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Astaxanthin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216762/protective-effect-of-astaxanthin-on-acute-cerebral-infarction-in-rats
#1
Yu Nai, Hong Liu, Xizhuang Bi, Hongyu Gao, Chao Ren
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of astaxanthin and its possible mechanisms on acute cerebral infarction (ACI) in rat model. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham group, model group, and astaxanthin-treated groups (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg). Neurological examination, the ratio of cerebral edema, and histopathology changes were assessed. Moreover, some oxidative stress markers were obtained for biochemical analysis, and the expression of neurotrophic factors gene was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216572/gene-expression-profiling-of-astaxanthin-and-fatty-acid-pathways-in-haematococcus-pluvialis-in-response-to-different-led-lighting-conditions
#2
Ruijuan Ma, Skye R Thomas-Hall, Elvis T Chua, Faisal Alsenani, Eladl Eltanahy, Michael E Netzel, Gabriele Netzel, Yinghua Lu, Peer M Schenk
Haematococcus pluvialis is a green microalga of major interest to industry based on its ability to produce large amounts of astaxanthin. Biosynthesis of astaxanthin and its mono- and di-esters was significantly stimulated under 150 μmol m-2 s-1 of white LED (W-150) compared with lower light intensities, but the highest astaxanthin amounts were produced under 70 μmol m-2 s-1 of blue LED (B-70). Transcripts of astaxanthin biosynthesis genes psy, crtO, and bkt2 were upregulated under W-150, while psy, lcy, crtO, and crtR-B were upregulated by B-70...
December 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197770/low-pressure-supercritical-co2-extraction-of-astaxanthin-from-haematococcus-pluvialis-demonstrated-on-a-microfluidic-chip
#3
Xiang Cheng, ZhenBang Qi, Thomas Burdyny, Tian Kong, David Sinton
This study demonstrates the efficacy of low pressure supercritical CO2 extraction of astaxanthin from disrupted Haematococcus pluvialis. A microfluidic reactor was employed that enabled excellent control and allowed direct monitoring of the whole process at the single cell level, in real time. Astaxanthin extraction using ScCO2 achieved 92% recovery at 55 °C and 8 MPa applied over 15 h. With the addition of co-solvents, ethanol and olive oil, the extraction rates in both experiments were significantly improved reaching full recovery within a few minutes...
November 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195960/formulation-and-characterization-of-o-w-nanoemulsions-encapsulating-high-concentration-of-astaxanthin
#4
Nauman Khalid, Gaofeng Shu, Brenden J Holland, Isao Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi Nakajima, Colin J Barrow
This study evaluates the effect of modified lecithin (ML) and sodium caseinate (SC) on the formulation, stability and bioaccessibility of astaxanthin (AXT) loaded oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions. These nanoemulsions were formulated using high-pressure homogenization in four passes at 100MPa. The volume mean diameter (d4,3) of nanoemulsions produced by ML and SC were 163±5 and 144±12 nm, respectively. The physiochemical stability of nanoemulsions was recorded at 25°C. The nanoemulsions prepared by ML were stable for 30 minutes against a wide range of pH and heating temperatures (60-120 °C)...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185824/comparison-between-high-pressure-processing-and-chemical-extraction-astaxanthin-yield-from-six-species-of-shrimp-carapace
#5
Cicy Irna, Irwandi Jaswir, Rashidi Othman, Dzun Noraini Jimat
Astaxanthin is one of the main carotenoid pigments. It has beneficial effects on the immune system of the human body due to its powerful antioxidant properties. The application of this bioactive compound can be found to be significant in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. The aim of this research was to investigate astaxanthin yield from six species of Malaysian shrimp carapace. Six types of shrimp species-Parapenaeopsis sculptili, Metapenaeus lysianassa, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Metapenaeopsis hardwickii, Penaeus merguiensis, and Penaeus monodon-were used to investigate total carotenoid content and astaxanthin yield...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181595/integration-of-waste-valorization-for-sustainable-production-of-chemicals-and-materials-via-algal-cultivation
#6
REVIEW
Yong Chen, Li-Ping Sun, Zhi-Hui Liu, Greg Martin, Zheng Sun
Managing waste is an increasing problem globally. Microalgae have the potential to help remove contaminants from a range of waste streams and convert them into useful biomass. This article presents a critical review of recent technological developments in the production of chemicals and other materials from microalgae grown using different types of waste. A range of novel approaches are examined for efficiently capturing CO2 in flue gas via photosynthetic microalgal cultivation. Strategies for using microalgae to assimilate nitrogen, organic carbon, phosphorus, and metal ions from wastewater are considered in relation to modes of production...
November 27, 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179950/astaxanthin-antioxidant-impact-on-excessive-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-induced-by-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury
#7
REVIEW
M Zuluaga, V Gueguen, D Letourneur, G Pavon-Djavid
Oxidative stress induced by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular pathologies. Particularly, oxidative stress has proved to mediate abnormal platelet function and dysfunctional endothelium-dependent vasodilatation representing a key factor in the progression of ischemic injuries. Antioxidants like carotenoids have been suggested to contribute in their prevention and treatment. Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid produced naturally and synthetically, shows interesting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties...
November 24, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176710/functional-analysis-of-photosynthetic-pigment-binding-complexes-in-the-green-alga-haematococcus-pluvialis-reveals-distribution-of-astaxanthin-in-photosystems
#8
Francesco Mascia, Laura Girolomoni, Marcelo J P Alcocer, Ilaria Bargigia, Federico Perozeni, Stefano Cazzaniga, Giulio Cerullo, Cosimo D'Andrea, Matteo Ballottari
Astaxanthin is a ketocarotenoid produced by photosynthetic microalgae. It is a pigment of high industrial interest in acquaculture, cosmetics, and nutraceutics due to its strong antioxidant power. Haematococcus pluvialis, a fresh-water microalga, accumulates high levels of astaxanthin upon oxidative stress, reaching values up to 5% per dry weight. H. pluvialis accumulates astaxanthin in oil droplets in the cytoplasm, while the chloroplast volume is reduced. In this work, we investigate the biochemical and spectroscopic properties of the H...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168774/carotenoids-from-marine-organisms-biological-functions-and-industrial-applications
#9
REVIEW
Christian Galasso, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Clementina Sansone
As is the case for terrestrial organisms, carotenoids represent the most common group of pigments in marine environments. They are generally biosynthesized by all autotrophic marine organisms, such as bacteria and archaea, algae and fungi. Some heterotrophic organisms also contain carotenoids probably accumulated from food or partly modified through metabolic reactions. These natural pigments are divided into two chemical classes: carotenes (such as lycopene and α- and β-carotene) that are composed of hydrogen and carbon; xanthophylls (such as astaxanthin, fucoxanthin and lutein), which are constituted by hydrogen, carbon and oxygen...
November 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160801/the-protective-effects-of-astaxanthin-on-the-ova-induced-asthma-mice-model
#10
Yun-Ho Hwang, Seong-Gyeol Hong, Seul-Ki Mun, Su-Jin Kim, Sung-Ju Lee, Jong-Jin Kim, Kyung-Yun Kang, Sung-Tae Yee
Although astaxanthin has a variety of biological activities such as anti-oxidant effects, inhibitory effects on skin deterioration and anti-inflammatory effects, its effect on asthma has not been studied. In this paper, the inhibitory effect of astaxanthin on airway inflammation in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma was investigated. We evaluated the number of total cells, Th1/2 mediated inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and airway hyperresponsiveness as well as histological structure...
November 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142827/overexpression-of-the-primary-sigma-factor-gene-siga-improved-carotenoid-production-by-corynebacterium-glutamicum-application-to-production-of-%C3%AE-carotene-and-the-non-native-linear-c50-carotenoid-bisanhydrobacterioruberin
#11
Hironori Taniguchi, Nadja A Henke, Sabine A E Heider, Volker F Wendisch
Corynebacterium glutamicum shows yellow pigmentation due to biosynthesis of the C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin and its glycosides. This bacterium has been engineered for production of various non-native cyclic C40 and C50 carotenoids such as β-carotene, astaxanthin or sarcinaxanthin. In this study, the effect of modulating gene expression more broadly by overexpression of sigma factor genes on carotenoid production by C. glutamicum was characterized. Overexpression of the primary sigma factor gene sigA improved lycopene production by recombinant C...
June 2017: Metabolic Engineering Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141479/development-of-a-carboxymethyl-chitosan-functionalized-nanoemulsion-formulation-for-increasing-aqueous-solubility-stability-and-skin-permeability-of-astaxanthin-using-low-energy-method
#12
Liang Hong, Chuan-Li Zhou, Feng-Ping Chen, Dan Han, Chun-Yuan Wang, Jia-Xin Li, Zhe Chi, Chen-Guang Liu
In this research, firstly astaxanthin (ASX)-loaded nanoemulsions (NEs) were produced using a convenient low-energy emulsion phase inversion method. The optimised ASX-NEs were prepared in the presence of Cremophor(®) EL and Labrafil(®) M 1944 CS, with a surfactant-to-oil ratio of 4:6. The ASX-NE droplets were spherical with a mean droplet diameter below 100 nm and a small negative surface charge. The system was stable without alteration of mean droplet diameter for three months. Then, the ASX-NE was functionalised with carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) through direct CMCS (0...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136934/differential-responses-of-the-green-microalga-chlorella-zofingiensis-to-the-starvation-of-various-nutrients-for-oil-and-astaxanthin-production
#13
Xuemei Mao, Tao Wu, Dongzhe Sun, Zhao Zhang, Feng Chen
Chlorella zofingiensis has been proposed as a potential producer of lipids and the high-value carotenoid astaxanthin. In this study, the responses of photoautotrophic C. zofingiensis with respect to growth, lipid profiles and astaxanthin accumulation were investigated upon the starvation of N (NS), P (PS) and S (SS). NS and SS stimulated triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation, which reached 27% and 21% of dry weight (DW), respectively. Stresses also stimulated astaxanthin accumulation greatly, reaching 3.9 mg/g DW by NS...
October 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121675/astaxanthin-prevents-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-of-the-steatotic-liver-in-mice
#14
Shaowei Li, Terumi Takahara, Masayuki Fujino, Yasuyuki Fukuhara, Toshiro Sugiyama, Xiao-Kang Li, Shiro Takahara
Steatosis has a low tolerance against ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). To prevent IRI in the steatotic liver, we attempted to elucidate the protective effect of astaxanthin (ASTX) in the steatotic liver model by giving mice a methionine and choline-deficient high fat (MCDHF) diet. Levels of lipid peroxidation and apoptosis, the expression of inflammatory cytokines and heme oxygenase (HO)-1, in the liver were assessed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis-related proteins and members of the signaling pathway were also examined in isolated Kupffer cells and/or hepatocytes from the steatotic liver...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112891/a-novel-research-model-for-evaluating-sunscreen-protection-in-the-uv-a1
#15
Sônia Aparecida Figueiredo, Dayane Cristina de Moraes, Fernanda Maria Pinto Vilela, Amanda Natalina de Faria, Marcelo Henrique Dos Santos, Maria José Vieira Fonseca
The use of a broad spectrum sunscreen is considered one of the main and most popular measures for preventing the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on the skin. In this study we have developed a novel in vitro method to assess sunscreens efficacy to protect calcineurin enzyme activity, a skin cell marker. The photoprotective efficacy of sunscreen products was assessed by measuring the UV-A1 radiation-induced depletion of calcineurin (Cn) enzyme activity in primary neonatal human dermal fibroblast (HDFn) cell lysates...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106966/single-step-preparation-of-selected-biological-fluids-for-the-high-performance-liquid-chromatographic-analysis-of-fat-soluble-vitamins-and-antioxidants
#16
Giacomo Lazzarino, Salvatore Longo, Angela Maria Amorini, Valentina Di Pietro, Serafina D'Urso, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Antonio Belli, Barbara Tavazzi
Fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants are of relevance in health and disease. Current methods to extract these compounds from biological fluids mainly need use of multi-steps and multi organic solvents. They are time-consuming and difficult to apply to treat simultaneously large sample number. We here describe a single-step, one solvent extraction of fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants from biological fluids, and the chromatographic separation of all-trans-retinoic acid, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, all-trans-retinol, astaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, trans-β-apo-8'-carotenal, γ-tocopherol, β-cryptoxanthin, α-tocopherol, phylloquinone, lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene and coenzyme Q10...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104724/protective-effects-of-oral-astaxanthin-nanopowder-against-ultraviolet-induced-photokeratitis-in-mice
#17
Fumiya Harada, Tetsuro Morikawa, Anton Lennikov, Anthony Mukwaya, Mira Schaupper, Osamu Uehara, Rie Takai, Koki Yoshida, Jun Sato, Yukihiro Horie, Hiroyuki Sakaguchi, Ching-Zong Wu, Yoshihiro Abiko, Neil Lagali, Nobuyoshi Kitaichi
Purpose: Astaxanthin (AST) has a strong antioxidant cellular membrane chaperone protective effect. Recently, a water-soluble nanosized AST (nano-AST) form was produced, which is expected to improve the efficacy of oral intake effects. The purpose of this study was to examine whether oral nano-AST has therapeutic effects on UV-induced photokeratitis in mice. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were administered twice with either nano-AST, AST oil, lutein, or bilberry extracts 3 hours before and shortly before UV irradiation (dose: 400 mJ/cm(2))...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098031/astaxanthin-inhibits-gemcitabine-resistant-human-pancreatic-cancer-progression-through-emt-inhibition-and-gemcitabine-resensitization
#18
Tao Yan, Hai-Ying Li, Jian-Song Wu, Qiang Niu, Wei-Hong Duan, Qing-Zeng Han, Wang-Ming Ji, Tao Zhang, Wei Lv
Pancreatic cancer rapidly acquires resistance to chemotherapy resulting in its being difficult to treat. Gemcitabine is the current clinical chemotherapy strategy; however, owing to gemcitabine resistance, it is only able to prolong the life of patients with pancreatic cancer for a limited number of months. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of gemcitabine resistance and selecting a suitable combination of agents for the treatment of pancreatic cancer is required. Astaxanthin (ASX) is able to resensitize gemcitabine-resistant human pancreatic cancer cells (GR-HPCCs) to gemcitabine...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090040/oxidative-stress-regulation-on-endothelial-cells-by-hydrophilic-astaxanthin-complex-chemical-biological-and-molecular-antioxidant-activity-evaluation
#19
M Zuluaga, A Barzegari, D Letourneur, V Gueguen, G Pavon-Djavid
An imbalance in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis is involved in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress-related diseases. Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid with high antioxidant capacities, has been shown to prevent the first stages of oxidative stress. Here, we evaluate the antioxidant capacities of astaxanthin included within hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CD-A) to directly and indirectly reduce the induced ROS production. First, chemical methods were used to corroborate the preservation of astaxanthin antioxidant abilities after inclusion...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083169/bioaccessibility-cellular-uptake-and-transport-of-astaxanthin-isomers-and-their-antioxidative-effects-in-human-intestinal-epithelial-caco-2-cells
#20
Cheng Yang, Hua Zhang, Ronghua Liu, Honghui Zhu, Lianfu Zhang, Rong Tsao
The bioaccessibility, bioavailability, and antioxidative activities of three astaxanthin geometric isomers were investigated using an in vitro digestion model and human intestinal Caco-2 cells. This study demonstrated that the trans-cis isomerization of all-E-astaxanthin and the cis-trans isomerization of Z-astaxanthins could happen both during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and cellular uptake processes. 13Z-Astaxanthin showed higher bioaccessibility than 9Z- and all-E-astaxanthins during in vitro digestion, and 9Z-astaxanthin exhibited higher transport efficiency than all-E- and 13Z-astaxanthins...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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