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María Soledad Morales-Covarrubias, Noemí García-Aguilar, María Del Bolan-Mejía, Ana Carmela Puello-Cruz
In shrimp aquaculture, reduction in the use of synthetic antibiotics is a priority due to the high incidence of resistant bacteria (Vibrio) in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. An increasing number of studies show bactericidal activity of natural treatments in aquaculture. The effectiveness of neem (Azadirachta indica) and oregano (Lippia berlandieri) aqueous extracts and colloidal silver against V. parahaemolyticus were evaluated in low salinity shrimp culture. Results show that aqueous extracts of oregano and neem each present a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 62...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
P Raja Singh, E Sugantha Priya, S Balakrishnan, R Arunkumar, G Sharmila, M Rajalakshmi, J Arunakaran
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most prominent cancer in men, experiencing a relapse in disease often express high serum TNF-α levels. It has been correlated with increased cell survival and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Previous studies reported that nimbolide, a terpenoid derived from the leaves and flowers of neem tree inhibits cancer growth through selective modulation of cell signaling pathways linked to inflammation, survival, proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis...
November 23, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Maria M Lauriola, Monica Corazza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Contact Dermatitis
Kaie Lokk, Vijayachitra Modhukur, Balaji Rajashekar, Kaspar Märtens, Reedik Mägi, Raivo Kolde, Marina Koltšina, Torbjörn K Nilsson, Jaak Vilo, Andres Salumets, Neeme Tönisson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Genome Biology
Mohammed Mustafa
INTRODUCTION: Debridement and disinfection of the root canal is a crucial step in the success of endodontic treatment. Several antimicrobial agents alone or in combination are used to achieve this. The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica) extract against Enterococcus faecalis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Neem leaf extract, 2% chlorhexidine, 3% sodium hypochlorite were used to assess the antimicrobial efficiency...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Estefânia V R Campos, Jhones L de Oliveira, Mônica Pascoli, Renata de Lima, Leonardo F Fraceto
A major challenge of agriculture is to increase food production to meet the needs of the growing world population, without damaging the environment. In current agricultural practices, the control of pests is often accomplished by means of the excessive use of agrochemicals, which can result in environmental pollution and the development of resistant pests. In this context, biopesticides can offer a better alternative to synthetic pesticides, enabling safer control of pest populations. However, limitations of biopesticides, including short shelf life, photosensitivity, and volatilization, make it difficult to use them on a large scale...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kuntal Kanti Goswami, Madhurima Sarkar, Sarbari Ghosh, Akata Saha, Tithi Ghosh, Ipsita Guha, Subhasis Barik, Saptak Banerjee, Soumyabrata Roy, Anamika Bose, Parthasarathi Dasgupta, Rathindranath Baral
Heterogeneous tumor microenvironment (TME), broadly divided into tumor core and peripheral sub-microenvironments, differentially polarize normal macrophages into a different form known as tumor associated M2 macrophages (M2TAMs) to promote tumor growth. In view of the extensive immune-editing role of NLGP, here, we have observed that NLGP is effective to convert M2TAMs (CD11b(+)F4/80(high)) to M1 (CD11b(+)F4/80(low)) more prominently in tumor core, along with downregulation of other M2 associated markers, like, ManR, Ym1, Fizz1...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Immunology
C Vijayakumar, M Ramesh, A Murugesan, N Panneerselvam, D Subramaniam, M Bharathiraja
The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Manchu Chaithanya, U R Raaju
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Giovanni Benelli, Angelo Canale, Chiara Toniolo, Akon Higuchi, Kadarkarai Murugan, Roman Pavela, Marcello Nicoletti
Pesticide resistance is going to change rapidly our antibiotics and insecticides arsenal. In this scenario, plant-derived natural products are considered valuable candidates to reverse this negative trend. Growing research attention is focused on neem (Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae), exploring the utility of its products as insecticides and antibiotics. In this review, we summarised the knowledge on neem oil and neem cake by-products in arthropod pest control, with special reference to mosquito vectors of public health importance...
August 12, 2016: Natural Product Research
Andrea Spolaor, Paul Vallelonga, Clara Turetta, Niccolò Maffezzoli, Giulio Cozzi, Jacopo Gabrieli, Carlo Barbante, Kumiko Goto-Azuma, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Carlos A Cuevas, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen
Reconstructing the past variability of Arctic sea ice provides an essential context for recent multi-year sea ice decline, although few quantitative reconstructions cover the Holocene period prior to the earliest historical records 1,200 years ago. Photochemical recycling of bromine is observed over first-year, or seasonal, sea ice in so-called "bromine explosions" and we employ a 1-D chemistry transport model to quantify processes of bromine enrichment over first-year sea ice and depositional transport over multi-year sea ice and land ice...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sofia Tapanelli, Giuseppina Chianese, Leonardo Lucantoni, Rakiswendé Serge Yerbanga, Annette Habluetzel, Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati
Azadirachta indica, known as neem tree and traditionally called "nature's drug store" makes part of several African pharmacopeias and is widely used for the preparation of homemade remedies and commercial preparations against various illnesses, including malaria. Employing a bio-guided fractionation approach, molecules obtained from A. indica ripe and green fruit kernels were tested for activity against early sporogonic stages of Plasmodium berghei, the parasite stages that develop in the mosquito mid gut after an infective blood meal...
October 2016: Fitoterapia
Tong Lin, Qisi Liu, Jingxiang Chen
The pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope, a major forest insect pest, is the primary vector of the destructive forest pest pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Azadirachtin, an active compound of neem, is biologically interesting because it represents a group of important, successful botanical pesticides. We provide insight into the molecular effects of azadirachtin on M. alternatus at the transcriptional level to provide clues about possible molecular-level targets and to establish a link between azadirachtin and insect global responses...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sivaiah Kummara, Mrityunjaya B Patil, Tiewlasubon Uriah
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are superior cluster of nanomaterials that are recently recognized for their different applications in various pharmaceutical and clinical settings. The objective of this work deals with novel method for biosynthesis of AgNPs using Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf extract as reducing agent. These bio and chemical synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-vis Spectroscopy, Nanotarc, Dynamic light scattering (DLS), Zeta Potential (ZP), Transmission Electron Microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
September 9, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Hafiz M Rehman, Riaz Mahmood, Muhammad Razaq, Gadi V P Reddy
Since 2005, mango has been damaged by a group of new pests, the gall midges, in all mango-growing areas of Pakistan. Little is known about these pests in Pakistan. In this report, we present information on the occurrence, damage patterns, methods for monitoring, and management of Procontarinia mangiferae (Felt), a mango gall midge found in the country. At the study site (Rahim Yar Khan, a district of the province Punjab, Pakistan), the pest was active from January/February to April as eggs, larvae, and adults on mango inflorescence buds, branches (axillaries), and immature fruits...
September 11, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
José Cola Zanuncio, Sheila Abreu Mourão, Luis Carlos Martínez, Carlos Frederico Wilcken, Francisco S Ramalho, Angelica Plata-Rueda, Marcus Alvarenga Soares, José Eduardo Serrão
This research investigated the effects of neem oil on mortality, survival and malformations of the non-target stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus. Neurotoxic and growth inhibitor insecticides were used to compare the lethal and sublethal effects from neem oil on this predator. Six concentrations of neem oil were topically applied onto nymphs and adults of this predator. The mortality rates of third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs increased with increasing neem oil concentrations, suggesting low toxicity to P...
2016: Scientific Reports
Giovanni Benelli, Balamurugan Chandramohan, Kadarkarai Murugan, Pari Madhiyazhagan, Kalimuthu Kovendan, Chellasamy Panneerselvam, Devakumar Dinesh, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Akon Higuchi, Chiara Toniolo, Angelo Canale, Marcello Nicoletti
Mosquitoes are insects of huge public health importance, since they act as vectors for important pathogens and parasites. Here, we focused on the possibility of using the neem cake in the fight against mosquito vectors. The neem cake chemical composition significantly changes among producers, as evidenced by our HPTLC (High performance thin layer chromatography) analyses of different marketed products. Neem cake extracts were tested to evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activity against the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies...
August 24, 2016: Natural Product Research
Vikash Sharma, K K Jakhar, Swati Dahiya
AIM: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment...
July 2016: Veterinary World
Audrey M Yau, Michael L Bender, Alexander Robinson, Edward J Brook
The Eemian (last interglacial, 130-115 ka) was likely the warmest of all interglacials of the last 800 ka, with summer Arctic temperatures 3-5 °C above present. Here, we present improved Eemian climate records from central Greenland, reconstructed from the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) ice core. Our record comes from clean, stratigraphically disturbed, and isotopically warm ice from 2,750 to 3,040 m depth. The age of this ice is constrained by measuring CH4 and δ(18)O of O2, and comparing with the historical record of these properties from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) and North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice cores...
August 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
R Mala, A S Ruby Celsia, S Vidhya Bharathi, S Raja Blessina, Uma Maheswari
BACKGROUND: The excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides has distorted soil composition, fertility and integ-rity with relevant and non-desirable environmental and ecological consequences. A strategy was designed to prepare a nano structured slow release fertilizer system that delivers nutrients and plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria simultaneously. Slow release nano phosphate and potash fertilizer was prepared by blending the nano emulsion of fertilizer with neem cake and PGPR. METHODS: The influence of nano structured slow release fertilizer on the biochemical characteristics, soil and yield attributes of Vigna radiata was studied in the field by randomized block design...
July 26, 2016: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
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