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Astaxanthin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335416/supplementation-with-phycocyanobilin-citrulline-taurine-and-supranutritional-doses-of-folic-acid-and-biotin-potential-for-preventing-or-slowing-the-progression-of-diabetic-complications
#1
Mark F McCarty
Oxidative stress, the resulting uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity, are key mediators of the vascular and microvascular complications of diabetes. Much of this oxidative stress arises from up-regulated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity. Phycocyanobilin (PhyCB), the light-harvesting chromophore in edible cyanobacteria such as spirulina, is a biliverdin derivative that shares the ability of free bilirubin to inhibit certain isoforms of NADPH oxidase...
March 14, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335388/a-combination-of-flaxseed-oil-and-astaxanthin-improves-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-and-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#2
Jiqu Xu, Shuang Rong, Hui Gao, Chang Chen, Wei Yang, Qianchun Deng, Qingde Huang, Lingyun Xiao, Fenghong Huang
Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are crucial pathophysiological mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, we examined the effect of a combination of flaxseed oil (FO) and astaxanthin (ASX) on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet. ASX was dissolved in flaxseed oil (1 g/kg; FO + ASX). Animals were fed diets containing 20% fat, where the source was lard, or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX, or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX, or FO + ASX, for 10 weeks...
March 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335206/cytotoxic-induction-and-photoacoustic-imaging-of-breast-cancer-cells-using-astaxanthin-reduced-gold-nanoparticles
#3
Subramaniyan Bharathiraja, Panchanathan Manivasagan, Nhat Quang Bui, Yun-Ok Oh, In Gweon Lim, Suhyun Park, Junghwan Oh
Astaxanthin, a kind of photosynthetic pigment, was employed for gold nanoparticle formation. Nanoparticles were characterized using Ulteraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction, and the possible presence of astaxanthin functional groups were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The cytotoxic effect of synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated against MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer cells) using a tetrazolium-based assay, and synthesized nanoparticles exhibited dose-dependent toxicity...
April 20, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327532/a-combination-of-soybean-and-haematococcus-extract-alleviates-ultraviolet-b-induced-photoaging
#4
Jieun Shin, Jong-Eun Kim, Kum-Ju Pak, Jung Il Kang, Tae-Seok Kim, Sang-Yoon Lee, Ik-Hyun Yeo, Jung Han Yoon Park, Jong Hun Kim, Nam Joo Kang, Ki Won Lee
Soybean-derived isoflavones have been investigated for their preventative effects against UV-induced symptoms of skin damage including wrinkle formation and inflammation. Haematococcus pluvialis is a freshwater species of Chlorophyta that contains high concentrations of the natural carotenoid pigment astaxanthin. Astaxanthin is known to be involved in retinoic acid receptor (RAR) signaling and previously been associated with the inhibition of activator protein (AP)-1 dependent transcription. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that a combination of soy extract (SE) and Haematococcus extract (HE) may prevent UVB-induced photoaging through specific signaling pathways, as measured by UVB-induced wrinkling on hairless mice skin and expression changes in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs)...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323947/effects-of-mixed-carotenoids-on-adipokines-and-abdominal-adiposity-in-children-a-pilot-study
#5
J Atilio Canas, Amanda Lochrie, Amy Galena McGowan, Jobayer Hossain, Christopher Schettino, P Babu Balagopal
Context: Carotenoids have been implicated in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism. Objective: To compare the effects of mixed-carotenoid supplementation (MCS) vs. placebo on adipokines and the accrual of abdominal adiposity in children with obesity. Design and Setting: Randomized (1:1) double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial to evaluate the effects of MCS over 6 months in a subspecialty clinic. Participants: Twenty (6 male and 14 female) children with simple obesity (BMI > 90%); age: 10...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300638/astaxanthin-attenuated-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-and-myocardial-fibrosis-partially-by-activating-sirt1
#6
Jun Zhang, Quan-Zhen Wang, Shao-Hua Zhao, Xiang Ji, Jie Qiu, Jian Wang, Yi Zhou, Qian Cai, Jie Zhang, Hai-Qing Gao
BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis contributes to cardiac dysfunction. Astaxanthin (AST), a member of the carotenoid family, is a well-known antioxidant, but its effect on and underlying mechanisms in myocardial fibrosis are poorly understood. METHODS: In vivo, myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction were induced using transverse aortic constriction (TAC). AST was administered to mice for 12weeks post-surgery. In vitro, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) was used to stimulate human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs)...
March 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299644/neuroprotective-mechanisms-of-astaxanthin-a-potential-therapeutic-role-in-preserving-cognitive-function-in-age-and-neurodegeneration
#7
REVIEW
Bethany Grimmig, Seol-Hee Kim, Kevin Nash, Paula C Bickford, R Douglas Shytle
Astaxanthin (AXT) is a carotenoid with multiple health benefits. It is currently marketed as a health supplement and is well known for its antioxidant capacity. Recent evidence has emerged to suggest a broad range of biological activities. The interest in this compound has increased dramatically over the last few years and many studies are now applying this molecule across many disease models. Results from the current research are beginning to come together to suggest neuroprotective properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidant effects, as well as the potential to promote or maintain neural plasticity...
February 2017: Geroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285223/transcriptome-based-analysis-on-carbon-metabolism-of-haematococcus-pluvialis-mutant-under-15-co2
#8
Ke Li, Jun Cheng, Hongxiang Lu, Weijuan Yang, Junhu Zhou, Kefa Cen
To elucidate the mechanism underlying the enhanced growth rate in the Haematococcus pluvialis mutated with (60)Co-γ rays and domesticated with 15% CO2, transcriptome sequencing was conducted to clarify the carbon metabolic pathways of mutant cells. The CO2 fixation rate of mutant cells increased to 2.57gL(-1)d(-1) under 15% CO2 due to the enhanced photosynthesis, carbon fixation, glycolysis pathways. The upregulation of PetH, ATPF0A and PetJ related to photosynthetic electron transport, ATP synthase and NADPH generation promoted the photosynthesis...
February 28, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284309/alleviation-of-metabolic-bottleneck-by-combinatorial-engineering-enhanced-astaxanthin-synthesis-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#9
Pingping Zhou, Wenping Xie, Aipeng Li, Fan Wang, Zhen Yao, Qi Bian, Yongqiang Zhu, Hongwei Yu, Lidan Ye
Highly efficient biosynthesis of the commercially valuable carotenoid astaxanthin by microbial cells is an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis and microalgae extraction. With the goal of enhancing heterologous astaxanthin production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, metabolic engineering and protein engineering were integrated to improve both the expression and activity of rate-limiting enzymes. Firstly, to increase the supply of β-carotene as a key precursor for astaxanthin, a positive mutant of GGPP synthase (CrtE03M) was overexpressed together with three other rate-limiting enzymes tHMG1, CrtI and CrtYB...
May 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282880/astaxanthin-inhibits-pc-3-xenograft-prostate-tumor-growth-in-nude-mice
#10
Xiaofeng Ni, Haining Yu, Shanshan Wang, Chengcheng Zhang, Shengrong Shen
Prostate cancer (PCa), the most common malignancy in men, is a major cause of cancer deaths. A better understanding of the mechanisms that drive tumor initiation and progression may identify actionable targets to improve treatment of this patient group. As a dietary carotenoid, astaxanthin has been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects against inflammation, cardiovascular disease, oxidative damage, or different cancer sites. This study used intragastric administration of astaxanthin to detect its role on tumor proliferation, apoptosis, microRNA (miRNA) overexpression, and microbacteria composition change by establishing androgen-independent PCa cell PC-3 xenograft nude mice...
March 8, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282876/hepatic-transcriptome-profiles-of-mice-with-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-treated-with-astaxanthin-and-vitamin-e
#11
Masuko Kobori, Yumiko Takahashi, Mutsumi Sakurai, Yinhua Ni, Guanliang Chen, Mayumi Nagashimada, Shuichi Kaneko, Tsuguhito Ota
Astaxanthin alleviates hepatic lipid accumulation and peroxidation, inflammation, and fibrosis in mice with high-cholesterol, high-cholate, and high-fat (CL) diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) [...].
March 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274503/protective-effect-of-an-astaxanthin-nanoemulsion-against-neomycin-induced-hair-cell-damage-in-zebrafish
#12
Yosuke Takemoto, Yoshinobu Hirose, Kazuma Sugahara, Makoto Hashimoto, Hirotaka Hara, Hiroshi Yamashita
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274463/preparation-of-astaxanthin-loaded-dna-chitosan-nanoparticles-for-improved-cellular-uptake-and-antioxidation-capability
#13
Qian Wang, Yingyuan Zhao, Lei Guan, Yaping Zhang, Qifeng Dang, Ping Dong, Jing Li, Xingguo Liang
DNA/chitosan co-assemblies were initially used as nanocarriers for efficient astaxanthin encapsulation and delivery. The obtained astaxanthin-loaded DNA/chitosan (ADC) colloidal system was transparent and homogenous, with astaxanthin content up to 65μg/ml. Compared to free astaxanthin, ADC nanoparticles with an astaxanthin concentration as low as 3.35nM still showed a more powerful cytoprotective effect on H2O2-induced oxidative cell damage, and improved cell viability from 49.9% to 61.9%. The ROS scavenging efficiency of ADC nanoparticles was as high as 54...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251441/carotenogenic-response-in-photosynthetic-organisms-a-colorful-story
#14
REVIEW
Alexei Solovchenko, Konstantin Neverov
Carotenoids are a diverse group of terpenoid pigments ubiquitous in and essential for functioning of phototrophs. Most of the researchers in the field are focused on the primary carotenoids serving light harvesting, photoprotection, and supporting the structural integrity of the photosynthetic apparatus (PSA) within the thylakoid membranes. A distinct group of the pigments functionally and structurally uncoupled from the PSA and accumulating outside of the thylakoids is called secondary carotenoids. Induction of the biosynthesis and massive accumulation of the latter termed as secondary carotenogenesis and carotenogenic response (CR), respectively, is a major though insufficiently studied stress response discovered in many phototrophic organisms ranging from single-celled algae to terrestrial higher plants...
March 1, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237087/e-configuration-structures-of-epa-and-dha-derived-from-euphausia-superba-and-their-significant-inhibitive-effects-on-growth-of-human-cancer-cell-lines-in-vitro
#15
Weilong Zheng, Xudong Wang, Wenjing Cao, Bowen Yang, Ying Mu, Yuesheng Dong, Zhilong Xiu
Many bioactive components such as poly-unsaturated fatty acids (e.g. EPA and DHA), phospholipids and astaxanthin are known in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) oil. The krill DHA and EPA are generally considered to be similar to natural ones. However, two chemical compounds which were separated from Antarctic krill oil and identified as EPA and DHA by HRESIMS and NMR acted much more effective inhibitive activities on growth of several cell lines (U937, K562, SMMC-7721, PC-3, MDA-MB-231, HL60 and MCF-7) than those from sturgeon liver and commercial fish oil...
February 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230827/astaxanthin-modifies-clastogenic-effects-of-ionizing-radiation-in-vitro-in-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-of-the-persons-recovered-from-acute-radiation-sickness
#16
D А Kurinnyi, S R Rushkovsky, O B Dybska, G V Dubrovina, M А Pilinska
AIM: To assess radioprotective activity of astaxanthin toward radiation-induced in vitro cytogenetic effects in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: PBL from the cleanup workers exposed to ionizing radiation at high doses in 1986 during accident on Chornobyl nuclear power plant and who were diagnosed with acute radiation sickness of the first and second degrees, were cultured in vitro. Astaxanthin was added into the culture medium at a final concentration of 20...
December 2016: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193580/astaxanthin-inhibits-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-the-liver-and-adipose-tissue-of-mouse-models-of-diet-induced-obesity-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#17
Bohkyung Kim, Callie Farruggia, Chai Siah Ku, Tho X Pham, Yue Yang, Minkyung Bae, Casey J Wegner, Nicholas J Farrell, Ellen Harness, Young-Ki Park, Sung I Koo, Ji-Young Lee
The objective of this study was to determine if astaxanthin (ASTX), a xanthophyll carotenoid, can prevent obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities, inflammation and fibrosis in diet-induced obesity (DIO) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) mouse models. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat (6% fat, w/w), a high-fat/high-sucrose control (HF/HS; 35% fat, 35% sucrose, w/w), or a HF/HS containing ASTX (AHF/HS; 0.03% ASTX, w/w) for 30 weeks. To induce NASH, another set of mice was fed a HF/HS diet containing 2% cholesterol (HF/HS/HC) a HF/HS/HC with 0...
March 2, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193431/a-comparative-study-of-diploid-versus-triploid-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-the-effects-of-rearing-temperatures-5-10-and-15%C3%A2-c-on-raw-material-characteristics-and-storage-quality
#18
Jørgen Lerfall, Pål Rune Hasli, Even Flønes Skare, Rolf Erik Olsen, Bjørn Tore Rotabakk, Bjørn Roth, Erik Slinde, Bjørg Egelandsdal
Several major market operators argue that the current level of knowledge about quality is too scant to justify a switch to a large-scale production of triploid salmon. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to elucidate how rearing conditions (5, 10 and 15°C) affect the flesh quality of triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L., 1.6±0.3kg). As a reference, diploid salmon kept under equal conditions and with equal genetics were used. The main design discriminant was the holding temperature; increased temperature gave increased blood lactate, rigor index (Ir), drip loss (DL), content of astaxanthin and intensity of redness, but reduced muscle pH, cathepsin activity and fillet lightness...
June 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193419/chemical-stability-of-astaxanthin-integrated-into-a-food-matrix-effects-of-food-processing-and-methods-for-preservation
#19
REVIEW
Alejandra Anahí Martínez-Delgado, Sanghamitra Khandual, Socorro Josefina Villanueva-Rodríguez
Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment found in numerous organisms ranging from bacteria to algae, yeasts, plants, crustaceans and fish such as salmon. Technological importance of this pigment emerged from various studies demonstrating that it is a powerful antioxidant, even with higher activity than alpha-tocopherol and other carotenoids. It has been included in various pharmaceutical products because of several beneficial properties. By its nature, astaxanthin is susceptible to degradation and can undergo chemical changes during food processing...
June 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179080/simultaneous-determination-of-13-carotenoids-by-a-simple-c18-column-based-ultra-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography-method-for-carotenoid-profiling-in-the-astaxanthin-accumulating-haematococcus-pluvialis
#20
Hui Jin, Yong Min Lao, Jin Zhou, Huai Jin Zhang, Zhong Hua Cai
A simple ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method for rapidly and simultaneously identifying thirteen carotenoids in Haematococcus pluvialis was developed in this study. The method is capable of effectively separating two astaxanthin isomers, two ζ-carotene isomers, and three phytoene isomers on two simple C18 columns within 9 and 12min only by using methanol and acetonitrile, respectively. To our best knowledge, this is the rapidest method for these carotenoid isomers, currently. Using this method, carotenoid profiling in the astaxanthin-accumulating H...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
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