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Xiaoming Gong, Joshua R Smith, Haley M Swanson, Lewis P Rubin
Increasing evidence suggests that dietary carotenoids may reduce the risk of breast cancer. However, anti-breast cancer effects of carotenoids have been controversial, albeit understudied. Here, we investigated the effects of specific carotenoids on a wide range of breast cancer cell lines, and found that among several carotenoids (including β-carotene, lutein, and astaxanthin), lutein significantly inhibits breast cancer cell growth by inducing cell-cycle arrest and caspase-independent cell death, but it has little effect on the growth of primary mammary epithelial cells (PmECs)...
April 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Camila M Mano, Thais Guaratini, Karina H M Cardozo, Pio Colepicolo, Etelvino J H Bechara, Marcelo P Barros
Astaxanthin (ASTA) is a ketocarotenoid found in many marine organisms and that affords many benefits to human health. ASTA is particularly effective against radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, and recent findings hypothesize a "mitochondrial-targeted" action of ASTA in cells. Therefore, we examined the protective effects of ASTA against lipid peroxidation in zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine liposomes (PCLs) and anionic phosphatidylcholine: phosphatidylglycerol liposomes (PCPGLs), at different pHs (6...
April 12, 2018: Marine Drugs
Hiroaki Iwasaka, Ryo Koyanagi, Ryota Satoh, Akiko Nagano, Kenshi Watanabe, Kanako Hisata, Noriyuki Satoh, Tsunehiro Aki
Labyrinthulomycetes have been regarded as a promising industrial source of xanthophylls, including astaxanthin and canthaxanthin, polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid, ω-3 oils, and terpenic hydrocarbons, such as sterols and squalene. A Thraustochytrid, Aurantiochytrium sp. KH105 produces carotenoids, including astaxanthin, with strong antioxidant activity. To gain genomic insights into this capacity, we decoded its 97-Mbp genome and characterized genes for enzymes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis...
April 9, 2018: Genes
Kenshi Watanabe, Kim Hazel V Arafiles, Risa Higashi, Yoshiko Okamura, Takahisa Tajima, Yukihiko Matsumura, Yutaka Nakashimada, Keisuke Matsuyama, Tsunehiro Aki
The marine eukaryotic microheterotroph thraustochytrid genus Aurantiochytrium is a known producer of polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, and squalene. We previously constructed a lipid fermentation system for Aurantiochytrium sp. strains using underutilized biomass, such as canned syrup and brown macroalgae. To improve the productivity, in this study, Aurantiochytrium sp. RH-7A and RH-7A-7 that produced high levels of carotenoids, such as astaxanthin and canthaxanthin, were isolated through chemical mutagenesis...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Yuki Manabe, Toshiyuki Komatsu, Shinobu Seki, Tatsuya Sugawara
We evaluated the distribution of astaxanthin in rat brains after a single dose administration and after feeding 0.1% astaxanthin diet for 5 days. Astaxanthin was detected in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex 4 and 8 h after a single dose. Astaxanthin concentration in rat brains was higher after consumption of astaxanthin diet for 5 days than after a single dose.
April 6, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Xi Xie, Qing Chen, Jun Tao
Oxidative stress is the main cause of diabetic nephropathy (DN) progression. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling is a crucial cellular defense system to cope with oxidative stress. Astaxanthin (AST) is a fat-soluble xanthophyll carotenoid with remarkable antioxidative capacity. AST exerted renal protective in diabetic rats. This study aimed to determine whether AST could alleviate the pathological progress of DN by activating Nrf2/ARE signaling and diminishing the excessive oxidative stress and fibronectin (FN) accumulation in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) challenged with high glucose (HG)...
April 5, 2018: Marine Drugs
Shivakumara Siddaramappa, Vandana Viswanathan, Saravanamuthu Thiyagarajan, Anushree Narjala
The order Sphingomonadales is a taxon of bacteria with a variety of physiological features and carotenoid pigments. Some of the coloured strains within this order are known to be aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs that contain characteristic photosynthesis gene clusters (PGCs). Previous work has shown that majority of the ORFs putatively involved in the biosynthesis of C40 carotenoids are located outside the PGCs in these strains. The main purpose of this study was to understand the genetic basis for the various colour/carotenoid phenotypes of the strains of Sphingomonadales...
April 5, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Shuhei Ota, Aya Morita, Shinsuke Ohnuki, Aiko Hirata, Satoko Sekida, Kazuo Okuda, Yoshikazu Ohya, Shigeyuki Kawano
The unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis accumulates large amounts of the red ketocarotenoid astaxanthin to protect against environmental stresses. Haematococcus cells that accumulate astaxanthin in the central part (green-red cyst cells) respond rapidly to intense light by distributing astaxanthin diffusively to the peripheral part of the cell within 10 min after irradiation. This response is reversible: when astaxanthin-diffused cells were placed in the dark, astaxanthin was redistributed to the center of the cell...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anahí Martínez-Cárdenas, Cipriano Chávez-Cabrera, Jazmín M Vasquez-Bahena, Luis B Flores-Cotera
BACKGROUND: Growth conditions that bring about stress on Phaffia rhodozyma cells encourage the synthesis of astaxanthin, an antioxidant carotenoid, which protects cells against oxidative damage. Using P. rhodozyma cultures performed with and without copper limitation, we examined the kinetics of astaxanthin synthesis along with the expression of asy, the key astaxanthin synthesis gene, as well as aox, which encodes an alternative oxidase protein. RESULTS: Copper deficiency had a detrimental effect on the rates of oxygen consumption and ethanol reassimilation at the diauxic shift...
April 3, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Naoki Ito, Hitomi Saito, Shinobu Seki, Fumitaka Ueda, Takashi Asada
BACKGROUND: Dementia and its first or transitional stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), is a major concern for the aging Japanese society. Thus, the use of dietary supplements to improve or maintain cognitive function has become a topic of public interest. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated the effects of a composite supplement containing food-derived antioxidants, specifically astaxanthin and sesamin (AS), on cognitive function in people with MCI. METHOD: Twenty-one healthy participants with MCI were recruited in our double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Pavlo Bohutskyi, Leo A Kucek, Eric Hill, Grigoriy E Pinchuk, Sagadevan G Mundree, Alexander S Beliaev
Growth of heterotrophic bacterium Bacillus subtilis was metabolically coupled with the photosynthetic activity of an astaxanthin-producing alga Haematococcus pluvialis for conversion of starch-containing waste stream into carotenoid-enriched biomass. The H. pluvialis accounted for 63% of the produced co-culture biomass of 2.2 g/L. Importantly, the binary system requires neither exogenous supply of gaseous substrates nor application of energy-intensive mass transfer technologies due to in-situ exchange in CO2 and O2 ...
February 19, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Masahiro Hayashi, Takashi Ishibashi, Takashi Maoka
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplement containing astaxanthin-rich extract derived from Paracoccus carotinifaciens (astaxanthin supplement) on cognitive function of subjects aged 45-64 years. Cognitive functions of 28 subjects orally administered 8 mg astaxanthin/day of astaxanthin supplement for 8 weeks (astaxanthin group) and 26 subjects given a placebo (placebo group) were compared by word memory test, verbal fluency test, and Stroop test. The astaxanthin group experienced significantly larger increase in blood astaxanthin level than the placebo group...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Wataru Aoi, Takashi Maoka, Ryo Abe, Mayuko Fujishita, Kumi Tominaga
Astaxanthin, a natural antioxidant, exists in non-esterified and esterified forms. Although it is known that astaxanthin can improve exercise endurance and cause metabolic improvement in skeletal muscle, the effects of the two different forms are unclear. We investigated the effects of the different forms of astaxanthin on endurance in mice. Eight-week-old ICR mice were divided into four groups: control; astaxanthin extracted from Haematococcus pluvialis in an esterified form; astaxanthin extracted from Phaffia rhodozyma in a non-esterified form; and astaxanthin synthesized chemically in a non-esterified form...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Yuqing Yang, Irene Yang, Mingnan Cao, Zheng-Yuan Su, Renyi Wu, Yue Guo, Mingzhu Fang, Ah-Ng Kong
Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2 or NFE2L2) is a master regulator of the anti-oxidative stress response, which is involved in the defense against many oxidative stress/inflammation-mediated diseases, including anticancer effects elicited by an increasing number of natural products. Our previous studies showed that the epigenetic modification of the Nrf2 gene plays a key role in restoring the expression of Nrf2. In this study, we aimed to investigate the epigenetic regulation of Nrf2 by astaxanthin (AST) and fucoxanthin (FX), carotenoids which are abundant in microalgae and seaweeds, in mouse skin epidermal JB6 P+ cells...
February 20, 2018: AAPS Journal
Amanda Rundblad, Kirsten B Holven, Inge Bruheim, Mari C Myhrstad, Stine M Ulven
Marine n -3 (omega-3) fatty acids alter gene expression by regulating the activity of transcription factors. Krill oil is a source of marine n -3 fatty acids that has been shown to modulate gene expression in animal studies; however, the effect in humans is not known. Hence, we aimed to compare the effect of intake of krill oil, lean and fatty fish with a similar content of n -3 fatty acids, and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) with added astaxanthin on the expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as circulating inflammatory markers...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
J Ispada, T A Rodrigues, P H B Risolia, R S Lima, D R Gonçalves, D Rettori, M Nichi, W B Feitosa, F F Paula-Lopes
The cellular mechanisms induced by elevated temperature on oocytes are not fully understood. However, there is evidence that some of the deleterious effects of heat shock are mediated by a heat-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this context, carotenoid antioxidants might have a thermoprotective effect. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the role of astaxanthin (AST) on oocyte ROS production and on the redox profile and developmental competency of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) after 14h heat shock (41°C) during in vitro maturation (IVM)...
March 28, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Tiago Pinto, Luísa Gouveia, Joana Ortigueira, Ganesh D Saratale, Patrícia Moura
In this work, hydrogen (H2 ) was produced through the fermentation of Spirogyra sp. biomass by Clostridium butyricum DSM 10702. Macronutrient stress was applied to increase the carbohydrate content in Spirogyra, and a 36% (w/w) accumulation of carbohydrates was reached by nitrogen depletion. The use of wet microalga as fermentable substrate was compared with physically and chemically treated biomass for increased carbohydrate solubilisation. The combination of drying, bead beating and mild acid hydrolysis produced a saccharification yield of 90...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Gaofeng Shu, Nauman Khalid, Zhang Chen, Marcos A Neves, Colin J Barrow, Mitsutoshi Nakajima
In this study ginseng saponins (GS) were used as natural emulsifiers to formulate and stabilize O/W nanoemulsions loaded with astaxanthin (AST). GS were found to be highly effective at reducing the interfacial tension at the soybean oil-water interfaces, and were capable of producing nano-scaled droplets (d4,3  ≈ 125 nm) using a high-pressure homogenizer. The droplet size of the nanoemulsions decreased with increasing emulsifier concentration and homogenization pressure. The nanoemulsions were stable without droplet coalescence against thermal treatment (30-90 °C, 30 min), and over a narrow range of pH values (7-9)...
July 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Nicholas Bauman, Srividya Akella, Elizabeth Hann, Robert Morey, Ariel S Schwartz, Rob Brown, Toby H Richardson
Haematococcus lacustris is an industrially relevant microalga that is used for the production of the carotenoid astaxanthin. Here, we report the use of PacBio long-read sequencing to assemble the chloroplast genome of H. lacustris strain UTEX:2505. At 1.35 Mb, this is the largest assembled chloroplast of any plant or alga known to date.
March 22, 2018: Genome Announcements
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