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Astaxanthin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901343/colonization-of-snow-by-microorganisms-as-revealed-using-miniature-raman-spectrometers-possibilities-for-detecting-carotenoids-of-psychrophiles-on-mars
#1
Jan Jehlička, Adam Culka, Linda Nedbalová
We tested the potential of a miniaturized Raman spectrometer for use in field detection of snow algae pigments. A miniature Raman spectrometer, equipped with an excitation laser at 532 nm, allowed for the detection of carotenoids in cells of Chloromonas nivalis and Chlamydomonas nivalis at different stages of their life cycle. Astaxanthin, the major photoprotective pigment, was detected in algal blooms originating in snows at two alpine European sites that differed in altitude (Krkonoše Mts., Czech Republic, 1502 m a...
November 30, 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888475/assessing-contamination-of-microalgal-astaxanthin-producer-haematococcus-cultures-with-high-resolution-melting-curve-analysis
#2
Adam Dawidziuk, Delfina Popiel, Magda Luboinska, Michal Grzebyk, Maciej Wisniewski, Grzegorz Koczyk
Due to its superior antioxidant capabilities and higher activity than other carotenoids, astaxanthin is used widely in the nutraceutical and medicine industries. The most prolific natural producer of astaxanthin is the unicellular green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis. The correct identification of any contaminants in H. pluvialis cultures is both essential and nontrivial for several reasons. Firstly, while it is possible to distinguish the main microalgal contaminant Coelastrella sp. (in H. pluvialis cultures), in practice, it is frequently a daunting and error-prone task for personnel without extensive experience in the microscopic identification of algal species...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879659/innovative-alternative-technologies-to-extract-carotenoids-from-microalgae-and-seaweeds
#3
REVIEW
Mahesha M Poojary, Francisco J Barba, Bahar Aliakbarian, Francesco Donsì, Gianpiero Pataro, Daniel A Dias, Pablo Juliano
Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae) represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield), selectivity (purity), high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies...
November 22, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871246/functional-characterization-of-thiolase-encoding-genes-from-xanthophyllomyces-dendrorhous-and-their-effects-on-carotenoid-synthesis
#4
Nicole Werner, Melissa Gómez, Marcelo Baeza, Víctor Cifuentes, Jennifer Alcaíno
BACKGROUND: The basidiomycetous yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous has been described as a potential biofactory for terpenoid-derived compounds due to its ability to synthesize astaxanthin. Functional knowledge of the genes involved in terpenoid synthesis would create opportunities to enhance carotenoid production. A thiolase enzyme catalyzes the first step in terpenoid synthesis. RESULTS: Two potential thiolase-encoding genes were found in the yeast genome; bioinformatically, one was identified as an acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (ERG10), and the other was identified as a 3-ketoacyl Co-A thiolase (POT1)...
November 21, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862054/determination-of-target-fat-soluble-micronutrients-in-rainbow-trout-s-muscle-and-liver-tissues-by-liquid-chromatography-with-diode-array-tandem-mass-spectrometry-detection
#5
Virginia Pérez Fernández, Salvatore Ventura, Pierpaolo Tomai, Roberta Curini, Alessandra Gentili
This paper describes an analytical approach, based on liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS/MS), for characterizing the fat-soluble micronutrient fraction in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Two different procedures were applied to isolate the analytes from liver and muscle tissue: overnight cold saponification to hydrolyze bound forms and to simplify the analysis; matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) to avoid artifacts and to maintain unaltered the naturally occurring forms...
November 12, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842591/regulation-of-carotenogenesis-in-the-red-yeast-xanthophyllomyces-dendrorhous-the-role-of-the-transcriptional-co-repressor-complex-cyc8-tup1-involved-in-catabolic-repression
#6
Pamela Córdova, Jennifer Alcaíno, Natalia Bravo, Salvador Barahona, Dionisia Sepúlveda, María Fernández-Lobato, Marcelo Baeza, Víctor Cifuentes
BACKGROUND: The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous produces carotenoids of commercial interest, including astaxanthin and β-carotene. Although carotenogenesis in this yeast and the expression profiles of the genes controlling this pathway are known, the mechanisms regulating this process remain poorly understood. Several studies have demonstrated that glucose represses carotenogenesis in X. dendrorhous, suggesting that this pathway could be regulated by catabolic repression. Catabolic repression is a highly conserved regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes and has been widely studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
November 14, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834847/astaxanthin-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-reverse-the-toxicity-of-the-maxi-k-bk-channel-antagonist-mycotoxin-penitrem-a
#7
Amira A Goda, Khayria M Naguib, Magdy M Mohamed, Hassan A Amra, Somaia A Nada, Abdel-Rahman B Abdel-Ghaffar, Chris R Gissendanner, Khalid A El Sayed
Penitrem A (PA) is a food mycotoxin produced by several terrestrial and few marine Penicillium species. PA is a potent tremorgen through selective antagonism of the calcium-dependent potassium BK (Maxi-K) channels. Discovery of natural products that can prevent the toxic effects of PA is important for food safety. Astaxanthin (AST) is a marine natural xanthophyll carotenoid with documented antioxidant activity. Unlike other common antioxidants, AST can cross blood brain barriers (BBBs), inducing neuroprotective effects...
November 9, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834813/the-potential-of-non-provitamin-a-carotenoids-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
REVIEW
Ana Gabriela Murillo, Diana M DiMarco, Maria Luz Fernandez
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an obesity-associated spectrum of comorbidities defined by the presence of metabolic dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. If left untreated, NAFLD can progress to cirrhosis, liver failure, or hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is recognized as the most common liver disease in the United States, affecting around 30% of the population. Identification of dietary components capable of reducing or preventing NAFLD is therefore essential to battle this condition...
November 8, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829365/comparative-genomics-provides-new-insights-into-the-diversity-physiology-and-sexuality-of-the-only-industrially-exploited-tremellomycete-phaffia-rhodozyma
#9
Nicolás Bellora, Martín Moliné, Márcia David-Palma, Marco A Coelho, Chris Todd Hittinger, José P Sampaio, Paula Gonçalves, Diego Libkind
BACKGROUND: The class Tremellomycete (Agaricomycotina) encompasses more than 380 fungi. Although there are a few edible Tremella spp., the only species with current biotechnological use is the astaxanthin-producing yeast Phaffia rhodozyma (Cystofilobasidiales). Besides astaxanthin, a carotenoid pigment with potent antioxidant activity and great value for aquaculture and pharmaceutical industries, P. rhodozyma possesses multiple exceptional traits of fundamental and applied interest. The aim of this study was to obtain, and analyze two new genome sequences of representative strains from the northern (CBS 7918(T), the type strain) and southern hemispheres (CRUB 1149) and compre them to a previously published genome sequence (strain CBS 6938)...
November 9, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818161/two-step-cultivation-for-production-of-astaxanthin-in-chlorella-zofingiensis-using-a-patented-energy-free-rotating-floating-photobioreactor-rfp
#10
Zhao Zhang, Jim Junhui Huang, Dongzhe Sun, Yuankun Lee, Feng Chen
In the present study, high light and nitrogen starvation with glucose-fed to the culture was found efficient to induce astaxanthin accumulation in Chlorella zofingiensis. Therefore, a two-step cultivation strategy including high biomass yield fermentation and outdoor induction with an energy-free RFP was conducted. During the fermentation, the highest cell density of 98.4gL(-1) and astaxanthin yield of 73.3mgL(-1) were achieved, which were higher than those so far reported in C. zofingiensis. During the outdoor induction, astaxanthin content was further increased by 1...
October 28, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815463/effects-of-dietary-xanthophylls-canthaxanthin-and-astaxanthin-on-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea-induced-rat-mammary-carcinogenesis
#11
Takashi Yuri, Katsuhiko Yoshizawa, Yuko Emoto, Yuichi Kinoshita, Michiko Yuki, Airo Tsubura
BACKGROUND: Natural xanthophylls, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin are known to exhibit anticancer activity. However, the dietary effects of canthaxanthin and astaxanthin on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary cancer remain controversial, and their mechanisms of action have not been clearly identified. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a xanthophyll-free (basal diet) diet or experimental diets containing canthaxanthin or astaxanthin (0...
November 2016: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784943/studies-on-siderophore-and-pigment-produced-by-an-adhered-bacterial-strain-halobacillus-trueperi-mxm-16-from-the-mangrove-ecosystem-of-goa-india
#12
Amrita Kharangate-Lad, Saroj Bhosle
Mangroves are unique ecosystems in the coastal tropical and subtropical regions of the Earth. The fluctuation in salinity due to tidal action results in a prolific population of adhered halophilic and halotolerant bacteria in this ecosystem. In this study, a pigment producing adhered bacterial strain Halobacillus trueperi MXM-16 was isolated from mangrove plant litter of Goa. This strain was moderately halophilic, Gram positive rod, catalase positive and capable of utilizing sodium benzoate as a source of carbon...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752505/effects-of-dietary-inclusion-of-astaxanthin-on-growth-muscle-pigmentation-and-antioxidant-capacity-of-juvenile-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#13
Md Mostafizur Rahman, Sanaz Khosravi, Kyung Hoon Chang, Sang-Min Lee
This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary astaxanthin levels on growth performance, feed utilization, muscle pigmentation, and antioxidant capacity in juvenile rainbow trout. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 0, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg astaxanthin (designed as AX0, AX50, AX75, and AX100). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish (18.5 g/fish) for 10 weeks. Growth performance and muscle composition of fish were not affected by dietary astaxanthin levels. Total carotenoid concentration in the muscle of fish fed the AX50 diet was higher than that of fish fed the AX0 diet, but no significant differences were observed between these fish and those fed the AX75 and AX100 diets...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748622/molecular-mechanism-of-the-protective-effect-of-monomer-polyvinylpyrrolidone-on-antioxidants-experimental-and-computational-studies
#14
W Liu, J Wang, M Li, W Tang, J Han
We previously developed a lutein-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) complex with improved aqueous saturation solubility and stability, though the conjugation mechanism is still unclear. In this paper, experiments with astaxanthin-PVP complex and curcumin-PVP complex were carried out, which indicated that PVP could improve the solubility and stability of astaxanthin and curcumin. We aimed to construct a computational model capable of understanding the protective effect in complexes formed between PVP and antioxidants, through which the binding mode of PVP and antioxidants was investigated with molecular modelling in order to obtain the interactions, binding energy, binding site and surface area between PVP and antioxidants...
October 17, 2016: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742589/%C3%AE-1-3-1-6-glucan-supplemented-diets-antagonize-immune-inhibitory-effects-of-hypoxia-and-enhance-the-immune-response-to-a-model-vaccine
#15
Felipe E Rodríguez, Beatriz Valenzuela, Ana Farías, Ana María Sandino, Mónica Imarai
The diets of farmed salmon are usually supplemented with immunostimulants to improve health status. Because β-glucan is one of the most common immunostimulants used in diets, here we examined the effect of two β-1,3/1,6-glucan-supplemented diets on the expression of immune response genes of Atlantic salmon. The relative abundances of IFN-α1, Mx, IFN-γ, IL-12, TGF-β1, IL-10, and CD4 transcripts were evaluated in head kidney by qRT-PCR. We assessed the effects of the diets under normoxia and acute hypoxia, as salmon are especially sensitive to changes in the concentration of dissolved oxygen, which can also affect immunity...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731645/aggregation-induced-resonance-raman-optical-activity-airroa-and-time-dependent-helicity-switching-of-astaxanthin-supramolecular-assemblies
#16
Monika Dudek, Grzegorz Zajac, Agnieszka Kaczor, Malgorzata Baranska
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726394/stereoisomers-of-astaxanthin-inhibit-human-colon-cancer-cell-growth-by-inducing-g2-m-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis
#17
Xiaojuan Liu, Mingyue Song, Zili Gao, Xiaokun Cai, William Dixon, Xiaofeng Chen, Yong Cao, Hang Xiao
Astaxanthin (AST) is a xanthophyll carotenoid with potential protective effects against carcinogenesis. Different stereoisomers of AST (ASTs) exist in a variety of food sources. Due to limited information on the bioactivities of ASTs, the present study investigated the inhibitory effects of ASTs on HCT116 and HT29 human colon cancer cells. ASTs investigated herein included 3S,3'S (S) from Haematococcus pluvialis, 3R,3'R (R) from Phaffia rhodozyma, and a statistical mixture (S: meso: R = 1:2:1) (M) from synthetic AST...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722919/comparative-study-of-the-interactions-between-ovalbumin-and-five-antioxidants-by-spectroscopic-methods
#18
Xiangrong Li, Yunhui Yan
L-Ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, procyanidin B3, β-carotene and astaxanthin are five classic dietary antioxidants. In this study, the interaction between the five antioxidants and ovalbumin was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, in combination with UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The quenching mechanism of ovalbumin by α-tocopherol is static quenching and the interaction between α-tocopherol and ovalbumin is synergistically driven by enthalpy and entropy. Electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic interactions play a major role in stabilizing the complex...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714500/astaxanthin-supplementation-attenuates-immobilization-induced-skeletal-muscle-fibrosis-via-suppression-of-oxidative-stress
#19
Toshiyuki Maezawa, Masayuki Tanaka, Miho Kanazashi, Noriaki Maeshige, Hiroyo Kondo, Akihiko Ishihara, Hidemi Fujino
Immobilization induces skeletal muscle fibrosis characterized by increasing collagen synthesis in the perimysium and endomysium. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is associated with this lesion via promoting differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are shown to mediate TGF-β1-induced fibrosis in tissues. These reports suggest the importance of ROS reduction for attenuating skeletal muscle fibrosis. Astaxanthin, a powerful antioxidant, has been shown to reduce ROS production in disused muscle...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698536/synergistic-antioxidative-effect-of-astaxanthin-and-tocotrienol-by-co-encapsulated-in-liposomes
#20
Chihiro Kamezaki, Ami Nakashima, Asako Yamada, Sachiko Uenishi, Hiroshi Ishibashi, Natsumi Shibuya, Susumu Hama, Shinzo Hosoi, Eiji Yamashita, Kentaro Kogure
Astaxanthin and vitamin E are both effective antioxidants that are frequently used in cosmetics, as food additives, and in to prevent oxidative damage. A combination of astaxanthin and vitamin E would be expected to show an additive anntioxidative effect. In this study, liposomes co-encapsulating astaxanthin and the vitamin E derivatives α-tocopherol (α-T) or tocotrienols (T3) were prepared, and the antioxidative activity of these liposomes toward singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical was evaluated in vitro...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
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