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Md Mostafizur Rahman, Sanaz Khosravi, Kyung Hoon Chang, Sang-Min Lee
This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary astaxanthin levels on growth performance, feed utilization, muscle pigmentation, and antioxidant capacity in juvenile rainbow trout. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 0, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg astaxanthin (designed as AX0, AX50, AX75, and AX100). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish (18.5 g/fish) for 10 weeks. Growth performance and muscle composition of fish were not affected by dietary astaxanthin levels. Total carotenoid concentration in the muscle of fish fed the AX50 diet was higher than that of fish fed the AX0 diet, but no significant differences were observed between these fish and those fed the AX75 and AX100 diets...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
W Liu, J Wang, M Li, W Tang, J Han
We previously developed a lutein-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) complex with improved aqueous saturation solubility and stability, though the conjugation mechanism is still unclear. In this paper, experiments with astaxanthin-PVP complex and curcumin-PVP complex were carried out, which indicated that PVP could improve the solubility and stability of astaxanthin and curcumin. We aimed to construct a computational model capable of understanding the protective effect in complexes formed between PVP and antioxidants, through which the binding mode of PVP and antioxidants was investigated with molecular modelling in order to obtain the interactions, binding energy, binding site and surface area between PVP and antioxidants...
October 17, 2016: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
Felipe E Rodríguez, Beatriz Valenzuela, Ana Farías, Ana María Sandino, Mónica Imarai
The diets of farmed salmon are usually supplemented with immunostimulants to improve health status. Because β-glucan is one of the most common immunostimulants used in diets, here we examined the effect of two β-1,3/1,6-glucan-supplemented diets on the expression of immune response genes of Atlantic salmon. The relative abundances of IFN-α1, Mx, IFN-γ, IL-12, TGF-β1, IL-10, and CD4 transcripts were evaluated in head kidney by qRT-PCR. We assessed the effects of the diets under normoxia and acute hypoxia, as salmon are especially sensitive to changes in the concentration of dissolved oxygen, which can also affect immunity...
October 11, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Monika Dudek, Grzegorz Zajac, Agnieszka Kaczor, Malgorzata Baranska
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Xiaojuan Liu, Mingyue Song, Zili Gao, Xiaokun Cai, William Dixon, Xiaofeng Chen, Yong Cao, Hang Xiao
Astaxanthin (AST) is a xanthophyll carotenoid with potential protective effects against carcinogenesis. Different stereoisomers of AST (ASTs) exist in a variety of food sources. Due to limited information on the bioactivities of ASTs, the present study investigated the inhibitory effects of ASTs on HCT116 and HT29 human colon cancer cells. ASTs investigated herein included 3S,3'S (S) from Haematococcus pluvialis, 3R,3'R (R) from Phaffia rhodozyma, and a statistical mixture (S: meso: R = 1:2:1) (M) from synthetic AST...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Xiangrong Li, Yunhui Yan
L-Ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, procyanidin B3, β-carotene and astaxanthin are five classic dietary antioxidants. In this study, the interaction between the five antioxidants and ovalbumin was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, in combination with UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The quenching mechanism of ovalbumin by α-tocopherol is static quenching and the interaction between α-tocopherol and ovalbumin is synergistically driven by enthalpy and entropy. Electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic interactions play a major role in stabilizing the complex...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Fluorescence
Toshiyuki Maezawa, Masayuki Tanaka, Miho Kanazashi, Noriaki Maeshige, Hiroyo Kondo, Akihiko Ishihara, Hidemi Fujino
Immobilization induces skeletal muscle fibrosis characterized by increasing collagen synthesis in the perimysium and endomysium. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is associated with this lesion via promoting differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are shown to mediate TGF-β1-induced fibrosis in tissues. These reports suggest the importance of ROS reduction for attenuating skeletal muscle fibrosis. Astaxanthin, a powerful antioxidant, has been shown to reduce ROS production in disused muscle...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Chihiro Kamezaki, Ami Nakashima, Asako Yamada, Sachiko Uenishi, Hiroshi Ishibashi, Natsumi Shibuya, Susumu Hama, Shinzo Hosoi, Eiji Yamashita, Kentaro Kogure
Astaxanthin and vitamin E are both effective antioxidants that are frequently used in cosmetics, as food additives, and in to prevent oxidative damage. A combination of astaxanthin and vitamin E would be expected to show an additive anntioxidative effect. In this study, liposomes co-encapsulating astaxanthin and the vitamin E derivatives α-tocopherol (α-T) or tocotrienols (T3) were prepared, and the antioxidative activity of these liposomes toward singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical was evaluated in vitro...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Manatsu Kuraji, Tomonori Matsuno, Tazuko Satoh
Oral dryness, a serious problem for the aging Japanese society, is induced by aging-related hyposalivation and causes dysphagia, dysgeusia, inadaptation of dentures, and growth of oral Candida albicans. Oxidative stress clearly plays a role in decreasing saliva secretion and treatment with antioxidants such astaxanthin supplements may be beneficial. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of astaxanthin on the oral saliva secretory function of aging mice. The saliva flow increased in astaxanthin-treated mice 72 weeks after administration while that of the control decreased by half...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Kai-Sheng Liao, Chia-Li Wei, Jyh-Cheng Chen, Hao-Yu Zheng, Wen-Ching Chen, Chia-Hung Wu, Tai-Jing Wang, Yi-Shuan Peng, Po-Yuan Chang, Yun-Wei Lin
Pemetrexed, a multitargeted antifolate agent, has demonstrated clinical activity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Increased expression of thymidylate synthase (TS) is thought to be associated with resistance to pemetrexed. Astaxanthin exhibits a wide range of beneficial effects including anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we showed that down-regulating of TS expression in two NSCLC cell lines, human lung adenocarcinoma H1650 and squamous cell carcinoma H1703 cells, with astaxanthin were associated with decreased MKK1/2-ERK1/2 activity...
September 28, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Bethany Grimmig, Josh Morganti, Kevin Nash, Paula C Bickford
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that primarily afflicts the elderly. It is characterized by motor dysfunction due to extensive neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta. There are multiple biological processes that are negatively impacted during the pathogenesis of PD, and are implicated in the cell death in this region. Neuroinflammation is evidently involved in PD pathology and mitigating the inflammatory cascade has been a therapeutic strategy. Age is the number one risk factor for PD and thus needs to be considered in the context of disease pathology...
2016: Brain Sciences
Shoko Kawaguchi, Yuki Manabe, Tatsuya Sugawara, Masahiro Osakabe
Adult females of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) enter diapause under conditions of short-day length and low temperature. A conspicuous body color change, from greenish yellow to bright orange, accompanies diapause induction. This pigmentation is attributed to accumulation of keto-carotenoids produced internally from β-carotene, which is a precursor of vitamin A essential for inducing diapause. The quantity of β-carotene transferred from females to eggs has been considered sufficient to induce diapause...
September 25, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Yasser Omar, Naglaa Abd El Khalik Gobba, Mohammed Abdalla Hussein
Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic widely used against infections caused by Gram-negative microorganisms. Nephrotoxicity is the main limitation to its therapeutic use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effect of astaxanthin on the renal damage generated by gentamicin in rats, in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. The daily oral administration of the astaxanthin at a concentration of 50 mg/kg for 15 days to gentamicin (80 mg/kg...
September 22, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Hiroaki Nakajima, Shuko Terazawa, Takao Niwano, Yorihiro Yamamoto, Genji Imokawa
We recently reported that the over-expression of skin fibroblast-derived neutral endopeptidase (NEP) plays a pivotal role in impairing the three-dimensional architecture of dermal elastic fibers during the biological mechanism of ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin wrinkling. In that process, a UVB-associated epithelial-mesenchymal cytokine interaction as well as a direct UVA-induced cellular stimulation are associated with the up-regulation of NEP in human fibroblasts. In this study, we characterized the mode of action of ubiquinol10 which may abrogate the up-regulation of NEP by dermal fibroblasts, resulting in a reported in vivo anti-wrinkling action, and compared that with 3 other anti-oxidants, astaxanthin (AX), riboflavin (RF) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN)...
2016: PloS One
Rongli Li, Rencai Chen, Weiwei Liu, Cuiying Qin, Jing Han
Astaxanthin oleoresin (AO) has a number of beneficial physiological functions. However, its sensitivity to light, heat, oxygen and gastric fluids has limited its application. In this paper, we describe the preparation of AO enteric microcapsules by coacervation to improve its stability and enteric solubility, and evaluate their efficacy by measuring the drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, optical microscopic appearance, stability, in vitro release and bioavailability. The results obtained showed that the AO enteric microcapsules possessed a high encapsulation efficiency (85...
September 19, 2016: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Yuqiu Wu, Masayo Shamoto-Nagai, Wakako Maruyama, Toshihiko Osawa, Makoto Naoi
Epidemiological studies present the beneficial effects of dietary habits on prevention of aging-associated decline of brain function. Phytochemicals, the second metabolites of food, protect neuronal cells from cell death in cellular models of neurodegenerative disorders, and the neuroprotective activity has been ascribed to the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. In this paper, the cellular mechanism of neuroprotection by phytochemicals was investigated, using the cellular model of mitochondrial apoptosis induced by PK11195, a ligand of outer membrane translocator protein, in SH-SY5Y cells...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Esther García-de Blas, Rafael Mateo, Carlos Alonso-Alvarez
Colorful ornaments have been the focus of sexual selection studies since the work of Darwin. Yellow to red coloration is often produced by carotenoid pigments. Different hypotheses have been formulated to explain the evolution of these traits as signals of individual quality. Many of these hypotheses involve the existence of a signal production cost. The carotenoids necessary for signaling can only be obtained from food. In this line, carotenoid-based signals could reveal an individual's capacity to find sufficient dietary pigments...
2016: PeerJ
Jui-Tung Chen, Kazuhiko Kotani
Protecting against liver damage, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, is currently considered to be important for the prevention of adverse conditions, such as cardiovascular and cancerous diseases. Liver damage often occurs in relation to oxidative stress with metabolic disorders, including cellular lipid accumulation. Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-β,β-carotene-4,4'dione), a xanthophyll carotenoid, is a candidate for liver protection. Here, we briefly review astaxanthin as a potential protector against liver damage...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Keisuke Yamamoto, Kiyotaka Y Hara, Toshihiko Morita, Akira Nishimura, Daisuke Sasaki, Jun Ishii, Chiaki Ogino, Noriyuki Kizaki, Akihiko Kondo
BACKGROUND: Red yeast, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is the only yeast known to produce astaxanthin, an anti-oxidant isoprenoid (carotenoid) widely used in the aquaculture, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The potential of this microorganism as a platform cell factory for isoprenoid production has been recognized because of high flux through its native terpene pathway. Recently, we developed a multiple gene expression system in X. dendrorhous and enhanced the mevalonate synthetic pathway to increase astaxanthin production...
2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Jennifer Alcaíno, Natalia Bravo, Pamela Córdova, Andrés E Marcoleta, Gabriela Contreras, Salvador Barahona, Dionisia Sepúlveda, María Fernández-Lobato, Marcelo Baeza, Víctor Cifuentes
The red yeast X. dendrorhous is one of the few natural sources of astaxanthin, a carotenoid used in aquaculture for salmonid fish pigmentation and in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries for its antioxidant properties. Genetic control of carotenogenesis is well characterized in this yeast; however, little is known about the regulation of the carotenogenesis process. Several lines of evidence have suggested that carotenogenesis is regulated by catabolic repression, and the aim of this work was to identify and functionally characterize the X...
2016: PloS One
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