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Vaccine and cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441787/codon-usage-optimization-and-construction-of-plasmid-encoding-iranian-human-papillomavirus-type-16-e7-oncogene-for-lactococcus-lactis-subsp-cremoris-mg1363
#1
Amir Hossein Mohseni, Vadood Razavilar, Hossein Keyvani, Mohammad Reza Razavi, Ramazan Ali Khavari Nejad
HPV 16 intratypic sequence variations has been recognized in association with oncogenic potential diverge and geographic distribution. This study aimed to investigate nucleotide modifications and optimization of HPV 16 E7 regions from Iranian infected women. Cervical biopsies from 79/163 HPV 16 positive cancer patients detected in our study were analyzed by PCR in a couple of cloning of a complete ORF of the E7 gene, and sequencing. The most frequently observed variant was C196T in E7 which led to an amino acid change of R66W...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440596/immunogenicity-of-a-fully-synthetic-muc1-glycopeptide-antitumor-vaccine-enhanced-by-poly-i-c-as-tlr3-activating-adjuvant
#2
Horst Kunz, Markus Glaffig, Natascha Stergiou, Edgar Schmitt
Fully synthetic MUC1 glycopeptide antitumor vaccines have an exactly specified structure, and induce a targeted immune response without suppression of the immune response when using an immunogenic carrier protein. However, tumor-associated aberrantly glycosylated MUC1 glycopeptides are endogenous structures, "self-antigens", which exhibit only low immunogenicity. To overcome this obstacle, a fully synthetic MUC1 glycopeptide antitumor vaccine 1 was combined with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, poly(I:C), as a structurally defined Toll-like receptor 3 activating adjuvant...
April 25, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439495/immunotherapies-in-sarcoma-updates-and-future-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Marwan Ghosn, Elie El Rassy, Hampig Raphael Kourie
Sarcomas are malignant tumors that are characterized by a wide diversity of subtypes with various cytogenetic profiles. Despite major treatment breakthroughs, standard treatment modalities combining chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery failed to improve overall survival. Therefore, high expectations are foreseen with immunotherapy upon its maturation and better understanding of its mechanism of action. This paper presents a targeted review of the published data and ongoing clinical trials in immunotherapies of sarcomas, mainly adoptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors...
April 10, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438378/genotyping-of-the-human-papilloma-virus-in-a-group-of-mexican-women-treated-in-a-highly-specialist-hospital-multiple-infections-and-their-potential-transcendence-in-the-current-vaccination-programme
#4
Pablo Romero-Morelos, Arizbett Uribe-Jiménez, Cindy Bandala, Albros Poot-Vélez, Nora Ornelas-Corral, Miriam Rodríguez-Esquivel, Mariana Valdespino-Zavala, Keiko Taniguchi, Daniel Marrero-Rodríguez, Ricardo López-Romero, Mauricio Salcedo
BACKGROUND AND OBJETIVE: Human papilloma virus (HPV) is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions. It has been reported that HPV16 and 18 types cover approximately 70% of cervical cancer worldwide; however, significant variation in percentages of HPV infections could be related to specific populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Purified DNA of 67 cervical samples were analyzed by Linear Array® HPV genotyping kit...
April 21, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437708/primary-secondary-and-tertiary-prevention-of-human-papillomavirus-driven-head-and-neck-cancers
#5
REVIEW
Haïtham Mirghani, Alain C Jung, Carole Fakhry
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs) represent an increasing proportion of head and neck cancers that could become, in the next few decades, a public health problem in certain western countries. This significant epidemiological change strongly calls for preventive measures. Prophylactic HPV vaccination and screening programmes for early identification and treatment of premalignant lesions are currently being used to reduce the incidence of uterine cervical cancer, which is the paradigm of HPV-driven malignancy...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436064/the-changing-landscape-of-cervical-screening-what-does-the-future-hold-for-primary-care
#6
L Marlow, J Waller
The landscape of cervical cancer prevention is changing in many countries thanks to the introduction of vaccination against high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the incorporation of HPV DNA testing into cervical screening algorithms. In addition to this, uptake of screening is falling year on year in the UK and elsewhere. These factors present challenges and opportunities for health professionals working in primary care-in terms of communicating programmatic changes to women; responding to questions about the meaning and implications of HPV test results; and delivering interventions to increase screening uptake...
April 23, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435785/impact-of-a-brief-intervention-on-cervical-health-literacy-a-waitlist-control-study-with-jailed-women
#7
Megha Ramaswamy, Jaehoon Lee, Joi Wickliffe, Molly Allison, Amanda Emerson, Patricia J Kelly
Jailed women are four-five times more likely to have had cervical cancer compared to women without criminal justice histories. Previous research has shown that an important contributor to cervical cancer risk, and perhaps lack of follow-up, is incarcerated women's low health literacy about broader reproductive health issues. Little work has been done to address this disparity. Thus, the objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of an intervention to improve incarcerated women's cervical health literacy and ultimately address cervical cancer disparities...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435676/understanding-cd8-t-cell-responses-toward-the-native-and-alternate-hla-a-02-01-restricted-wt1-epitope
#8
Thi Ho Nguyen, Amabel Cl Tan, Sue D Xiang, Anne Goubier, Kim L Harland, E Bridie Clemens, Magdalena Plebanski, Katherine Kedzierska
The Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) antigen is expressed in solid and hematological malignancies, but not healthy tissues, making it a promising target for cancer immunotherapies. Immunodominant WT1 epitopes, the native HLA-A2/WT1126-134 (RMFPNAPYL) (HLA-A2/RMFPNAPYL epitope (WT1A)) and its modified variant YMFPNAPYL (HLA-A2/YMFPNAPYL epitope (WT1B)), can induce WT1-specific CD8(+) T cells, although WT1B is more stably bound to HLA-A*02:01. Here, to further determine the benefits of those two targets, we assessed the naive precursor frequencies; immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of CD8(+) T cells directed toward these two WT1 epitopes...
March 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434403/immunotherapy-in-genitourinary-malignancies
#9
REVIEW
Kathan Mehta, Keyur Patel, Rahul A Parikh
Treatment of cancer patients involves a multidisciplinary approach including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Traditionally, patients with metastatic disease are treated with combination chemotherapies or targeted agents. These cytotoxic agents have good response rates and achieve palliation; however, complete responses are rarely seen. The field of cancer immunology has made rapid advances in the past 20 years. Recently, a number of agents and vaccines, which modulate the immune system to allow it to detect and target cancer cells, are being developed...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434256/a-bioinformatics-roadmap-for-the-human-vaccines-project
#10
Richard H Scheuermann, Robert S Sinkovits, Theodore Schenkelberg, Wayne C Koff
Biomedical research has become a data intensive science in which high throughput experimentation is producing comprehensive data about biological systems at an ever-increasing pace. The Human Vaccines Project is a new public-private partnership, with the goal of accelerating development of improved vaccines and immunotherapies for global infectious diseases and cancers by decoding the human immune system. To achieve its mission, the Project is developing a Bioinformatics Hub as an open-source, multidisciplinary effort with the overarching goal of providing an enabling infrastructure to support the data processing, analysis and knowledge extraction procedures required to translate high throughput, high complexity human immunology research data into biomedical knowledge, to determine the core principles driving specific and durable protective immune responses...
April 24, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434112/dendritic-cell-based-vaccination-strategy-an-evolving-paradigm
#11
REVIEW
Anna C Filley, Mahua Dey
Malignant gliomas (MG), tumors of glial origin, are the most commonly diagnosed primary intracranial malignancies in adults. Currently available treatments have provided only modest improvements in overall survival and remain limited by inevitable local recurrence, necessitating exploration of novel therapies. Among approaches being investigated, one of the leading contenders is immunotherapy, which aims to modulate immune pathways to stimulate the selective destruction of malignant cells. Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent initiators of adaptive immune responses and therefore crucial players in the development and success of immunotherapy...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432494/primary-prevention-and-screening-practices-among-long-term-breast-cancer-survivors
#12
Lori Mandelzweig, Angela Chetrit, Tova Amitai, Barbara Silverman, Nava Siegelmann-Danieli, Siegal Sadetzki
PURPOSE: Parallel to increasing survival of breast cancer (BC) patients, a need has arisen to characterize the follow-up required to improve and maintain their health. Our study aimed to assess changes in lifestyle habits over time among the study population, compare compliance rates of selected primary and secondary prevention practices between long-term BC survivors and an age-matched comparison group, and identify factors associated with compliance to these practices. METHODS: The study population comprised 250 Israeli BC survivors, diagnosed with BC between 1999 and 2003, without evidence of disease after 8-12 years, and 250 women with no cancer history, individually matched to survivors by age and area of residence...
April 21, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432455/dual-activation-of-toll-like-receptors-7-and-9-impairs-the-efficacy-of-antitumor-vaccines-in-murine-models-of-metastatic-breast-cancer
#13
Mariela A Moreno Ayala, María Florencia Gottardo, María Soledad Gori, Alejandro Javier Nicola Candia, Carla Caruso, Andrea De Laurentiis, Mercedes Imsen, Slobodanka Klein, Elisa Bal de Kier Joffé, Gabriela Salamone, Maria G Castro, Adriana Seilicovich, Marianela Candolfi
PURPOSE: Since combination of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands could boost antitumor immunity, we evaluated the efficacy of dendritic cell (DC) vaccines upon dual activation of TLR9 and TLR7 in breast cancer models. METHODS: DCs were generated from mouse bone marrow or peripheral blood from healthy human donors and stimulated with CpG1826 (mouse TLR9 agonist), CpG2006 or IMT504 (human TLR9 agonists) and R848 (TLR7 agonist). Efficacy of antitumor vaccines was evaluated in BALB/c mice bearing metastatic mammary adenocarcinomas...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431558/epidemiology-and-genotype-distribution-of-human-papillomavirus-hpv-in-southwest-china-a-cross-sectional-five-years-study-in-non-vaccinated-women
#14
Yishu Tang, Lan Zheng, Shuangshuang Yang, Bing Li, Huiting Su, Li-Ping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Large-size data on type-specific HPV prevalence in Southwest China are required to estimate the cervical cancer burden in the country and to prepare for HPV-based cervical screening program and further HPV vaccination of China. This HPV study is a pooled analysis of data from five years in Chongqing of China, which is cross-sectional in design using data collecting. RESULTS: The positivity of HPV was 26.2% (10542/40311), single type was 25.7% (10360/40311), multiple type was 8...
April 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430604/signal-transducing-adaptor-protein-2-promotes-generation-of-functional-long-term-memory-cd8-t-cells-by-preventing-terminal-effector-differentiation
#15
Daisuke Muraoka, Naohiro Seo, Tae Hayashi, Chisaki Hyuga-Amaike, Kana Okamori, Isao Tawara, Naozumi Harada, Hiroshi Shiku
Long-surviving memory CD8+ T cells generated by stimulation with appropriate tumor-associated antigens are the most aggressive and persistent tumoricidal effectors. In this event of memory CD8+ T cell development, the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins function as the crucial intracellular signaling molecules, but the regulatory mechanism of STATs in CD8+ T cells is not fully understood. In this study, we report for the first time, by using murine vaccination models, that signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 (STAP2) maintains the cytotoxicity of long-lived memory CD8+ T cells by controlling a STAT3/suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) cascade...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429815/cancer-vaccination-causes-prolonged-fdg-accumulation-in-subcutaneous-tissue
#16
Kathrin Kahnert, Diego Kauffmann-Guerrero, Amanda Tufman, Astrid Borgmeier, Rudolf M Huber, Frank Berger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429069/mupexi-prediction-of-neo-epitopes-from-tumor-sequencing-data
#17
Anne-Mette Bjerregaard, Morten Nielsen, Sine Reker Hadrup, Zoltan Szallasi, Aron Charles Eklund
Personalization of immunotherapies such as cancer vaccines and adoptive T cell therapy depends on identification of patient-specific neo-epitopes that can be specifically targeted. MuPeXI, the mutant peptide extractor and informer, is a program to identify tumor-specific peptides and assess their potential to be neo-epitopes. The program input is a file with somatic mutation calls, a list of HLA types, and optionally a gene expression profile. The output is a table with all tumor-specific peptides derived from nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions, along with comprehensive annotation, including HLA binding and similarity to normal peptides...
April 20, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428886/vaccination-with-inhibin-%C3%AE-provides-effective-immunotherapy-against-testicular-stromal-cell-tumors
#18
Robert Aguilar, Justin M Johnson, Patrick Barrett, Vincent K Tuohy
BACKGROUND: Testicular cancer is the most common male neoplasm occurring in men between the ages of 20 and 34. Although germ-line testicular tumors respond favorably to current standard of care, testicular stromal cell (TSC) tumors derived from Sertoli cells or Leydig cells often fail to respond to chemotherapy or radiation therapy and have a 5-year overall survival significantly lower than the more common and more treatable germ line testicular tumors. METHODS: To improve outcomes for TSC cancer, we have developed a therapeutic vaccine targeting inhibin-α, a protein produced by normal Sertoli and Leydig cells of the testes and expressed in the majority of TSC tumors...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428646/-hpv-vaccination-active-offer-in-an-italian-region
#19
Elisa Terracciano, Gian Loreto D'Alò, Silvia Aquilani, Anna Maria Aversa, Giuseppina Bartolomei, Maria Gabriella Calenda, Raffaele Catapano, Silvio Compagno, Piera Della Rovere, Angelo Fraioli, Roberto Ieraci, Daniela Reggiani, Stefano Sgricia, Antonietta Spadea, Laura Zaratti, Elisabetta Franco
Human Papillomavirus is responsible for 4.8% of cancers, and is the main cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer can be reduced by mean of secondary prevention (PAP-test, HPV-DNA test), while through primary prevention (anti-HPV vaccine) the incidence of other HPV-attributable cancers can also be reduced. In Italy, anti-HPV vaccination is part of the immunization schedule in girls since 2008, and in 2017 it was extended to boys. However, vaccine coverage is decreasing nationwide. This study aims to examine anti-HPV vaccination practices in Health care services of Lazio Region, Italy...
January 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428065/in-vivo-studies-investigating-biodistribution-of-nanoparticle-encapsulated-rhodamine-b-delivered-via-dissolving-microneedles
#20
Joakim Kennedy, Eneko Larrañeta, Maelíosa T C McCrudden, Cian M McCrudden, Aaron J Brady, Steven J Fallows, Helen O McCarthy, Adrien Kissenpfennig, Ryan F Donnelly
Nanoparticles (NPs) have undergone extensive investigation as drug delivery and targeting vehicles. NP delivery is often via the parenteral route, reliant on administration using hypodermic needles, which can be associated with patient compliance issues and safety concerns. In the recent past, the intradermal delivery of NPs, via novel dissolving microneedle (MN) arrays has garnered interest in the pharmaceutical community. However, published studies using this combinatorial approach have been limited, in that they have focussed on the use of in vitro and ex vivo models only...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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