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Jessica H Leibler, Christine M Zakhour, Preety Gadhoke, Jessie M Gaeta
INTRODUCTION: In high-income countries, homeless individuals in urban areas often live in crowded conditions with limited sanitation and personal hygiene. The environment of homelessness in high-income countries may result in intensified exposure to ectoparasites and urban wildlife, which can transmit infections. To date, there have been no systematic evaluations of the published literature to assess vector-borne and zoonotic disease risk to these populations. OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives of this study were to identify diversity, prevalence, and risk factors for vector-borne and zoonotic infections among people experiencing homelessness and extreme poverty in urban areas of high-income countries...
July 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Radek Klubal, Jan Kopecky, Marta Nesvorna, Olivier A E Sparagano, Jana Thomayerova, Jan Hubert
Bacteria associated with the tick Ixodes ricinus were assessed in specimens unattached or attached to the skin of cats, dogs and humans, collected in the Czech Republic. The bacteria were detected by PCR in 97 of 142 pooled samples including 204 ticks, i.e. 1-7 ticks per sample, collected at the same time from one host. A fragment of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced from 32 randomly selected samples. The most frequent sequences were those related to Candidatus Midichloria midichlori (71% of cloned sequences), followed by Diplorickettsia (13%), Spiroplasma (3%), Rickettsia (3%), Pasteurella (3%), Morganella (3%), Pseudomonas (2%), Bacillus (1%), Methylobacterium (1%) and Phyllobacterium (1%)...
January 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Laura Bogdana Nat, Adriana Liana Simiti, Laura Irina Poanta
Lyme disease (Borreliosis), also called the "disease of 1000 faces", is produced by a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by the Ixodes tick. The clinical picture is non-specific and polymorph, with multisystemic involvement. Diagnosis is most often one of exclusion, and certain diagnosis is based on the presence of Borellia antibodies. The treatment is done differently depending on the stage of the disease and the severity of injuries, being used antibiotics like Doxycycline, Amoxicillin, Erythromycin or Penicillin...
October 2014: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
Yanina Mariottini, María Laura De Wysiecki, Carlos Ernesto Lange
In Argentina, the grasslands of Pampas region comprise approximately 15% of the country. As in other grasslands of the world, grasshoppers are among the most important native herbivores. Their economic importance has been recognized in Argentina since the mid to late nineteenth century, since outbreaks of different species have become recurrent phenomena. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to study their diversity and distribution in grasslands of the Southern Pampas region (Laprida county, Buenos Aires province), as one of the most affected areas...
March 2013: Revista de Biología Tropical
Ilknur Erol, Buket Kılıçarslan, Semra Saygi, Senay Demir, Fusun Alehan
Acute transverse myelitis is a rare Borellia burgdorferi-related neurologic complication in childhood. We present a 12-year-old girl who was diagnosed with acute transverse myelitis associated with a borreliosis infection. We also review clinical features in all five cases of Borellia burgdorferi-related transverse myelitis in children. We describe here the sixth child with borreliosis-related transverse myelitis.
April 2013: Pediatric Neurology
María Laura de Wysiecki, Marcelo Arturi, Sandra Torrusio, María Marta Cigliano
A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of weather (precipitation and temperature) and plant communities on grasshopper density over a 14-year period (1996-2009) in Benito Juárez County, Southern Pampas, Argentina. Total density strongly varied among plant communities. Highest values were registered in 2001 and 2003 in highly disturbed pastures and in 2002 and 2009 in halophilous grasslands. Native grasslands had the lowest density values. Seasonal precipitation and temperature had no significant effect on total grasshopper density...
2011: Journal of Insect Science
Stephen Davis, Stephen J Bent
In population biology, loop analysis is a method of decomposing a life cycle graph into life history pathways so as to compare the relative contributions of pathways to the population growth rate across species and populations. We apply loop analysis to the transmission graph of five pathogens known to infect the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. In this context loops represent repeating chains of transmission that could maintain the pathogen. They hence represent completions of the life cycle, in much the same way as loops in a life cycle graph do for plants and animals...
January 21, 2011: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Ia B Beĭkin, Iu G Lagereva, M G Toporkova, L G Besedina, A Iu Druzhinina
The aim of the study was to evaluate the dynamics of T-lymphocyte cytokine profile during the acute period of tick-bore encephalitis (febrile and meningeal forms) and non-erythematous Lyme borreliosis (NELB). ELISA (Vector-Best, Novosybirsk) and IHA (Virion, Tomsk) techniques were used for laboratory diagnostics of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Etiological verification of Lyme borreliosis (LB) was performed using immune-enzyme test systems for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to Borellia burgdorferi (NOVATEC Immunodiagnostica, Germany)...
2007: Vestnik Rossiĭskoĭ Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk
Harvey J Alter, Susan L Stramer, Roger Y Dodd
Following the devastating effects of blood-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), blood establishments have become increasingly vigilant for the emergence or re-emergence of new threats to the safety of the blood supply. Many agents have fulfilled the broad definition of emerging blood-transmitted infections, including West Nile virus (WNV), Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodium spp., Babesia spp., parvovirus B19, dengue virus, and the prions that cause variant Creutzfeld-Jacob disease (vCJD). Other agents such as human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8-Kaposi's sarcoma virus) and Borellia (Lyme disease) and, perhaps, avian flu virus, are known to have a viremic phase, but have not yet been proved to be transfusion-transmitted...
January 2007: Seminars in Hematology
Juraj Koci, Markéta Derdákova, Kamila Peterková, Mária Kazimirová, Diana Selyemová, Milan Labuda
Spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s. l.) complex have evolved remarkable ability to survive in diverse ecological niches during transmission cycles between ticks and vertebrate hosts by variable gene expression. To understand the events during spirochete transmission from feeding ticks to hosts, mRNA levels of selected B. afzelii genes (bbk32, dbpA, ospA, ospC and vlsE) were measured by quantitative real-time SYBR Green PCR. B. afzelii infected Ixodes ricinus nymphs fed on laboratory BALB/c mice for 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours...
2006: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
S K Singh, H J Girschick
Lyme arthritis, the most common manifestation of late Lyme disease, has been associated with the presence of Borellia burgdorferi in the joint. However, it is still unclear whether the pathogen itself is able to elicit such a sustained inflammatory response, or whether an aberrant immunological reaction of the host is the main driving force. Borrelia antigens, including lipoproteins, flagellin and DNA, are ligands of Toll-like receptors, and can thus elicit a strong stimulation of host cells, such as neutrophils, mononuclear cells and resident tissue cells...
August 2006: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1960: Annales de L'Institut Pasteur
Richard S Kalish, Jonathan A Wood, William Golde, Robert Bernard, Larry E Davis, Roger C Grimson, Patricia K Coyle, Benjamin J Luft
We tested the hypothesis that cross-reactivity between the outer surface protein A (OspA) of Borellia burgdorferi and human leukocyte function antigen (LFA) type 1 mediates chronic autoimmune sequelae of Lyme disease. T cell response was studied in subjects with Lyme disease presenting with erythema migrans alone (n=36), erythema migrans with neurological disease (n=12), and chronic Lyme disease syndrome (n=20), as well as healthy control subjects from Lyme-endemic (n=50) and -nonendemic (n=18) regions. Antigens included recombinant OspA and OspC (all strain B31) and human LFA-1 peptide (IYVIEGTSKQDLTSF)...
January 1, 2003: Journal of Infectious Diseases
R L Naumov, I S Vasil'eva, A V Shtannikov, S I Evsegneev
The length of 469 Borreliae burgdorferi s.I. from the Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus images collected in the Moscow Region, that of 5433 B. burgdorferi s.s from the I. persulcatus nymphs and images cultured at a laboratory, and B. burdorferi s.s. grown on the BSK-II (1 and 10 passages) were measured. There was a wide range of variations in the length of specimens (3-74 microns) and in those of this group average sizes (10.7-24.8 microns). The lengths of Borelliae from natural and laboratory ticks after their molt were 17-18 microns...
April 2002: Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia i Parazitarnye Bolezni
Christoph Eicken, Vivek Sharma, Thomas Klabunde, Matthew B Lawrenz, John M Hardham, Steven J Norris, James C Sacchettini
VlsE is an outer surface lipoprotein of Borrelia burgdorferi that undergoes antigenic variation through an elaborate gene conversion mechanism and is thought to play a major role in the immune response to the Lyme disease borellia. The crystal structure of recombinant variant protein VlsE1 at 2.3-A resolution reveals that the six variable regions form loop structures that constitute most of the membrane distal surface of VlsE, covering the predominantly alpha-helical, invariant regions of the protein. The surface localization of the variable amino acid segments appears to protect the conserved regions from interaction with antibodies and hence may contribute to immune evasion...
June 14, 2002: Journal of Biological Chemistry
H Bär, G Pöhlmann, H R Figulla
Acute interruption of circulation in the distal fingers can be both expression of an embolic event as well as the first manifestation of a vasculitis or collagenosis. The search for its cause is frequently difficult. In many cases a specialized analysis of the coagulation system as well as diagnostics such as ultrasound scan of the heart or a systematic antibody scanning do not reveal the origin of an embolus or the underlying disorder. On the basis of a case-report we would like to focus on a possible context between an infection of Borrelias stage III and consecutive deterioration of peripheral arterial perfusion in the fingers...
November 2000: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
S E Ullrich
Chronic exposure to JP-8 jet fuel induces lung toxicity, adverse neurological effects and some liver and kidney dysfunction. In addition, inhalation of JP-8 induces immune suppression. Besides the lung, the other major route of JP-8 exposure is via the skin. In this study we tested the hypothesis that dermal exposure to JP-8 is immune suppressive. JP-8 was applied to the skin of adult female C3H/HeN mice and various immune parameters were examined. Dermal exposure to JP-8, either multiple small exposures (50 microl for 5 days) or a single large dose (250-300 microl) resulted in immune suppression...
November 1999: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
J Junttila, M Peltomaa, H Soini, M Marjamäki, M K Viljanen
Lyme borreliosis, an infection caused by the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is a major health problem for populations in areas of endemicity in the Northern Hemisphere. In the present study we assessed the density of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato among ticks in popular urban recreational areas of Helsinki, Finland. Altogether 1,688 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from five areas located within 5 km of the downtown section of Helsinki, and 726 of them (303 nymphs, 189 females, and 234 males) were randomly chosen for laboratory analysis...
May 1999: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
R Kaiser
Neuroborreliosis, a manifestation of infection with the spirochete Borellia burgdorferi, has become the most frequently recognised arthropod-borne infection of the nervous system in Europe and the USA. The best criterion of an early infection with B. burgdorferi is erythema migrans (EM), but this is present in only about 40-60% of patients with validated borreliosis. Therefore use of the duration of the disease as a classification criterion for neuroborreliosis is increasing, the chronic form being distinguished from the acute when symptoms persist for more than 6 months...
May 1998: Journal of Neurology
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