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C Vijayakumar, M Ramesh, A Murugesan, N Panneerselvam, D Subramaniam, M Bharathiraja
The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Manchu Chaithanya, U R Raaju
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Giovanni Benelli, Angelo Canale, Chiara Toniolo, Akon Higuchi, Kadarkarai Murugan, Roman Pavela, Marcello Nicoletti
Pesticide resistance is going to change rapidly our antibiotics and insecticides arsenal. In this scenario, plant-derived natural products are considered valuable candidates to reverse this negative trend. Growing research attention is focused on neem (Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae), exploring the utility of its products as insecticides and antibiotics. In this review, we summarised the knowledge on neem oil and neem cake by-products in arthropod pest control, with special reference to mosquito vectors of public health importance...
August 12, 2016: Natural Product Research
Andrea Spolaor, Paul Vallelonga, Clara Turetta, Niccolò Maffezzoli, Giulio Cozzi, Jacopo Gabrieli, Carlo Barbante, Kumiko Goto-Azuma, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Carlos A Cuevas, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen
Reconstructing the past variability of Arctic sea ice provides an essential context for recent multi-year sea ice decline, although few quantitative reconstructions cover the Holocene period prior to the earliest historical records 1,200 years ago. Photochemical recycling of bromine is observed over first-year, or seasonal, sea ice in so-called "bromine explosions" and we employ a 1-D chemistry transport model to quantify processes of bromine enrichment over first-year sea ice and depositional transport over multi-year sea ice and land ice...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sofia Tapanelli, Giuseppina Chianese, Leonardo Lucantoni, Rakiswendé Serge Yerbanga, Annette Habluetzel, Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati
Azadirachta indica, known as neem tree and traditionally called "nature's drug store" makes part of several African pharmacopeias and is widely used for the preparation of homemade remedies and commercial preparations against various illnesses, including malaria. Employing a bio-guided fractionation approach, molecules obtained from A. indica ripe and green fruit kernels were tested for activity against early sporogonic stages of Plasmodium berghei, the parasite stages that develop in the mosquito mid gut after an infective blood meal...
October 2016: Fitoterapia
Tong Lin, Qisi Liu, Jingxiang Chen
The pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope, a major forest insect pest, is the primary vector of the destructive forest pest pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Azadirachtin, an active compound of neem, is biologically interesting because it represents a group of important, successful botanical pesticides. We provide insight into the molecular effects of azadirachtin on M. alternatus at the transcriptional level to provide clues about possible molecular-level targets and to establish a link between azadirachtin and insect global responses...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sivaiah Kummara, Mrityunjaya B Patil, Tiewlasubon Uriah
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are superior cluster of nanomaterials that are recently recognized for their different applications in various pharmaceutical and clinical settings. The objective of this work deals with novel method for biosynthesis of AgNPs using Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf extract as reducing agent. These bio and chemical synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-vis Spectroscopy, Nanotarc, Dynamic light scattering (DLS), Zeta Potential (ZP), Transmission Electron Microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
September 9, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Hafiz M Rehman, Riaz Mahmood, Muhammad Razaq, Gadi V P Reddy
Since 2005, mango has been damaged by a group of new pests, the gall midges, in all mango-growing areas of Pakistan. Little is known about these pests in Pakistan. In this report, we present information on the occurrence, damage patterns, methods for monitoring, and management of Procontarinia mangiferae (Felt), a mango gall midge found in the country. At the study site (Rahim Yar Khan, a district of the province Punjab, Pakistan), the pest was active from January/February to April as eggs, larvae, and adults on mango inflorescence buds, branches (axillaries), and immature fruits...
September 11, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
José Cola Zanuncio, Sheila Abreu Mourão, Luis Carlos Martínez, Carlos Frederico Wilcken, Francisco S Ramalho, Angelica Plata-Rueda, Marcus Alvarenga Soares, José Eduardo Serrão
This research investigated the effects of neem oil on mortality, survival and malformations of the non-target stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus. Neurotoxic and growth inhibitor insecticides were used to compare the lethal and sublethal effects from neem oil on this predator. Six concentrations of neem oil were topically applied onto nymphs and adults of this predator. The mortality rates of third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs increased with increasing neem oil concentrations, suggesting low toxicity to P...
2016: Scientific Reports
Giovanni Benelli, Balamurugan Chandramohan, Kadarkarai Murugan, Pari Madhiyazhagan, Kalimuthu Kovendan, Chellasamy Panneerselvam, Devakumar Dinesh, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Akon Higuchi, Chiara Toniolo, Angelo Canale, Marcello Nicoletti
Mosquitoes are insects of huge public health importance, since they act as vectors for important pathogens and parasites. Here, we focused on the possibility of using the neem cake in the fight against mosquito vectors. The neem cake chemical composition significantly changes among producers, as evidenced by our HPTLC (High performance thin layer chromatography) analyses of different marketed products. Neem cake extracts were tested to evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activity against the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies...
August 24, 2016: Natural Product Research
Vikash Sharma, K K Jakhar, Swati Dahiya
AIM: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment...
July 2016: Veterinary World
Audrey M Yau, Michael L Bender, Alexander Robinson, Edward J Brook
The Eemian (last interglacial, 130-115 ka) was likely the warmest of all interglacials of the last 800 ka, with summer Arctic temperatures 3-5 °C above present. Here, we present improved Eemian climate records from central Greenland, reconstructed from the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) ice core. Our record comes from clean, stratigraphically disturbed, and isotopically warm ice from 2,750 to 3,040 m depth. The age of this ice is constrained by measuring CH4 and δ(18)O of O2, and comparing with the historical record of these properties from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) and North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice cores...
August 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
R Mala, A S Ruby Celsia, S Vidhya Bharathi, S Raja Blessina, Uma Maheswari
BACKGROUND: The excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides has distorted soil composition, fertility and integ-rity with relevant and non-desirable environmental and ecological consequences. A strategy was designed to prepare a nano structured slow release fertilizer system that delivers nutrients and plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria simultaneously. Slow release nano phosphate and potash fertilizer was prepared by blending the nano emulsion of fertilizer with neem cake and PGPR. METHODS: The influence of nano structured slow release fertilizer on the biochemical characteristics, soil and yield attributes of Vigna radiata was studied in the field by randomized block design...
July 26, 2016: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
Suthep Silapanuntakul, Romnalin Keanjoom, Wongdyan Pandii, Supawadee Boonchuen, Kwanchai Sombatsiri
Trees with larvicidal activity may be found in Thailand. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy and length of efficacy of Thai neem (Azadirachta siamensis) oil emulsion and an alginate bead of Thai neem oil formulation against early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae using a dipping test. The Thai neem oil emulsion had significantly greater larvicidal activity than the alginate bead formulation at 12 to 60 hours post-exposure (p < 0.01). The Thai neem oil formulation resulted in 100% mortality among the early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 48 hours, while the alginate bead formulation resulted in 98% larval mortality at 84 hours and 100% mortality at 96 hours...
May 2016: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
Yuwei Wang, Xiang Chen, Jin Wang, Hang Xun, Jia Sun, Feng Tang
Azadirachta indica (neem) is the only source of azadirachtin, which is known for its insecticide activity. Melia azedarach is a related species of A. indica, widely distributed in the south of China. In this study, the leaf transcriptomes of these two Meliaceae plants were sequenced. More than 40 million clean reads were generated from each library. About 80 % of A. indica reads were mapped to the neem genome, while 93 % of M. azedarach reads were mapped to its assembled transcripts and unigenes dateset. After mapping and assembly, 225,972 transcripts and 91,607 unigenes of M...
2016: SpringerPlus
Suresh Anand, Mathan Rajan, Nagendrababu Venkateshbabu, Deivanayagam Kandaswamy, Yarramreddy Shravya, Kalaiselvam Rajeswari
AIM: To compare the antibacterial efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Commiphora myrrha (Myrrh), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) with 2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) against E. faecalis by using Real Time PCR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of fifty teeth specimens (n=50) were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Specimens were divided into five groups (Group 1: Myrrh, Group 2: Neem, Group 3: Liquorice, Group 4: 2% CHX and Group 5: Saline (negative control)). The intracanal medicaments were packed inside the tooth...
2016: Open Dentistry Journal
Vivek Dhar Dwivedi, Indra Prasad Tripathi, Sarad Kumar Mishra
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: NS2B-NS3 protease (NS2B-NS3 pro ) of dengue virus (DENV) is the prime therapeutic target for the development of anti-dengue drug to combat the DENV infection, which is currently an increasing health problem in many countries. In the area of antiviral drug discovery, numerous reports on the antiviral activity of various medicinal plants against dengue viruses have been published. Neem plant (Azadirachta indica) is one among those medicinal plants which is reported to show potential antiviral activity against DENV...
April 2016: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Leslie Neems, Chambers Christopher
The authors describe a case of a recurrent World Health Organization grade III extradural, sinonasal meningioma that presented with epiphoria. Primary extradural meningiomas are rare, comprising only 1% to 2% of all meningiomas. These tumors are diagnosed and graded histologically according to the World Health Organization criteria. Grade III tumors are very malignant with high recurrence and death rates. This case highlights the rarity of sinonasal tract meningiomas involving the orbit. In addition, it shows the poor prognosis of such malignant disease and the need for a multidisciplinary approach...
June 20, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Romi Mankin, Neeme Lumi
The behavior of a stochastic leaky integrate-and-fire model of neurons is considered. The effect of temporally correlated random neuronal input is modeled as a colored two-level (dichotomous) Markovian noise. Relying on the Riemann method, exact expressions for the output interspike interval density and for the serial correlation coefficient are derived, and their dependence on noise parameters (such as correlation time and amplitude) is analyzed. Particularly, noise-induced sign reversal and a resonancelike amplification of the kurtosis of the interspike interval distribution are established...
May 2016: Physical Review. E
M S Podder, C B Majumder
An arsenic biosorbent comprising neem leaves (NL) and MnFe2O4 particles was developed and its removal potential was investigated. Physicochemical analysis of the NL/MnFe2O4 composite (MNL) was performed for the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface area, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy-Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The following parameters were optimized: pH, biosorbent dose, contact time, temperature, and initial arsenic concentration. The optimum pH values achieved for biosorption of As(III) and As(V) were 7...
December 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
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