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Chrysin AND Aromatase

Tanongsak Sassa-Deepaeng, Surachai Pikulkaew, Siriporn Okonogi
Poloxamer micelles promise safety and efficacy for many water insoluble drugs. Chrysin has been reported to have anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-aromatase activities but its water insoluble properties limit its pharmaceutical application. In the present study, chrysin loaded poloxamer micelles were developed. Two types of poloxamers, Pluronic F-68 and Pluronic F-127 were compared. It was found that chrysin loaded Pluronic F-68 micelles (CS-P68) and chrysin loaded Pluronic F-127 micelles (CS-P127) obviously increase the aqueous solubility of chrysin...
2016: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Loren W Kline, Edward Karpinski
The bioflavonoids have effects on vascular smooth muscle and gastrointestinal smooth muscle. The flavone and phytoestrogen, chrysin, has been shown to have a vasorelaxant effect on resistance blood vessels. This effect was mediated by nitric oxide (NO). Chrysin inhibited aromatase/estrogen biosynthesis in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to determine if chrysin had an effect on cholecystokinin- or KCl-induced tension in male guinea pig gallbladder strips. In addition, the second messenger(s) system(s) that mediated the effect were to be determined...
January 2014: Steroids
G A R Oliveira, E R A Ferraz, A O Souza, R A Lourenço, D P Oliveira, D J Dorta
Chrysin is one of the natural flavonoids present in plants, and large amounts are present in honey and propolis. In addition to anticancer, antioxidation, and anti-inflammatory activities, chrysin has also been reported to be an inhibitor of aromatase, an enzyme converting testosterone into estrogen. The present study evaluated the mutagenicity of this flavonoid using micronucleus (MN) with HepG2 cells and Salmonella. Cell survival after exposure to different concentrations of chrysin was also determined using sulforhodamine B (SRB) colorimetric assay in HepG2 cells and the influence of this flavonoid on growth of cells in relation to the cell cycle and apoptosis...
2012: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Santi Prasad Bajgai, Vilailak Prachyawarakorn, Chulabhorn Mahidol, Somsak Ruchirawat, Prasat Kittakoop
Hybrid flavan-chalcones, desmosflavans A (1) and B (2), together with three known compounds, cardamonin (3), pinocembrin (4) and chrysin (5), were isolated from leaves of Desmos cochinchinensis. Cardamonin (3) and chrysin (5) exhibited potent antioxidant activity with 15.0 and 12.2 ORAC units. Desmosflavans A (1) and B (2), pinocembrin (4), and chrysin (5) were found to be inhibitors of aromatase with respective IC50 values of 1.8, 3.3, 0.9, and 0.8 μM. Desmosflavan A (1) inhibited lipoxygenase with the IC50 value of 4...
November 2011: Phytochemistry
Hamdoon A Mohammed, Lalla A Ba, Torsten Burkholz, Elena Schumann, Britta Diesel, Josef Zapp, Alexandra K Kiemer, Christina Ries, Rolf W Hartmann, Mohammed Hosny, Claus Jacob
Flavones such as chrysin show structural similarities to androgens, the substrates of human aromatase, which converts androgens to estrogens. Aromatase is a key target in the treatment of hormone-dependent tumors, including breast cancer. Flavone-based aromatase inhibitors are of growing interest, and chrysin in particular provides a (natural) lead structure. This paper reports multicomponent synthesis as a means for facile modification of the chrysin core structure in order to add functional elements. A Mannich-type reaction was used to synthesize a range of mono- and disubstituted chrysin derivatives, some of which are more effective aromatase inhibitors than the benchmark compound, aminoglutethimide...
January 2011: Natural Product Communications
E J Payne, E Ingley, I M Dick, S G Wilson, C S Bond, R L Prince
CONTEXT: The T(201)M variant (rs28757184) within exon 5 of the human aromatase gene CYP19A1, present in up to 20% of some populations, has been reported to reduce prostate cancer progression. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the T(201)M variant would alter the structure of the enzyme and thus would also affect function compared to wild-type human aromatase. DESIGN: HEK293 cells were transiently transfected with CYP19A1 wild-type or T(201)M variant gene transcripts made by site-directed mutagenesis and enzyme activity measured using tritiated androstenedione as the substrate...
August 2009: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Rosário Monteiro, Isabel Azevedo, Conceição Calhau
Estrogens are involved in physiological actions related to reproduction, body fat distribution, and maintenance of bone mass and are also related to the pathogenesis of estrogen-dependent cancers. The aim of this work was to study the effect of polyphenols on estrogen synthesis. The effect of polyphenols and polyphenolic-rich beverages on aromatase activity was tested in JAR cells (a choriocarcinoma cell line) through the tritiated water release assay. Some of the tested polyphenols inhibited estrogen production, chrysin being the most potent...
May 17, 2006: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Loren W Kline, Edward Karpinski
Testosterone (T) has been shown to cause vasodilation in rabbit coronary arteries through a nongenomic pathway. Part of this T-induced relaxation was shown to be mediated by opening voltage dependent K(+) channels. T infusion also reduces peripheral resistance in human males with heart failure. The effects of T or its active metabolite 5-alpha dihydrotestosterone (DHT) are not well studied. This study investigates the effect of T and DHT on contraction in guinea pig gallbladder strips. T or DHT induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK)-induced tension...
October 2008: Steroids
J A van Meeuwen, S Nijmeijer, T Mutarapat, S Ruchirawat, P C de Jong, A H Piersma, M van den Berg
Interference of exogenous chemicals with the aromatase enzyme can be useful as a tool to identify chemicals that could act either chemopreventive for hormone-dependent cancer or adverse endocrine disruptive. Aromatase is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of steroids, as it converts androgens to estrogens. Certain flavonoids, plant derived chemicals, are known catalytic aromatase inhibitors. Various systems are in use to test aromatase inhibitory properties of compounds. Commonly used are microsomes derived from ovary or placental tissue characterized by high aromatase activity...
May 1, 2008: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Nga Ta, Thomas Walle
Previous studies have shown chrysin, 7-hydroxyflavone and 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone to be the most potent flavonoid inhibitors of aromatase. However, very poor oral bioavailability is a major limitation for the successful use of dietary flavonoids as chemopreventive agents. We have recently shown that methylated flavones, including 5,7-dimethoxyflavone, 7-methoxyflavone and 7,4'-dimethoxyflavone, are much more resistant to metabolism than their unmethylated analogs and have much higher intestinal absorption. In this study, we examined these fully methylated flavones as potential aromatase inhibitors for the prevention and/or treatment of hormone-dependent cancers...
October 2007: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
J A van Meeuwen, N Korthagen, P C de Jong, A H Piersma, M van den Berg
In the public opinion, phytochemicals (PCs) present in the human diet are often considered beneficial (e.g. by preventing breast cancer). Two possible mechanisms that could modulate tumor growth are via interaction with the estrogen receptor (ER) and inhibition of aromatase (CYP19). Multiple in vitro studies confirmed that these compounds act estrogenic, thus potentially induce tumor growth, as well as aromatase inhibitory, thus potentially reduce tumor growth. It is thought that in the in vivo situation breast epithelial (tumor) cells communicate with surrounding connective tissue by means of cytokines, prostaglandins and estradiol forming a complex feedback mechanism...
June 15, 2007: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Young Jin Moon, Xiaodong Wang, Marilyn E Morris
Flavonoids are present in fruits, vegetables and beverages derived from plants (tea, red wine), and in many dietary supplements or herbal remedies including Ginkgo Biloba, Soy Isoflavones, and Milk Thistle. Flavonoids have been described as health-promoting, disease-preventing dietary supplements, and have activity as cancer preventive agents. Additionally, they are extremely safe and associated with low toxicity, making them excellent candidates for chemopreventive agents. The cancer protective effects of flavonoids have been attributed to a wide variety of mechanisms, including modulating enzyme activities resulting in the decreased carcinogenicity of xenobiotics...
March 2006: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Katie M Edmunds, Alison C Holloway, Denis J Crankshaw, Sanjay K Agarwal, Warren G Foster
Dietary phytoestrogens have been reported to inhibit aromatase activity in placental microsomes, but the effects in the human endometrium are unknown. Aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of androgens to estrogens, has recently been shown to be expressed in the endometrium of women with endometriosis and is thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of this disease. Therefore, the objective of this study was to screen dietary phytoestrogens for their ability to inhibit aromatase activity in human endometrial stromal cells (ESC) and identify potential novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of endometriosis...
November 2005: Reproduction, Nutrition, Development
Katja Kristan, Katja Krajnc, Janez Konc, Stanislav Gobec, Jure Stojan, Tea Lanisnik Rizner
Different phytoestrogens were tested as inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the fungus Cochliobolus lunatus (17beta-HSDcl), a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. Phytoestrogens inhibited the oxidation of 100 microM 17beta-hydroxyestra-4-en-3-one and the reduction of 100 microM estra-4-en-3,17-dione, the best substrate pair known. The best inhibitors of oxidation, with IC(50) below 1 microM, were flavones hydroxylated at positions 3, 5 and 7: 3-hydroxyflavone, 3,7-dihydroxyflavone, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone (chrysin) and 5-hydroxyflavone, together with 5-methoxyflavone...
September 2005: Steroids
J Thomas Sanderson, Joost Hordijk, Michael S Denison, Mark F Springsteel, Michael H Nantz, Martin van den Berg
Flavonoids and related structures (e.g., flavones, isoflavones, flavanones, catechins) exert various biological effects, including anticarcinogenic, antioxidant and (anti-)estrogenic effects, and modulation of sex hormone homeostasis. A key enzyme in the synthesis of estrogens from androgens is aromatase (cytochrome P450 19; CYP19). We investigated the effects of various natural and synthetic flavonoids on the catalytic activity and promoter-specific expression of aromatase in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells...
November 2004: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Cristiana Gambelunghe, Ruggero Rossi, Marco Sommavilla, Chiara Ferranti, Riccardo Rossi, Chiara Ciculi, Stefania Gizzi, Alessandra Micheletti, Stefano Rufini
The equilibrium of sexual hormones in both sexes is controlled in vertebrates by the enzyme aromatase, a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, which catalyzes the conversion of androstenedione and testosterone into estrone and estradiol, respectively. Flavonoids are diphenolic compounds present in whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables that are strongly implicated as protective in coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. One flavonoid, chrysin, found in high concentrations in honey and propolis, has been shown to be an inhibitor of aromatase enzyme activity...
2003: Journal of Medicinal Food
Kamaldeep Dhawan
The present work is a mini-review of the author's original work on the plant Passiflora incarnata Linn., which is used in several parts of the world as a traditional medicine for the management of anxiety, insomnia, epilepsy and morphine addiction. A tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety (BZF) has been isolated from the bioactive methanol extract of this plant, which has been proposed in the author's earlier work to be responsible for the biological activities of this plant. The BZF moiety has exhibited significantly encouraging results in the reversal of tolerance and dependence of several addiction-prone psychotropic drugs, including morphine, nicotine, ethanol, diazepam and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, during earlier pharmacological studies conducted by the author...
December 2003: Addiction Biology
Kamaldeep Dhawan, Suresh Kumar, Anupam Sharma
This work describes the potential usefulness of bioflavonoids for countering the deleterious effects of aging on male sexuality in 2-year-old rats. A flavone chrysin from Passiflora caerulea Linn. and a benzoflavone moiety (BZF) recently isolated from Passiflora incarnata Linn. were administered to 2-year-old male rats for a period of 30 days. After cessation of these treatments, there was a significant improvement in overall sexual functions in the rats given bioflavonoids, compared with control rats. The rats receiving chrysin (1 mg/kg) and BZF (10 mg/kg) exhibited increased libido when they were allowed to interact with nonestrous female rats...
2002: Journal of Medicinal Food
N Saarinen, S C Joshi, M Ahotupa, X Li, J Ammälä, S Mäkelä, R Santti
Measurements of the aromatase-inhibiting and antioxidative capacities of flavonoids in vitro showed that slight changes in flavonoid structure may result in marked changes in biological activity. Several flavonoids such as 7-hydroxyflavone and chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) were shown to inhibit the formation of 3H-17beta-estradiol from 3H-androstenedione (IC(50)<1.0 microM) in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells and in human embryonic kidney cells HEK 293 transfected with human aromatase gene (Arom+HEK 293)...
September 2001: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
J Zhao, P Mak, A Tchoudakova, G Callard, S Chen
The brain and ovarian aromatase isozymes of goldfish (Carassius auratus) are encoded by different CYP19 genes. This study measured aromatase activity in the goldfish brain tissues. For a direct comparison of the properties of the two aromatase isozymes, Chinese hamster ovary cells were stably transfected with brain- and ovary-derived cDNAs (respectively, p450 arom B and -A) and the properties of the expressed isozymes were compared. The kinetic parameters of the two isozymes were determined using androstenedione and testosterone as substrates and compared to those of human aromatase...
August 2001: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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