDNA in immune cells have been extensively studied, dsDNA signalling and its pathophysiological implications in non-immune cells, such as the vascular endothelium, remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize prothrombotic effects of dsDNA in vascular endothelial cells. Transfection of cultured human endothelial cells with the synthetic dsDNA poly(dA:dT) induced upregulation of the prothrombotic molecules tissue factor and PAI-1, resulting in accelerated blood clotting in vitro, which was partly dependent on RIG-I signalling...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442607/n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-receptor-blockade-prevents-neuronal-death-induced-by-zika-virus-infection
#11
Vivian V Costa, Juliana L Del Sarto, Rebeca F Rocha, Flavia R Silva, Juliana G Doria, Isabella G Olmo, Rafael E Marques, Celso M Queiroz-Junior, Giselle Foureaux, Julia Maria S Araújo, Allysson Cramer, Ana Luíza C V Real, Lucas S Ribeiro, Silvia I Sardi, Anderson J Ferreira, Fabiana S Machado, Antônio C de Oliveira, Antônio L Teixeira, Helder I Nakaya, Danielle G Souza, Fabiola M Ribeiro, Mauro M Teixeira
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a global health emergency that causes significant neurodegeneration. Neurodegenerative processes may be exacerbated by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent neuronal excitoxicity. Here, we have exploited the hypothesis that ZIKV-induced neurodegeneration can be rescued by blocking NMDA overstimulation with memantine. Our results show that ZIKV actively replicates in primary neurons and that virus replication is directly associated with massive neuronal cell death. Interestingly, treatment with memantine or other NMDAR blockers, including dizocilpine (MK-801), agmatine sulfate, or ifenprodil, prevents neuronal death without interfering with the ability of ZIKV to replicate in these cells...
April 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442605/the-toll-like-receptor-4-antagonist-eritoran-protects-mice-from-lethal-filovirus-challenge
#12
Patrick Younan, Palaniappan Ramanathan, Jessica Graber, Fabian Gusovsky, Alexander Bukreyev
The 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) in West Africa, which has seen intermittent reemergence since it was officially declared over in February of 2016, has demonstrated the need for the rapid development of therapeutic intervention strategies. Indirect evidence has suggested that the EBOV infection shares several commonalities associated with the onset of bacterial sepsis, including the development of a "cytokine storm." Eritoran, a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist, was previously shown to result in protection of mice against lethal influenza virus infection...
April 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442418/tlr22-structure-and-expression-characteristic-of-barbel-chub-squaliobarbus-curriculus-provides-insights-into-antiviral-immunity-against-infection-with-grass-carp-reovirus
#13
Rong-Hua Wang, Wei Li, Yu-Ding Fan, Qiao-Lin Liu, Ling-Bing Zeng, Tiao-Yi Xiao
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is the most virulent agent to Grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, and causes a severe infectious disease called hemorrhagic disease of grass carp. Generally, barbel chub, Squaliobarbus curriculus, a genetically closely related species to grass carp, exhibits significant resistance against GCRV infection compared to grass carp. To investigate whether the Toll-like receptor 22 (tlr22) has got a vital role against the GCRV infection, the full cDNA sequence of tlr22 from barbel chub (Sctlr22) was cloned by RACE-PCR, and the structure and expression feature were studied...
April 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442365/b-cell-activating-factor-regulates-the-survival-of-b-lymphocytes-infected-with-human-cytomegalovirus
#14
Haiyan Xu, Panpan Dong, Xuyi Ma, Dan Song, Dong Xue, Renfang Xu, Hao Lu, Xiaozhou He
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that B lymphocytes can be polyclonally activated by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and individuals infected by HCMV exhibit characteristic features of an autoimmunity disease. B cell-activating factor (BAFF) plays important roles in the survival and differentiation of B cells; however, few studies have examined the potential role of BAFF on B cells infected by HCMV. METHODS: HCMV virus strain (HCMV AD-169) was concentrated by normal methods and used to infect microbead-purified tonsil CD19+ B cells...
April 22, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442062/retinoic-acid-triggers-c-kit-gene-expression-in-spermatogonial-stem-cells-through-an-enhanceosome-constituted-between-transcription-factor-binding-sites-for-retinoic-acid-response-element-rare-spleen-focus-forming-virus-proviral-integration-oncogene-spfi1-pu
#15
Swanand Koli, Ayan Mukherjee, Kudumula Venkata Rami Reddy
Restricted availability of retinoic acid (RA) in the testicular milieu regulates transcriptional activity of c-kit (KIT, CD117), which aids in the determination of spermatogonial stem-cell differentiation. The effect of RA on c-kit has been reported previously, but its mode of genomic action remains unresolved. We studied the molecular machinery guiding RA responsiveness to the c-kit gene using spermatogonial stem-cell line C18-4 and primary spermatogonial cells. A novel retinoic acid response element (RARE) positioned at -989 nucleotides upstream of the transcription start site (TSS) was identified, providing a binding site for a dimeric RA receptor (i...
March 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441462/transcriptomic-profiling-of-a-chicken-lung-epithelial-cell-line-clec213-reveals-a-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-activity-boost-during-influenza-virus-infection
#16
Léa Meyer, Olivier Leymarie, Christophe Chevalier, Evelyne Esnault, Marco Moroldo, Bruno Da Costa, Sonia Georgeault, Philippe Roingeard, Bernard Delmas, Pascale Quéré, Ronan Le Goffic
Avian Influenza virus (AIV) is a major concern for the global poultry industry. Since 2012, several countries have reported AIV outbreaks among domestic poultry. These outbreaks had tremendous impact on poultry production and socio-economic repercussion on farmers. In addition, the constant emergence of highly pathogenic AIV also poses a significant risk to human health. In this study, we used a chicken lung epithelial cell line (CLEC213) to gain a better understanding of the molecular consequences of low pathogenic AIV infection in their natural host...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441414/regional-early-and-progressive-loss-of-brain-pericytes-but-not-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-adult-mice-with-disrupted-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-%C3%AE-signaling
#17
Angeliki Maria Nikolakopoulou, Zhen Zhao, Axel Montagne, Berislav V Zlokovic
Pericytes regulate key neurovascular functions of the brain. Studies in pericyte-deficient transgenic mice with aberrant signaling between endothelial-derived platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) in pericytes have contributed to better understanding of the role of pericytes in the brain. Here, we studied PdgfrβF7/F7 mice, which carry seven point mutations that disrupt PDGFRβ signaling causing loss of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the developing brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439892/cerebrospinal-fluid-cyto-chemokine-profile-during-acute-herpes-simplex-virus-induced-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-and-in-chronic-neurological-sequelae
#18
Kavitha Kothur, Deepak Gill, Melanie Wong, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Sushil Bandodkar, Susan Arbunckle, Louise Wienholt, Russell C Dale
AIM: To examine the cytokine/chemokine profile of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during acute herpes simplex virus-induced N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) autoimmunity and in chronic/relapsing post-herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) neurological syndromes. METHOD: We measured longitudinal serial CSF cyto-/chemokines (n=34) and a glial marker (calcium-binding astroglial protein, S100B) in one patient during acute HSE and subsequent anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and compared the results with those from two patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis without preceding HSE...
April 25, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439890/herpes-simplex-virus-induced-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-a-systematic-literature-review-with-analysis-of-43-cases
#19
REVIEW
Margherita Nosadini, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Francesco Corazza, Ezia Maria Ruga, Kavitha Kothur, Giorgio Perilongo, Anna Chiara Frigo, Irene Toldo, Russell C Dale, Stefano Sartori
AIM: To conduct a systematic literature review on patients with biphasic disease with herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis followed by anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. METHOD: We conducted a case report and systematic literature review (up to 10 December 2016), focused on differences between herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and anti-NMDAR encephalitis phases, age-related characteristics of HSV-induced anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and therapy...
April 25, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439098/uncoupling-dapk1-from-nmda-receptor-glun2b-subunit-exerts-rapid-antidepressant-like-effects
#20
S-X Li, Y Han, L-Z Xu, K Yuan, R-X Zhang, C-Y Sun, D-F Xu, M Yuan, J-H Deng, S-Q Meng, X-J Gao, Q Wen, L-J Liu, W-L Zhu, Y-X Xue, M Zhao, J Shi, L Lu
Several preclinical studies have reported the rapid antidepressant effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) couples GluN2B subunits at extrasynaptic sites to regulate NMDAR channel conductance. In the present study, we found that chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induced extracellular glutamate accumulation, accompanied by an increase in the DAPK1-NMDAR interaction, the high expression of DAPK1 and phosphorylated GluN2B at Ser1303, a decrease in phosphorylated DAPK1 at Ser308 and synaptic protein deficits in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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