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Venkatesh Pooladanda, Soumya Bandi, Sandhya Rani Mondi, Krishna Mohan Gottumukkala, Chandraiah Godugu
Autophagy is a critical regulator of cellular homeostasis and its dysregulation often results in various disease manifestations, including cancer. Nimbolide, an active chemical constituent of neem (Azadirachta indica) exhibits potent anticancer effects. Although, nimbolide mediated apoptosis activation in breast cancer cells is well known. Nevertheless, its role in autophagy induction mechanism and epigenetic alteration is not explored previously. Our current study intended to bridge the gaps in the existing research by exploring the potential of nimbolide in inducing autophagy, which could counter regulate the transformations in breast cancer...
May 17, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Pankaj Gupta, Adeel H Zaidi, Sunil K Manna
Tetranortriterpenoids (limonoids) obtained from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) have gained significant attention due to their anti-proliferative properties. Here we are investigating the role of a highly oxidized tetranortriterpenoid, azadirachtin on induction of the cell death. Using various apoptotic assays, we show that azadirachtin induces cell death independent of cell types. Although azadirachtin-treated cells show increased expression of p53, but no phosphorylation of p53 (at Ser15 and Ser46) is detected...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Yuvarajan Devarajan, Arulprakasajothi Mahalingam, Dinesh Babu Munuswamy, Beemkumar Nagappan
The current work focuses on the experimental investigation to analyze the combustion and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine fueled with neat biodiesel (BD100) and different proportions of cyclohexanol blends as a fuel additive in various volume fractions. Cyclohexanol is dispersed into a neat biodiesel in a volume fraction of 10, 20, and 30 vol%. The biodiesel is produced from neem oil by the conventional transesterification process. The experimental results revealed that with the increased cyclohexanol fraction, the combustion was found smooth...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Teesta V Katte, Malempati Rajyalakshmi, Ravindranath H Aladakatti
BACKGROUND: The exploration of the biological assessment of technical azadirachtin, a tetranortritarpinoid from the neem seed kernel, was reviewed. The present study was, therefore, designed to evaluate the dose-dependent in vitro effects of azadirachtin-A, particularly on the functional studies and determination of molecular events, which are critical in the process of sperm capacitation. METHODS: To assess the effects of the azadirachtin-A on the functional studies, sperm capacitation, the total sperm adenosine triphosphate levels, acrosome reaction (AR), the sperm-egg interaction and the determination of molecular events like cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate and calcium levels, the appropriate volumes of the sperm suspension were added to the medium to a final concentration of 1×106 sperm/mL and incubated in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air at 37°C...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Mandakini J Patel, Shreya Tripathy, Keya D Mukhopadhyay, Tamna Wangjam, April B Cabang, Jay Morris, Michael J Wargovich
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Anti-inflammatory blockade has been proven to be a promising avenue of colorectal cancer prevention. However, NSAIDs while effective in curbing CRC risk are too toxic for long-term use in cancer prevention. The Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) is rich in liminoid terpenoids, collectively known as azadiractoids and has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects...
April 26, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Md Fahim Ahmad, Mohd Owais Ansari, Sana Jameel, Ab Latif Wani, Nuzhat Parveen, Hifzur R Siddique, G G H A Shadab
Nimbolide is known to be an antioxidant found in neem plant. Hydroxyurea is a medication frequently used in sickle-cell disease, different cancers and HIV infection. The present study aimed to evaluate the adverse effect of HU and possible amelioration by nimbolide in Wistar rats. To test our hypothesis, we performed genotoxicity tests, biochemical assays, and histopathological studies. We observed that HU caused higher levels of genotoxicity in the treated animals. The observed genetic and oxidative damage might be due to the presence of reactive species as HU increased the level of the malondialdehyde-a biomarker of oxidative damage...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Jennifer M Radin, Daniel Neems, Ross Goglia, Khan Siddiqui, Steven R Steinhubl
This study aims to evaluate the relationship between mean outdoor temperature and mean daily blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) among six, large, geographically and climatically diverse US cities. We collected BP and HR data from Higi stations, located in a wide range of neighborhood grocery stores and retail pharmacies, from six US cities (Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Boise, Chicago, and New York City). Outdoor daily temperature data were collected from the National Centers for Environmental Information's database...
April 19, 2018: Blood Pressure Monitoring
S Schüpbach, H Fischer, M Bigler, T Erhardt, G Gfeller, D Leuenberger, O Mini, R Mulvaney, N J Abram, L Fleet, M M Frey, E Thomas, A Svensson, D Dahl-Jensen, E Kettner, H Kjaer, I Seierstad, J P Steffensen, S O Rasmussen, P Vallelonga, M Winstrup, A Wegner, B Twarloh, K Wolff, K Schmidt, K Goto-Azuma, T Kuramoto, M Hirabayashi, J Uetake, J Zheng, J Bourgeois, D Fisher, D Zhiheng, C Xiao, M Legrand, A Spolaor, J Gabrieli, C Barbante, J-H Kang, S D Hur, S B Hong, H J Hwang, S Hong, M Hansson, Y Iizuka, I Oyabu, R Muscheler, F Adolphi, O Maselli, J McConnell, E W Wolff
The Northern Hemisphere experienced dramatic changes during the last glacial, featuring vast ice sheets and abrupt climate events, while high northern latitudes during the last interglacial (Eemian) were warmer than today. Here we use high-resolution aerosol records from the Greenland NEEM ice core to reconstruct the environmental alterations in aerosol source regions accompanying these changes. Separating source and transport effects, we find strongly reduced terrestrial biogenic emissions during glacial times reflecting net loss of vegetated area in North America...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
R Swapna Sonale, K Ramalakshmi, K Udaya Sankar
Extraction process employing Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SCF) yields bioactive compounds near natural forms without any artifact formation. Neem seed was subjected to SCF at different temperatures and pressure conditions. These extracts were partitioned to separate volatile fraction and were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectroscopy along with the volatiles extracted by the hydro-distillation method. Experimental results show that there is a significant effect of pressure and temperature on isolation of a number of volatile compounds as well as retention of biologically active compounds...
April 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Mohammed Al Saiqali, Anjana Devi Tangutur, Chandrasekhar Banoth, Bhima Bhukya
Low molecular weight antimicrobial polypeptides were extracted and purified from the young fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica (neem). The total protein extracted was precipitated with 15% TCA-Acetone. The total purified proteins yielded from the two extraction methods were 122.33 ± 2.21 and 115.09 ± 1.88 mg/g of the total fresh weight. The SDS-PAGE analysis identified the presence of eight low molecular weight polypeptide bands. The antimicrobial activity of the resolved bands was detected by Polyacrylamide gel-Agar overlay diffusion assay (PAG-ADA)...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Xiao-Feng Lu, Dong-Mei Dai, Rong-Min Yu, Li-Yan Song, Jian-Hua Zhu, Xiao-Na Fan, Jia-Chen Zi
Eight limonoids were isolated from 95% ethanol extracts of neem(Azadirachta indica) seeds by various chromatographic methods. By comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literatures, these limonoids were determined as salannin(1), 1-detigloyl-1-isobutylsalannin(2), salannol-3-acetate(3), salannol(4), spirosendan(5), 1-detigloyloxy-3-deacetylsalannin-1-en-3-one(6), nimbin(7) and 6-deacetylnimbin(8). Compounds 2 and 5 were firstly isolated from this genus and 5 represented the only example of its type...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Eyob Chukalo Chutulo, Raju Krishna Chalannavar
Plants are all inhabited by endophytic fungi in the interior of their tissues. The neem tree Azadirachta is an Indian lilac used for various therapeutic purposes in different forms of preparations. This plant hosts different types of endophytic fungi. In some cases, different tissues of a given plant are inhabited by different endophytic fungi which are discussed in this paper. Recently, there have been new reports on endophytic fungi and their bioactive compounds from Azadirachta indica . The biological function of bioactive compounds was discussed in view of their future industrial prospects...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Apramita Devi, Jitender Jangir, Anu-Appaiah K A
Chemical fingerprints based on FTIR spectra, phenolics and volatiles were studied for a total of 30 honey types of eight different botanical origin i.e. litchi, neem, ginger, eucalyptus, lemon (unifloral) and Kashmiri white, BR Hills & Pan India honey (Multifloral). Chemometrics based on principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a complementary tool for chemical fingerprint of honey. ATR-FTIR had a good predictive capability to discriminate among honey when conjugated with chemometric tools, providing the rapid first-line of classification for honey...
May 2018: Food Research International
Eliza Cook, Siwan M Davies, Esther R Guðmundsdóttir, Peter M Abbott, Nicholas J G Pearce
Contiguous sampling of ice spanning key intervals of the deglaciation from the Greenland ice cores of NGRIP, GRIP and NEEM has revealed three new silicic cryptotephra deposits that are geochemically similar to the well-known Borrobol Tephra (BT). The BT is complex and confounded by the younger closely timed and compositionally similar Penifiler Tephra (PT). Two of the deposits found in the ice are in Greenland Interstadial 1e (GI-1e) and an older deposit is found in Greenland Stadial 2.1 (GS-2.1). Until now, the BT was confined to GI-1-equivalent lacustrine sequences in the British Isles, Sweden and Germany, and our discovery in Greenland ice extends its distribution and geochemical composition...
February 2018: Journal of Quaternary Science
Neelam Mittal, Vinod Kumar Joshi, Ratan Kumar Srivastava, Shri Prakash Singh
Background: In India, Ayurveda is considered to be more effective and cheaper than modern medicine. Ayurvedic literature shows its use in treating oral diseases also. However, their effectiveness, in comparison with the allopathic mode of management, has not been assessed previously. The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the efficacy of ayurvedic drugs over chlorhexidine in treating chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and eight participants, in the age group 20-49 years, suffering from mild-to-moderate chronic periodontitis were included in this study...
January 2018: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Leslie Neems, Elizabeth L Echalier, Prem S Subramanian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: International Ophthalmology Clinics
Kotaro Hara, Takao Someya, Katsura Sano, Yoshimasa Sagane, Toshihiro Watanabe, R G S Wijesekara
This article describes free radical-scavenging activities of extracts of several plants harvested in Sri Lanka through the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. These plants have traditionally been used in the indigenous systems of medicine in Sri Lanka, such as Ayurveda, as described below. (English name, "local name in Sri Lanka," (scientific name)). bougainvillea plant, "bouganvilla," ( Bougainvillea grabla ), purple fruited pea eggplant,"welthibbatu," ( Solanum trilobatum ) [1], country borage plant, "kapparawalliya," ( Plectranthus amboinicus ) [2], malabar nut plant, "adhatoda," ( Justicia adhatoda ) [3], long pepper plant,"thippili," ( Piper longum ) [4], holy basil plant, "maduruthala," ( Ocimum tenuiflorum ) [5], air plant, "akkapana," ( Kalanchoe pinnata ) [6], plumed cockscomb plant, "kiri-henda," ( Celosia argentea ) [7], neem plant,"kohomba," ( Azadirachta indica ) [8], balipoovu plant, "polpala," ( Aerva lanata ) [9], balloon-vine plant, "wel penera," ( Cardiospermum halicacabum ) [10], emblic myrobalan plant, "nelli," ( Phyllanthus emblica ) [11], indian copperleaf plant, "kuppameniya," ( Acalypha indica ) [12], spreading hogweed plant, "pita sudu sarana," ( Boerhavia diffusa ) [13], curry leaf plant, "karapincha," ( Murraya koenigii ) [14], indian pennywort plant, "gotukola," ( Centera asiatica ) [15], jewish plum plant, "ambarella,"( Spondias dulcis ) [16]...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Karthickeyan Viswanathan
In the present study, non-edible seed oil namely raw neem oil was converted into biodiesel using transesterification process. In the experimentation, two biodiesel blends were prepared namely B25 (25% neem oil methyl ester with 75% of diesel) and B50 (50% neem oil methyl ester with 50% diesel). Urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technique with catalytic converter (CC) was fixed in the exhaust tail pipe of the engine for the reduction of engine exhaust emissions. Initially, the engine was operated with diesel as a working fluid and followed by refilling of biodiesel blends B25 and B50 to obtain the baseline readings without SCR and CC...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Suvendu Manna, Prosenjit Saha, Debasis Roy, Basudam Adhikari, Papita Das
Fluoride has both detrimental and beneficial effects on living beings depending on the concentration and consumption periods. The study presented in this article investigated the feasibility of using neem oil phenolic resin treated lignocellulosic bio-sorbents for fluoride removal from water through fixed bed column study. Results indicated that treated bio-sorbents could remove fluoride both from synthetic and groundwater with variable bed depth, flow rate, fluoride concentration and column diameter. Data obtained from this study indicated that columns with the thickest bed, lowest flow rate, and fluoride concentration showed best column performance...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
M Kawami, Y Yamada, O Issarachot, V B Junyaprasert, R Yumoto, M Takano
The extract of Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has found extensive use in traditional medicine for treating various human diseases. In this study, the effect of the 50% ethanol extract of A. indica (AI01) on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) was examined using MDR cell lines, specifically paclitaxel-resistant HepG2 (PR-HepG2) and doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant (DR) colon-26 cells. 96-h treatment of the two cell lines with AI01 (30 μg/mL) showed no effect on the expression of P-gp mRNA (human MDR1 and mouse mdr1b) and protein, while AI01 increased the accumulation of rhodamine 123, a P-gp substrate, in both PR-HepG2 and DR-colon-26 cells...
February 1, 2018: Die Pharmazie
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