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stroke and blood

G P Chuiko, O V Dvornik, S I Shyian, Ye A Baganov
BACKGROUND: A new computer model for systolic pulse waves within the cardiovascular system is presented. The emphasis was made on blood stroke volume (BS). The new waveform for pulse wave demands the re-computing of the BS. The authors showed the applicability of suggested model for arterial aging problem. METHODS: Suggested model is based on the well-known Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. Instead of the common accepted solitary wave, the periodical cnoidal wave is used...
October 14, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Martyn J Matthews, Daniel Green, Helen Matthews, Emma Swanwick
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of training induced fatigue on shoulder strength, ROM, joint position sense, and stroke length in elite competitive swimmers. METHODS: Seventeen national level swimmers performed maximum isometric strength (internal and external rotation), ROM, and joint position sense tests before and after a fatiguing 8 × 100 m training set. Stroke length, heart rate, blood lactate and blood glucose levels were recorded throughout. RESULTS: Peak blood lactate, blood glucose levels, and heart rate increased significantly (P < 0...
August 30, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
Carsten Deppermann, Paul Kubes
The primary function of platelets is to patrol the vasculature and seal vessel breaches to limit blood loss. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that they also contribute to pathophysiological conditions like thrombosis, atherosclerosis, stroke and infection. Severe sepsis is a devastating disease that claims hundreds of thousands of lives every year in North America and is a major burden to the public health system. Platelet surface receptors like GPIb, αIIbβ3, TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in direct platelet-bacteria interactions...
October 18, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
Mahnaz Ashoorkhani, Ali Bozorgi, Reza Majdzadeh, Hamed Hosseini, Ali Yoonessi, Ali Ramezankhani, Hassan Eftekhar
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the most important and well-known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, in spite of effective treatments, adherence to the regular use of drugs and other nondrug treatments, such as lifestyle improvement, is often poor. This study evaluates the effectiveness of an educational, supportive intervention - in the form of a Blood Pressure Management Application (BPMAP) - on self-management in patients with primary hypertension on controlling the determinant factors of hypertension, and on adherence to treatment...
October 21, 2016: Trials
W Xia, C D Mørch, D Matre, O K Andersen
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore conditioned pain modulation (CPM) effect on long-term potentiation (LTP)-like pain amplification induced by cutaneous 10-Hz conditioning electrical stimulation (CES). METHODS: Conditioned pain modulation was induced by cold pressor conditioning stimulus (CPCS) (4 °C) which was applied immediately before CES in the active session. In the control session, water with a temperature of 32 °C was used. Twenty subjects participated in two sessions in a randomized crossover design with at least 1-week interval...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Vanessa Di Cataldo, Alain Géloën, Jean-Baptiste Langlois, Fabien Chauveau, Benoît Thézé, Violaine Hubert, Marlène Wiart, Erica N Chirico, Jennifer Rieusset, Hubert Vidal, Vincent Pialoux, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas
Aim: Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE(-/-) mice. Methods: Forty-five-weeks old obese ApoE(-/-) mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access) and Sedentary (SED) groups...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Xiaohong Ruby Xu, Naadiya Carrim, Miguel Antonio Dias Neves, Thomas McKeown, Tyler W Stratton, Rodrigo Matos Pinto Coelho, Xi Lei, Pingguo Chen, Jianhua Xu, Xiangrong Dai, Benjamin Xiaoyi Li, Heyu Ni
Platelets are central mediators of thrombosis and hemostasis. At the site of vascular injury, platelet accumulation (i.e. adhesion and aggregation) constitutes the first wave of hemostasis. Blood coagulation, initiated by the coagulation cascades, is the second wave of thrombin generation and enhance phosphatidylserine exposure, can markedly potentiate cell-based thrombin generation and enhance blood coagulation. Recently, deposition of plasma fibronectin and other proteins onto the injured vessel wall has been identified as a new "protein wave of hemostasis" that occurs prior to platelet accumulation (i...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Satoshi Fujii, Tomonori Sugiura, Yasuaki Dohi, Nobuyuki Ohte
Atherosclerosis is one of the major causes of death. Data from animal experiments suggest that atherosclerosis involves an inflammatory process of the vascular wall under hyperlipidemia. Atherothrombosis can become a serious complication of atherosclerosis leading to acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Clinical applications to use this knowledge remain scarce. The plasma levels of vascular endothelium-enriched microRNA (miRNAs) in patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease could serve as a disease marker...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Kathryn F Flack, Jay Desai, Jennifer M Kolb, Prapti Chatterjee, Lars C Wallentin, Michael Ezekowitz, Salim Yusuf, Stuart Connolly, Paul Reilly, Martina Brueckmann, John Ilgenfritz, James Aisenberg
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in patients receiving anticoagulation agents can be caused by occult malignancies. We investigated the proportions and features of major GI bleeding (MGIB) events related to occult GI cancers in patients receiving anticoagulation therapy. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Randomized Evaluation of Long Term Anticoagulant Therapy study (conducted between December 2005 and March 2009 in 951 clinical centers in 44 countries worldwide), which compared the abilities of dabigatran vs warfarin to prevent stroke and systemic embolism in 18,113 patients with atrial fibrillation...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Ruth S Weinstock, Ingrid Schütz-Fuhrmann, Crystal G Connor, Julia M Hermann, David M Maahs, Morten Schütt, Shivani Agarwal, Sabine E Hofer, Roy W Beck, Reinhard W Holl
AIMS: Compare characteristics, therapies and clinical outcomes in older adults with type 1 diabetes in the United States T1D Exchange (T1DX) and German/Austrian Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation (DPV) registries. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of adults ≥60years old with type 1 diabetes seen in 2011-2012 in the T1DX (n=1283) and DPV (n=2014) registries. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables...
October 4, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
A Muruganathan, Mangesh Tiwaskar
While the incidence and prevalence of stroke is gradually decreasing in the western world, a parallel increase is seen in the developing world. It is a matter of special concern to us as approximately 20-30% of stroke occur in people younger than 45 years in India. Indians are prone to higher stroke risk because of urbanization, diabetes, cigarette smoking and high incidence of hypertension. Unfortunately, there is an inadequate awareness about the risk of stroke with hypertension among general public. Hypertension is considered to be the most important risk factor for stroke, and all forms of hypertension are associated with an increased risk of both ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
D Stott, M Bolten, D Paraschiv, I Papastefanou, J B Chambers, N A Kametas
OBJECTIVE: Pregnant hypertensive women who do not respond to labetalol but need vasodilatory therapy for blood pressure (BP) control rapidly progress to severe disease, which may be delayed by early recognition and individualised BP treatment. In this study, we sought to create prediction models at presentation, at 1 and 24 hours after commencement of treatment to identify patients who will not show a sustained response to labetalol and therefore need vasodilatory therapy. METHODS: The study population comprised of 134 women presenting with hypertension at a UK hospital...
October 20, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
K Mugundhan, Rajesh Shankar Iyer
Strokes involving posterior inferior cerebellar arteries (PICA) are rare and usually unilateral. They can involve either the lateral division or the medial division of PICA. Sudden simultaneous cerebellar infarctions in the medial PICA territories are extremely rare. We report one such patient who presented with acute bilateral cerebellar infarctions in the medial PICA territories. She was a diabetic and had features of diffuse atherosclerotic vertebrobasilar disease. We discuss the anatomical peculiarities of PICA and its blood supply along with the clinical features differentiating the medial and lateral PICA infarctions...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Guy Bar-Klein, Rebecca Klee, Claudia Brandt, Marion Bankstahl, Pablo Bascuñana, Kathrin Töllner, Hotjensa Dalipaj, Jens P Bankstahl, Alon Friedman, Wolfgang Löscher
OBJECTIVE: Acquired epilepsy is a devastating long-term risk of various brain insults, including trauma, stroke, infections, and status epilepticus (SE). There is no preventive treatment for patients at risk. Due to the complex alterations involved in epileptogenesis, it is likely that multi-targeted approaches are required for epilepsy prevention. We report novel preclinical findings with isoflurane, which exerts various non-anesthetic effects that may be relevant for anti-epileptogenesis...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Markus Seeger, Angelos Karlas, Dominik Soliman, Jaroslav Pelisek, Vasilis Ntziachristos
Carotid artery atherosclerosis is a main cause of stroke. Understanding atherosclerosis biology is critical in the development of targeted prevention and treatment strategies. Consequently, there is demand for advanced tools investigating atheroma pathology. We consider hybrid optoacoustic and multiphoton microscopy for the integrated and complementary interrogation of plaque tissue constituents and their mutual interactions. Herein, we visualize human carotid plaque using a hybrid multimodal imaging system that combines optical resolution optoacoustic (photoacoustic) microscopy, second and third harmonic generation microscopy, and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy...
September 2016: Photoacoustics
Mariana Moreira Coutinho Arroja, Emma Reid, Christopher McCabe
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) consists of the systemic hormone system, critically involved in regulation and homeostasis of normal physiological functions [i.e. blood pressure (BP), blood volume regulation], and an independent brain RAS, which is involved in the regulation of many functions such as memory, central control of BP and metabolic functions. In general terms, the RAS consists of two opposing axes; the 'classical axis' mediated primarily by Angiotensin II (Ang II), and the 'alternative axis' mediated mainly by Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7))...
2016: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine
Shannon Kelly, Keith Quirolo, Anne Marsh, Lynne Neumayr, Alicia Garcia, Brian Custer
BACKGROUND: Chronic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion therapy (CTT) is an integral component of the management of severe sickle cell disease (SCD) and can prevent complications, such as stroke. RBC units can be administered via simple transfusion or exchange transfusion, and erythrocytapheresis (automated RBC exchange transfusion [aRBX]), is increasingly used for CTT. Comparisons of simple and aRBX transfusions are limited, and the current scope of aRBX use is not known. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We administered a survey to define current transfusion practices for CTT and performed a review of the erythrocytapheresis literature...
October 19, 2016: Transfusion
Pavel Šiarnik, Zuzana Čarnická, Zuzana Krivošíková, Katarína Klobučníková, Ingrid Žitňanová, Branislav Kollár, Marek Sýkora, Peter Turčáni
Hypercholesterolemia represents a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Lipoprotein research has recently been focused on the phenomenon of atherogenic and non-atherogenic lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to explore the association of lipoprotein subfractions with a measure for endothelial function (represented by reactive hyperemia index [RHI]) and arterial stiffness (represented by augmentation index [AI]) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We enrolled 51 patients with acute ischemic stroke...
October 19, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
M Florencia Iulita, Hélène Girouard
Hypertension and dementia are two of the most prevalent and damaging diseases associated with aging. Chronic hypertension, particularly during mid-life, is a strong risk factor for late-life cognitive decline and impairment. Hypertension is also the number one risk factor for stroke and a major contributor to the pathogenesis of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Despite the vast epidemiologic and mechanistic evidence linking hypertension to cognitive impairment, and the positive effects of blood pressure lowering on reducing the risk of post-stroke dementia, uncertainty remains about the benefit of antihypertensive medication on other forms of dementia...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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