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Astaxanthin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071055/rapid-and-efficient-conversion-of-all-e-astaxanthin-to-9z-and-13z-isomers-and-assessment-of-their-stability-and-antioxidant-activities
#1
Cheng Yang, Lianfu Zhang, Hua Zhang, Qingrui Sun, Ronghua Liu, Jing Li, Leiyan Wu, Rong Tsao
An optimized isomerization method was developed by heating all-E-astaxanthin in ethyl acetate (70 °C) with I-TiO2 catalyst, yielding 22.7% and 16.9% of 9Z- and 13Z-astaxanthin, respectively, in 2 h, with 92-95% purity after semipreparative HPLC purification. 13Z-Astaxanthin had higher antioxidant activity than all-E- and 9Z-astaxanthins in oxygen radical absorbing capacity assay for lipophilic compounds, photochemiluminescence, and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays, and 9Z-astaxanthin was higher in DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay and lower in CAA assay...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061399/transcriptome-sequencing-and-metabolic-pathways-of-astaxanthin-accumulated-in-haematococcus-pluvialis-mutant-under-15-co2
#2
Jun Cheng, Ke Li, Yanxia Zhu, Weijuan Yang, Junhu Zhou, Kefa Cen
Transcriptome sequencing and annotation was performed on Haematococcus pluvialis mutant red cells induced with high light under 15% CO2 to demonstrate why astaxanthin yield of the mutant was 1.7 times higher than that of a wild strain. It was found that 56% of 1947 differentially expressed genes were upregulated in mutant cells. Most significant differences were found in unigenes related to photosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways. The pyruvate kinase increased by 3.5-fold in mutant cells...
December 24, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048972/astaxanthin-improves-cognitive-performance-in-mice-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Xinran Ji, Dayong Peng, Yiling Zhang, Jun Zhang, Yuning Wang, Yuan Gao, Ning Lu, Peifu Tang
[BACKGROUND]: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces lasting neurological deficits that plague patients and physicians. To date, there is no effective method to combat the source of this problem. Here, we utilized a mild, closed head TBI model to determine the modulatory effects of a natural dietary compound, astaxanthin (AST). AST is centrally active following oral administration and is neuroprotective in experimental brain ischemia/stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) models. We examined the effects of oral AST on the long-term neurological functional recovery and histological outcomes following moderate TBI in a mice model...
December 31, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040647/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-phenol-tolerance-mechanism-of-evolved-chlorella-strain
#4
Lin Zhou, Dujia Cheng, Liang Wang, Juan Gao, Quanyu Zhao, Wei Wei, Yuhan Sun
The growth of microalgae is inhibited by high concentration phenol due to reactive oxygen species. An evolved strain tolerated to 500mg/L phenol, Chlorella sp. L5, was obtained in previous study. In this study, comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed for Chlorella sp. L5 and its original strain (Chlorella sp. L3). The tolerance mechanism of Chlorella sp. L5 for high concentration phenol was explored on genome scale. It was identified that the up-regulations of the related genes according to antioxidant enzymes (SOD, APX, CAT and GR) and carotenoids (astaxanthin, lutein and lycopene) biosynthesis had critical roles to tolerate high concentration phenol...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035956/changes-of-photosynthetic-behaviors-and-photoprotection-during-cell-transformation-and-astaxanthin-accumulation-in-haematococcus-pluvialis-grown-outdoors-in-tubular-photobioreactors
#5
Litao Zhang, Fang Su, Chunhui Zhang, Fengying Gong, Jianguo Liu
The cell transformation from green motile cells to non-motile cells and astaxanthin accumulation can be induced in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis cultured outdoors. In the initial 3 d of incubation (cell transformation phase), light absorption and photosynthetic electron transport became more efficient. After five days of incubation (astaxanthin accumulation phase), the light absorption per active reaction center (ABS/RC) increased, but the efficiency of electron transport (ψo) and the quantum yield of electron transport (φEo) decreased with increased time, indicating that the capacity of photosynthetic energy utilization decreased significantly during astaxanthin accumulation, leading to an imbalance between photosynthetic light absorption and energy utilization...
December 26, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028106/imaginal-feeding-for-progression-of-diapause-phenotype-in-the-two-spotted-spider-mite-acari-tetranychidae
#6
Shoko Kawaguchi, Yuki Manabe, Tatsuya Sugawara, Masahiro Osakabe
Adult females of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) enter diapause under conditions of short-day length and low temperature. A conspicuous body color change, from greenish yellow to bright orange, accompanies diapause induction. This pigmentation is attributed to accumulation of keto-carotenoids produced internally from β-carotene, which is a precursor of vitamin A essential for inducing diapause. The quantity of β-carotene transferred from females to eggs has been considered sufficient to induce diapause...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027548/genoprotective-properties-of-astaxanthin-revealed-by-ionizing-radiation-exposure-in-vitro-on-human-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes
#7
M A Pilinska, D A Кurinnyi, S R Rushkovsky, O B Dybska
OBJECTIVE: to identify possible radioprotective properties of astaxanthin by means of cytogenetic criteria. METHODS: Cultivation of peripheral blood lymphocytes from five apparently healthy volunteers; treatment of lym phocytes' cultures by astaxanthin in final concentrations 20 μg/ml in Go phase of mitotic cycle, prior to ? irradia tion in vitro in a dose 1 Gy; cytogenetic analysis the uniformly stained slides of metaphase chromosomes. The elec trophoresis of individual cells (Comet assay); visualization of results under fluorescent microscope; accounting the number of nucleoid the fourth grade that correspond to apoptosis of the cells...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019085/zinc-rich-oysters-as-well-as-zinc-yeast-and-astaxanthin-enriched-food-improved-sleep-efficiency-and-sleep-onset-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-healthy-individuals
#8
Hitomi Saito, Yoan Cherasse, Rina Suzuki, Makoto Mitarai, Fumitaka Ueda, Yoshihiro Urade
SCOPE: Zinc is an essential mineral that plays an important role in the body. We previously reported that orally feeding zinc-enriched yeast to mice induces non-rapid-eye-movement sleep. In addition, astaxanthin, an antioxidant abundant in seafood such as salmon and krill, is able to chelate minerals and may promote zinc absorption, which in return may also improve sleep. The purpose of our study was to examine the effect of zinc-rich and astaxanthin-containing food on sleep in humans...
December 25, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017669/depression-can-be-prevented-by-astaxanthin-through-inhibition-of-hippocampal-inflammation-in-diabetic-mice
#9
Xiao-Yan Zhou, Fang Zhang, Xiao-Tong Hu, Jing Chen, Ren-Xian Tang, Kui-Yang Zheng, Yuan-Jian Song
The critical factor considered in a depression induced by diabetes is the inflammation eliciting hippocampal, amygdala and thalamic neuronal injury. Therefore, inhibiting inflammatory reactions in the brain and reducing neuronal injury can alleviate depression in rodents suffering from diabetes mellitus. The oral administration of astaxanthin has been employed in emotional disorders and diabetic complications due to its anti-depressant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic functions. However, it has not been reported whether astaxanthin can improve diabetes-related depression-like behavior, and its potential mechanisms have not been elucidated...
December 22, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998714/a-nutraceutical-approach-armolipid-plus-to-reduce-total-and-ldl-cholesterol-in-individuals-with-mild-to-moderate-dyslipidemia-review-of-the-clinical-evidence
#10
Vivencio Barrios, Carlos Escobar, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe Cicero, David Burke, Peter Fasching, Maciej Banach, Eric Bruckert
Compelling evidence supports the effectiveness of the reduction of total and LDL cholesterol (TC and LDL-C) in primarily preventing cardiovascular events, within the framework of life-long prevention programs mainly consisting in lifestyle changes. Pharmacological treatment should be introduced when lifestyle changes, including use of nutraceuticals, have failed. ESC/EAS guidelines list a number of nutraceutical compounds and functional foods which have been individually studied in randomized, controlled clinical trials (RCTs)...
February 2017: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996027/localisation-and-origin-of-the-bacteriochlorophyll-derived-photosensitizer-in-the-retina-of-the-deep-sea-dragon-fish-malacosteus-niger
#11
Ronald H Douglas, Martin J Genner, Alan G Hudson, Julian C Partridge, Hans-Joachim Wagner
Most deep-sea fish have a single visual pigment maximally sensitive at short wavelengths, approximately matching the spectrum of both downwelling sunlight and bioluminescence. However, Malcosteus niger produces far-red bioluminescence and its longwave retinal sensitivity is enhanced by red-shifted visual pigments, a longwave reflecting tapetum and, uniquely, a bacteriochlorophyll-derived photosensitizer. The origin of the photosensitizer, however, remains unclear. We investigated whether the bacteriochlorophyll was produced by endosymbiotic bacteria within unusual structures adjacent to the photoreceptors that had previously been described in this species...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987436/effects-of-selenite-on-green-microalga-haematococcus-pluvialis-bioaccumulation-of-selenium-and-enhancement-of-astaxanthin-production
#12
Yihong Zheng, Ze Li, Ming Tao, Jiancheng Li, Zhangli Hu
Algae are at a low trophic level and play a crucial role in aquatic food webs. They can uptake and accumulate the trace element selenium (Se), which can be either essential or toxic to algal growth depending on the dosage and species. Se toxicity and algae resistance varied across different organisms. In order to investigate the effects of Se on the unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, an important industrial resource for natural astaxanthin, the algal growth rate, chlorophyll content, and fluorescence parameters were derived from experimental treatment with different concentrations of selenite...
December 11, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982753/flexpro-md-a-mixture-of-krill-oil-astaxanthin-and-hyaluronic-acid-suppresses-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-cytokine-production-through-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#13
Doo Ri Park, Ryeojin Ko, Suk Hyung Kwon, Bokkee Min, Seong Ho Yun, Manh Heun Kim, John Minatelli, Stephen Hill, Soo Young Lee
FlexPro MD(®) (FP-MD), a novel multi-ingredient dietary supplement formulation, has been demonstrated to relieve knee joint pain in humans. However, the mechanisms of action responsible for the activity of FP-MD have not been elucidated. In this study, we show the anti-inflammatory effects of FP-MD in RAW264.7 macrophage cells and mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). FP-MD significantly inhibited the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-1β...
December 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979204/production-of-stable-food-grade-microencapsulated-astaxanthin-by-vibrating-nozzle-technology
#14
Martina Vakarelova, Francesca Zanoni, Piergiovanni Lardo, Giacomo Rossin, Federica Mainente, Roberto Chignola, Alessia Menin, Corrado Rizzi, Gianni Zoccatelli
Astaxanthin is a carotenoid known for its strong antioxidant and health-promoting characteristics, but it is also highly degradable and thus unsuited for several applications. We developed a sustainable method for the extraction and the production of stable astaxanthin microencapsulates. Nearly 2% astaxanthin was extracted by high-pressure homogenization of dried Haematococcus pluvialis cells in soybean oil. Astaxanthin-enriched oil was encapsulated in alginate and low-methoxyl pectin by Ca(2+)-mediated vibrating-nozzle extrusion technology...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956865/direct-treatment-of-isada-krill-under-subcritical-water-conditions-to-produce-seasoning-with-shrimp-like-flavour
#15
Intira Koomyart, Hironori Nagamizu, Pramote Khuwijitjaru, Takashi Kobayashi, Hirokazu Shiga, Hidefumi Yoshii, Shuji Adachi
Characterization, sensory evaluation, and astaxanthin stability of isada krill under various subcritical water conditions were investigated to optimize the quality of krill extract and residue for producing food seasoning. Raw krill (82% wet basis moisture content) without additional water was treated in a pressure-resistant vessel for 10 min at a temperature range of 100-240 °C. The yield of water-soluble protein was maximized by treatment at 200 °C and decreased with treatment at higher temperatures. The degradation of large molecules and the concomitant production of small molecules depended on the treatment temperature...
September 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956193/astaxanthin-conjugated-polypyrrole-nanoparticles-as-a-multimodal-agent-for-photo-based-therapy-and-imaging
#16
Subramaniyan Bharathiraja, Panchanathan Manivasagan, Yun-Ok Oh, Madhappan Santha Moorthy, Hansu Seo, Nhat Quang Bui, Junghwan Oh
Polymeric nanoparticles are emerging as promising candidates for photo-based therapy and imaging due to their versatile chemical properties and easy fabrication and functionalization. In the present study we synthesized polypyrrole nanoparticles by stabilization with astaxanthin conjugated bovine serum albumin polymer (PPy@BSA-Astx). The synthesized nanoparticles were biocompatible with MBA-MD-231 and HEK-293 cells. Interestingly, the fabricated nanoparticles produced reactive oxygen species under 808-nm laser exposure and exerted a hyperthermic effect when the power density of the laser was increased...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951728/effects-of-astaxanthin-on-blood-coagulation-fibrinolysis-and-platelet-aggregation-in-hyperlipidemic-rats
#17
Zu-Yue Deng, Wei-Guang Shan, Shen-Feng Wang, Meng-Mei Hu, Yan Chen
CONTEXT: Astaxanthin (ASTX) is a xanthophyll carotenoid that reduces hemostasis in hyperlipidemic organisms. Its antihemostatic mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: The effects of ASTX on coagulation, the fibrinolytic system and platelet aggregation were investigated in hyperlipidemic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different doses of ASTX (5, 10 and 30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) were administered for four weeks to high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924978/astaxanthin-in-cardiovascular-health-and-disease-mechanisms-of-action-therapeutic-merits-and-knowledge-gaps
#18
REVIEW
Francesco Visioli, Christian Artaria
Cardiovascular disease is the main contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Based on its unique chemical features, the xanthophyll carotenoid astaxanthin is being proposed as a suitable preventive and therapeutic agent in cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on recent advances in astaxanthin research relevant to cardiovascular health and disease, i.e. its direct antioxidant, indirect antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, renoprotective, lipid-lowering and anti-atherosclerotic activities in vitro and in vivo...
December 7, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915160/histone-deacetylase-9-plays-a-role-in-the-antifibrogenic-effect-of-astaxanthin-in-hepatic-stellate-cells
#19
Yue Yang, Minkyung Bae, Young-Ki Park, Yoojin Lee, Tho X Pham, Swetha Rudraiah, José Manautou, Sung I Koo, Ji-Young Lee
Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is critical for liver fibrosis development. Previously, we showed that astaxanthin (ASTX), a xanthophyll carotenoid, has antifibrogenic effects in LX-2 cells, a human HSC cell line. We sought to determine the effect of ASTX on HSC activation, and to identify molecular mediators that are critically involved in the processes. ASTX prevented the activation of mouse primary HSCs, as evidenced by attenuated induction of procollagen type I α1. In human primary HSCs, ASTX also inhibited transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1)-induced fibrogenic gene expression...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913949/epigenetic-cpg-methylation-of-the-promoter-and-reactivation-of-the-expression-of-gstp1-by-astaxanthin-in-human-prostate-lncap-cells
#20
Yuqing Yang, Francisco Fuentes, Limin Shu, Chao Wang, Doug Pung, Wenji Li, Chengyue Zhang, Yue Guo, Ah-Ng Kong
Astaxanthin (AST), a red dietary carotenoid, has synergistic antioxidant effects with polyunsaturated fatty acids at low concentrations via Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2 or Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling. In addition, chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation-based gene silencing represent a common mechanism in prostate carcinogenesis and tumor progression from normal cells to pre-initiated cells and ultimately to invasive carcinoma. Therefore, the control of epigenetic modification and the transcriptional/translational control of the activation of Nrf2 and Nrf2-target genes, including glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), appear to be an important mechanism that protects cells against injuries from oxidative stress and cancer development...
December 2, 2016: AAPS Journal
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