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Neem

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899496/neem-azadirachta-indica-an-indian-traditional-panacea-with-modern-molecular-basis
#1
REVIEW
Subash Chandra Gupta, Sahdeo Prasad, Amit K Tyagi, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara, Bharat B Aggarwal
BACKGROUND: For centuries, agents derived from natural sources (mother nature), especially plants have been the primary source of medicine. Neem, also referred to as Azadirachta indica is one such plant that has been so named because it provides freedom from all diseases, and used for thousands of years in Indian and African continents. Different parts of the plant including flowers, leaves, seeds and bark have been used to treat both acute and chronic human diseases; and used as insecticide; antimicrobial, larvicidal, antimalarial, antibacterial, antiviral, and spermicidal...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860055/novel-and-environmental-friendly-approach-impact-of-neem-azadirachta-indica-gum-nano-formulation-ngnf-on-helicoverpa-armigera-hub-and-spodoptera-litura-fab
#2
Chinnaperumal Kamaraj, Pachiyappan Rajiv Gandhi, Gandhi Elango, Sengodan Karthi, Ill-Min Chung, Govindsamy Rajakumar
The future of this study was to prepare a natural pesticide which will not harm the environment and yet control pests. Neem gum nano formulation (NGNF), a novel biopesticide prepared from the Neem gum extract (Azadirachta indica) (NGE) was evaluated for its antifeedant, larvicidal and pupicidal activities against Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) and Spodoptera litura (Fab.) at 100ppm. The NGNF showed significant (100%) antifeedant, larvicidal and pupicidal activities against H. armigera and S. litura. The LC50 values of 10...
August 28, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843234/neem-seed-oil-induces-apoptosis-in-mcf-7-and-mda-mb-231-human-breast-cancer-cells
#3
Ramesh Sharma, Shweta Kaushik, Hari Shyam, Satish Agarwal, Anil Kumar Balapure
Background: In traditional Indian medicine, azadirachta indica (neem) is known for its wide range of medicinal properties. Various parts of neem tree including its fruit, seed, bark, leaves, and root have been shown to possess antiseptic, antiviral, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antimalarial, antifungal and anticancer activity. Materials and Methods: MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 cells were exposed to various concentrations of 2% ethanolic solution of NSO (1-30 μl/ml) and further processed for cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis analysis...
August 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797303/combined-antioxidant-effects-of-neem-extract-bacteria-red-blood-cells-and-lysozyme-possible-relation-to-periodontal-disease
#4
Leali Heyman, Yael Houri-Haddad, Samuel N Heyman, Isaac Ginsburg, Yossi Gleitman, Osnat Feuerstein
BACKGROUND: The common usage of chewing sticks prepared from Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) in India suggests its potential efficacy in periodontal diseases. The objective of this study is to explore the antibacterial effects of Neem leaf extract on the periodontophatic bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, and its antioxidant capacities alone and in combination with bacteria and polycationic peptides that may be at the site of inflammation. METHODS: Neem leaf extract was prepared by ethanol extraction...
August 10, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794932/screening-of-neem-extracts-for-microbial-anti-chaperone-activity-by-employing-in-vitro-enzyme-refolding-assay
#5
Jyoti M Patki, Priyanka Shah
Microbial heat shock proteins (Hsps) play an important role in pathogenesis and development of resistance to existing drugs. New compounds that target microbial molecular chaperones have the potential of combating the challenge of anti-microbial resistance. The present study was aimed at assessing the employment of in vitro enzyme refolding assay to detect anti-chaperone activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts. Protein extracts of thermotolerant Escherichia coli cells were used as a source of Hsps or chaperones...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755695/preimaginal-exposure-to-azadirachtin-affects-food-selection-and-digestive-enzymes-in-adults-of-drosophila-melanogaster-diptera-drosophilidae
#6
Samira Kilani-Morakchi, Radia Bezzar-Bendjazia, Maroua Ferdenache, Nadia Aribi
Among the plant derived product, azadirachtin, a neem-based insecticide, is exceptional in having a broad range of bioactivity including toxicity, growth, development and reproduction effects, repellency and antifeedancy. If considerable progress on the physiological and biological activities and agricultural application of azadirachtin has been achieved, its exact mechanism of action remains uncertain. In this study, we aimed at assessing the lethal and sublethal behavioral and physiological effects of azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as biological model...
August 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746375/reduced-dosage-of-the-chromosome-axis-factor-red1-selectively-disrupts-the-meiotic-recombination-checkpoint-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#7
Tovah E Markowitz, Daniel Suarez, Hannah G Blitzblau, Neem J Patel, Andrew L Markhard, Amy J MacQueen, Andreas Hochwagen
Meiotic chromosomes assemble characteristic "axial element" structures that are essential for fertility and provide the chromosomal context for meiotic recombination, synapsis and checkpoint signaling. Whether these meiotic processes are equally dependent on axial element integrity has remained unclear. Here, we investigated this question in S. cerevisiae using the putative condensin allele ycs4S. We show that the severe axial element assembly defects of this allele are explained by a linked mutation in the promoter of the major axial element gene RED1 that reduces Red1 protein levels to 20-25% of wild type...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736861/azadirachtin-effects-on-mating-success-gametic-abnormalities-and-progeny-survival-in-drosophila-melanogaster-diptera
#8
Chemseddine M Oulhaci, Béatrice Denis, Samira Kilani-Morakchi, Jean-Christophe Sandoz, Laure Kaiser, Dominique Joly, Nadia Aribi
BACKGROUND: Azadirachtin is a prominent natural pesticide and represents an alternative to conventional insecticides. It has been successfully used against insect pests. However, its effects on reproduction require further analysis. Here we investigated lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin, on treated adults in a model insect, Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen). Dose-mortality relationships as well as several parameters of reproduction (mating, spermatogenesis, oogenesis and fertility) were examined...
July 24, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729800/dentition-status-and-treatment-needs-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-patients-on-anti-retro-viral-therapy-in-raichur-taluk-karnataka-india-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Shrikanth Muralidharan, Arunkumar Acharya, Shanthi Margabandhu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the dentition status and the treatment needs of the HIV-positive patients on ART for more than a year in Raichur, Karnataka. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Convenience sampling was followed. The sample size was 170. The dentition status and treatment needs of the patients were recorded as per the WHO guidelines. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of dental caries was 79.4%. Males had higher percentage of dental caries than the females, and this was found to be statistically significant...
April 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724950/nanocapsules-containing-neem-azadirachta-indica-oil-development-characterization-and-toxicity-evaluation
#10
Tatiane Pasquoto-Stigliani, Estefânia V R Campos, Jhones L Oliveira, Camila M G Silva, Natalia Bilesky-José, Mariana Guilger, Johann Troost, Halley C Oliveira, Renata Stolf-Moreira, Leonardo F Fraceto, Renata de Lima
In this study, we prepared, characterized, and performed toxicity analyses of poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules loaded with neem oil. Three formulations were prepared by the emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The nanocapsules showed a mean size distribution around 400 nm, with polydispersity below 0.2 and were stable for 120 days. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity results showed an increase in toxicity of the oleic acid + neem formulations according to the amount of oleic acid used. The minimum inhibitory concentrations demonstrated that all the formulations containing neem oil were active...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724858/antibacterial-effect-of-azadirachta-indica-neem-or-curcuma-longa-turmeric-against-enterococcus-faecalis-compared-with-that-of-5-sodium-hypochlorite-or-2-chlorhexidine-in-vitro
#11
Dakshita Joy Sinha, Kanwar D S Nandha, Natasha Jaiswal, Agrima Vasudeva, Shashi Prabha Tyagi, Udai Pratap Singh
The purpose of this study was to compare the antibacterial properties of Azadirachta indica (neem) or Curcuma longa (turmeric) against Enterococcus faecalis with those of 5% sodium hypochlorite or 2% chlorhexidine as root canal irrigants in vitro. The activity of neem, chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite, or turmeric against E. faecalis was measured on agar plates using the agar diffusion method. The tube dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the irrigants used...
2017: Bulletin of Tokyo Dental College
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721618/biological-nanopesticides-a-greener-approach-towards-the-mosquito-vector-control
#12
Prabhakar Mishra, Brij Kishore Tyagi, Natarajan Chandrasekaran, Amitava Mukherjee
Mosquitoes, being a vector for some potentially dreadful diseases, pose a considerable threat to people all around the world. The control over the growth and propagation of mosquitoes comprises conventional pesticides, insect growth regulators and other microbial control agents. However, the usage of these common chemicals and conventional pesticides eventually has a negative impact on human health as well as the environment, which therefore becomes a major concern. The lacuna allows nanotechnology to come into action and exploit nanopesticides...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717305/efficacy-of-early-chick-nutrition-with-aloe-vera-and-azadirachta-indica-on-gut-health-and-histomorphometry-in-chicks
#13
Tamilvanan Sujatha, Sivasankar Abhinaya, Jai Sunder, Marudhai Thangapandian, Anandamoy Kundu
AIM: This study was conducted with an aim of studying the efficacy of water supplements of Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica (neem) during pre-starter age (0-2 weeks) on gut health and histomorphometry in Vanaraja chicks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 192 day old Vanaraja chicks were randomly assigned to one of four herbal water treatments throughout the experimental pre-starter stage (0-2 weeks) in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was given four replicates consisting of 12 chicks per replicate...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713109/comparative-evaluation-of-neem-mouthwash-on-plaque-and-gingivitis-a-double-blind-crossover-study
#14
Md Jalaluddin, U B Rajasekaran, Sam Paul, R S Dhanya, C B Sudeep, V J Adarsh
AIM: The present study aimed at evaluating the impact of neem-containing mouthwash on plaque and gingivitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized, double-blinded, crossover clinical trial included 40 participants aged 18 to 35 years with washout period of 1 week between the crossover phases. A total of 20 participants, each randomly allocated into groups I and II, wherein in the first phase, group I was provided with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate and group II with 2% neem mouthwash...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698613/transcriptome-and-metabolite-analyses-in-azadirachta-indica-identification-of-genes-involved-in-biosynthesis-of-bioactive-triterpenoids
#15
Sweta Bhambhani, Deepika Lakhwani, Parul Gupta, Ashutosh Pandey, Yogeshwar Vikram Dhar, Sumit Kumar Bag, Mehar Hasan Asif, Prabodh Kumar Trivedi
Azadirachta indica A. Juss, commonly known as Neem, is the reservoir of triterpenoids of economic importance. Metabolite analysis of different developmental stages of leaf and fruit suggests tissue-specific accumulation of the major triterpenoids in this important tree. Though biosynthesis of these complex molecules requires substrate flux from the isoprenoid pathway, enzymes involved in late biosynthetic steps remain uncharacterized. We established and analyzed transcriptome datasets from leaf and fruit and identified members of gene families involved in intermediate steps of terpenoid backbone biosynthesis and those related to secondary transformation leading to the tissue-specific triterpenoid biosynthesis...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684164/neem-leaf-glycoprotein-generates-superior-tumor-specific-central-memory-cd8-t-cells-than-cyclophosphamide-that-averts-post-surgery-solid-sarcoma-recurrence
#16
Sarbari Ghosh, Madhurima Sarkar, Tithi Ghosh, Ipsita Guha, Avishek Bhuniya, Akata Saha, Shayani Dasgupta, Subhasis Barik, Anamika Bose, Rathindranath Baral
The success of cancer vaccines is limited as most of them induce corrupted CD8(+) T cell memory populations. We reported earlier that a natural immunomodulator, neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP), therapeutically restricts tumor growth in a CD8(+) T cell-dependent manner. Here, our objective is to study whether memory CD8(+) T cell population is generated in sarcoma hosts after therapeutic NLGP treatment and their role in prevention of post-surgery tumor recurrence, in comparison to the immunostimulatory metronomic cyclophosphamide (CTX) treatment...
July 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680880/in-vitro-anticancer-effect-of-gedunin-on-human-teratocarcinomal-ntera-2-cancer-stem-like-cells
#17
Luxmiga Tharmarajah, Sameera Ranganath Samarakoon, Meran Keshawa Ediriweera, Poorna Piyathilaka, Kamani Hemamamla Tennekoon, Kanishka Sithira Senathilake, Umapriyatharshini Rajagopalan, Prasanna Bandula Galhena, Ira Thabrew
Gedunin is one of the major compounds found in the neem tree (Azadirachta indica). In the present study, antiproliferative potential of gedunin was evaluated in human embryonal carcinoma cells (NTERA-2, a cancer stem cell model) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), using Sulforhodamine (SRB) and WST-1 assays, respectively. The effects of gedunin on expression of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), its cochaperone Cdc37, and HSP client proteins (AKT, ErbB2, and HSF1) were evaluated by real-time PCR. Effects of gedunin on apoptosis were evaluated by (a) apoptosis associated morphological changes, (b) caspase 3/7 expression, (c) DNA fragmentation, (d) TUNEL assay, and (e) real-time PCR of apoptosis related genes (Bax, p53, and survivin)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676051/community-perceptions-on-outdoor-malaria-transmission-in-kilombero-valley-southern-tanzania
#18
Irene R Moshi, Halfan Ngowo, Angel Dillip, Daniel Msellemu, Edith P Madumla, Fredros O Okumu, Maureen Coetzee, Ladslaus L Mnyone, Lenore Manderson
BACKGROUND: The extensive use of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in Africa has contributed to a significant reduction in malaria transmission. Even so, residual malaria transmission persists in many regions, partly driven by mosquitoes that bite people outdoors. In areas where Anopheles gambiae s.s. is a dominant vector, most interventions target the reduction of indoor transmission. The increased use of ITNs/LLINs and IRS has led to the decline of this species...
July 4, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658918/efficacy-of-neem-extract-and-three-antimicrobial-agents-incorporated-into-tissue-conditioner-in-inhibiting-the-growth-of-c-albicans-and-s-mutans
#19
Dikshita Ray Barua, Jayaprakash Mugur Basavanna, Rana Kalappattil Varghese
INTRODUCTION: Denture stomatitis is an inflammatory condition which compromises the mucosal surface beneath dentures. The aetiology of denture stomatitis is usually multifactorial which varies from trauma from ill fitting denture to poor immune system. There are evidences that denture stomatitis is an outcome of multispecies biofilms that include Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. Tissue conditioners are found to be more susceptible to colonisation by micro-organisms. AIM: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of neem leaf extract and three other antimicrobial agents incorporated in a tissue conditioner against both Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655693/in-vitro-comparative-cytotoxic-effect-of-nimbolide-a-limonoid-from-azadirachta-indica-neem-tree-on-cancer-cell-lines-and-normal-cell-lines-through-mtt-assay
#20
Muhammad Kashif, Yawon Hwang, Gyeongmi Hong, Gonhyung Kim
The present study was conducted to find the cytotoxicity in vitro of nimbolide, limonoids derivative of flowers and leaves from Azadirachta indica (neem tree) on the selected cell lines of cancer (Du-145, PC-3, A-549) and normal fibroblast cell lines (NIH3T3, CCD-18Co) using MTT assay. The cells were seeded in 96 multi-well tissue plate using different concentrations of nimbolide for 24hrs and 48hrs. The percentage of viability of cell lines was calculated by optical density obtained by micro plate reader and cytotoxic effect in term of IC50 value was determined by using linear regression analysis...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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