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Vaccine safety

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641049/a-study-of-physicians-experiences-with-recommending-hpv-vaccines-to-adolescent-boys
#1
Li Ping Wong, Zobaida Edib, Haridah Alias, Sharina M Mohamad Shakir, Raja N A Raja Muhammad Yusoff, I-Ching Sam, Gregory D Zimet
Assessing physicians' experiences in HPV vaccine recommendation and delivery to adolescent boys is essential to providing an understanding of the issues of vaccine acceptance and an insight for policymakers to enhance HPV vaccinations among adolescent boys. Between January and April 2014 a mail survey was conducted using physicians in Malaysia known to provide either one or both HPV vaccine (Gardasil and Cervarix) immunisation services. A total of 357 completed questionnaires were received (response rate 22...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640587/silica-nanoparticle-as-a-lymph-node-targeting-platform-for-vaccine-delivery
#2
Myunggi An, Meng Li, Jingchao Xi, Haipeng Liu
Nanoparticles have emerged as the platform of choice to improve the efficacy and safety of subunit vaccines. A major challenge underlying the use of nanomaterials in vaccines lies in the particle designs that can efficiently target and activate the antigen-presenting cells, especially dendritic cells. Here we show a toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) agonist and antigen co-loaded, silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) are able to accumulate in antigen presenting cells in the draining lymph nodes after injection. Vaccine loaded SiNPs led to dramatically enhanced induction of antigen-specific B and T cell responses as compared to soluble vaccines, which in turn drove a protective antitumoral immunity in a murine tumor model...
June 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636855/efficacy-of-recombinant-influenza-vaccine-in-adults-50-years-of-age-or-older
#3
Lisa M Dunkle, Ruvim Izikson, Peter Patriarca, Karen L Goldenthal, Derek Muse, Janice Callahan, Manon M J Cox
BACKGROUND: Improved influenza vaccines are needed to control seasonal epidemics. This trial compared the protective efficacy in older adults of a quadrivalent, recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV4) with a standard-dose, egg-grown, quadrivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) during the A/H3N2-predominant 2014-2015 influenza season, when antigenic mismatch between circulating and vaccine influenza strains resulted in the reduced effectiveness of many licensed vaccines. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial of RIV4 (45 μg of recombinant hemagglutinin [HA] per strain, 180 μg of protein per dose) versus standard-dose IIV4 (15 μg of HA per strain, 60 μg of protein per dose) to compare the relative vaccine efficacy against reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed, protocol-defined, influenza-like illness caused by any influenza strain starting 14 days or more after vaccination in adults who were 50 years of age or older...
June 22, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636419/poison-or-prevention-understanding-the-linkages-between-vaccine-negative-individuals-knowledge-deficiency-motivations-and-active-communication-behaviors
#4
Arunima Krishna
The last few decades have seen growing concerns among parents regarding the safety of childhood vaccines, arguably leading to the rise of the anti-vaccine movement. This study is an effort to understand situational and cross-situational factors that influence individuals' negative attitudes toward vaccines, referred to as vaccine negativity. In doing so, this study elucidated how situational and cross-situational factors influence vaccine negativity. Specifically, this study tested how knowledge deficiency, or acceptance of scientifically inaccurate data about vaccines, and institutional trust influenced negative attitudes toward vaccines...
June 21, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634332/predicting-the-potential-risk-area-of-illegal-vaccine-trade-in-china
#5
Yilan Liao, Yanhui Lei, Zhoupeng Ren, Huiyan Chen, Dongyue Li
Since the disclosure of the "Illegal vaccine operation series case in Jinan, Shandong" in March, 2016, this issue has attracted a great deal of attention and has led to public concerns about the safety and efficacy of the vaccines involved in this case. The main purpose of this paper is to scientifically and scrupulously predict the possible geographic distribution of illegal vaccines in China, and provide a foundation to guide future governmental policies and actions. A species distribution model was used because of the advantages of using presence/pseudo-absence or presence-only data, and it performs well with incomplete species distribution data...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633491/optimization-of-inactivated-h5n9-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-vaccine-and-inactivated-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-vaccine-with-antigen-dose-and-prime-boost-regimen-in-domestic-ducks
#6
Seong-Su Yuk, Eredene-Ochir To, Jung-Hoon Kwon, Jin-Yong Noh, Woo-Tack Hong, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Gyeong-Bin Gwon, Chang-Seon Song
Owing to the increase in the number of diseases affecting ducks and the demand for food safety by consumers, vaccination has become one of the factors that influence duck meat productivity. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus is one of the most prevalent and causes one of the most lethal diseases in domestic ducks, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a food-borne pathogen persistent in the domestic duck population. To better understand the optimal usage of HPAI and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines, we aimed to determine antigen dose, oil and gel adjuvant usage with prime-boost regimen, and vaccination age, inducing the best immune response in ducks, without an effect on body weight gain...
June 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630358/assessing-the-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-recombinant-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-ebola-vaccine-in-healthy-adults-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
May S ElSherif, Catherine Brown, Donna MacKinnon-Cameron, Li Li, Trina Racine, Judie Alimonti, Thomas L Rudge, Carol Sabourin, Peter Silvera, Jay W Hooper, Steven A Kwilas, Nicole Kilgore, Christopher Badorrek, W Jay Ramsey, D Gray Heppner, Tracy Kemp, Thomas P Monath, Teresa Nowak, Shelly A McNeil, Joanne M Langley, Scott A Halperin
BACKGROUND: The 2013-2016 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa was the most widespread in history. In response, alive attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vaccine expressing Zaire Ebolavirus glycoprotein (rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP) was evaluated in humans. METHODS: In a phase 1, randomized, dose-ranging, observer-blind, placebo-controlled trial, healthy adults aged 18-65 years were randomized into 4 groups of 10 to receive one of 3 vaccine doses or placebo...
June 19, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629923/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-fully-liquid-dtap-ipv-hb-prp%C3%A2-t-hexavalent-vaccine-compared-with-the-standard-of-care-in-infants-in-the-republic-of-korea
#8
Yun-Kyung Kim, Emmanuel Vidor, Hwang Min Kim, Son Moon Shin, Kyung-Yil Lee, Sung-Ho Cha, Sang Hyuk Ma, Dong Ho Kim, Jin Lee, Su Eun Park, Hyunju Lee, Jong-Duk Kim, Ki Hwan Kim, Kyung-Hyo Kim, Jong-Hyun Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629665/efficacy-and-safety-of-tofacitinib-monotherapy-tofacitinib-with-methotrexate-and-adalimumab-with-methotrexate-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-oral-strategy-a-phase-3b-4-double-blind-head-to-head-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Roy Fleischmann, Eduardo Mysler, Stephen Hall, Alan J Kivitz, Robert J Moots, Zhen Luo, Ryan DeMasi, Koshika Soma, Richard Zhang, Liza Takiya, Svitlana Tatulych, Christopher Mojcik, Sriram Krishnaswami, Sujatha Menon, Josef S Smolen
BACKGROUND: Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The Oral Rheumatoid Arthritis triaL (ORAL) Strategy aimed to assess the comparative efficacy of tofacitinib monotherapy, tofacitinib plus methotrexate, and adalimumab plus methotrexate for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in patients with a previous inadequate response to methotrexate. METHODS: ORAL Strategy was a 1 year, double-blind, phase 3b/4, head-to-head, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial in patients aged 18 years or older with active rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate therapy...
June 15, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628185/epidemiology-and-prevention-of-influenza-in-children-in-argentina-and-brazil
#10
(no author information available yet)
A group of influenza experts from Argentina and Brazil got together to discuss the burden of influenza in children, review current vaccine coverage rates in both countries, analyze vaccine effectiveness, and discuss strategies to improve prevention. Active surveillance of respiratory viruses is carried out nationwide in both countries. Years 2014 and 2015 were mild influenza seasons; influenza virus type A/H3N2 prevailed, whereas type B represented less than 30% of isolates. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine is included in National Immunization Programs for 1) children 6 months to 2 years old in Argentina; 2) children 6 months to 5 years old in Brazil; and 3) all high-risk individuals...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624307/safety-and-immune-response-to-a-challenge-dose-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-in-healthy-children-primed-10years-earlier-with-hexavalent-vaccines-in-a-3-5-11-month-schedule-an-open-label-controlled-multicentre-trial-in-italy
#11
Alessandro Zanetti, Maria Giuseppina Desole, Luisa Romanò, Antonio d'Alessandro, Michele Conversano, Giuseppe Ferrera, Maria Grazia Panico, Alberto Tomasi, Giorgio Zoppi, Massimo Zuliani, Stéphane Thomas, Benoît Soubeyrand, Cécile Eymin, Stephen Lockhart
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The strategy of vaccinating infants to prevent hepatitis B virus infection in adolescence or adulthood requires durable immunity. This study investigated responses to a challenge dose of monovalent hepatitis B vaccine in children primed with three doses of either Hexavac® or Infanrix hexa® 10years earlier during infancy. METHODS: This open-label, controlled, multicentre study conducted in Italy, enrolled 751 healthy pre-adolescents (aged 11-13years) who were given either Hexavac (n=409) or Infanrix hexa (n=342) at 3, 5 and 11months of life...
June 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624306/preclinical-assessment-of-safety-of-maternal-vaccination-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-in-cotton-rats
#12
Jorge C G Blanco, Lioubov M Pletneva, Raymonde O Otoa, Mira C Patel, Stefanie N Vogel, Marina S Boukhvalova
Maternal immunization directed to control RSV infection in newborns and infants is an appealing vaccination strategy currently under development. In this work we have modeled maternal vaccination against RSV in cotton rats (CR) to answer two fundamental questions on maternal vaccine safety. We tested (i), whether a known, unsafe RSV vaccine (i.e., FI-RSV Lot 100 vaccine) induces vaccine enhanced disease in the presence of passively transferred, RSV maternal immunity, and (ii) whether the same FI-RSV vaccine could induce vaccine enhanced disease in CR litters when used to immunize their RSV-primed mothers...
June 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623456/pertussis-and-rotavirus-vaccines-controversies-and-solutions
#13
REVIEW
Nabaneeta Dash, Sanjay Verma
Pertussis and rotavirus vaccines have been the subject of several controversies over the years. In this paper the authors discuss facts and myths behind these controversies and also suggest solutions to overcome some limitations of these vaccines. The whole-cell pertussis vaccine (wPV) came into disrepute due to the associated adverse reactions, resulting in its replacement by acellular pertussis vaccine (aPV) in industrialized nations in 1990s. Although wPV is known to have more side effects; but they are usually minor...
June 16, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622736/vaxchora-a-single-dose-oral-cholera-vaccine
#14
Adriana Cabrera, Jayne E Lepage, Karyn M Sullivan, Sheila M Seed
OBJECTIVE: To review trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of Vaxchora, a reformulated, single-dose, oral, lyophilized Vibrio cholerae CVD 103-HgR vaccine for the prevention of travel-related cholera caused by V cholerae serogroup O1. DATA SOURCES: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1946 to January week 3, 2017) and EMBASE (1996 to 2017 week 3). Keywords included oral cholera vaccine, single-dose, Vaxchora, and CVD 103-HgR. Limits included human, clinical trials published in English since 2010...
July 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622427/feasibility-study-of-personalized-peptide-vaccination-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients-refractory-to-loco-regional-therapies
#15
Shigeru Yutani, Takahisa Shirahama, Daisuke Muroya, Satoko Matsueda, Rin Yamaguchi, Michi Morita, Shigeki Shichijo, Akira Yamada, Tetsuro Sasada, Kyogo Itoh
Overall survival (OS) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) refractory to loco-regional therapy is dismal even by treatment with sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor. To develop a more efficacious treatment modality, we conducted a feasibility study of personalized peptide vaccination (PPV) for HCC, in which the peptides were selected from 31 peptide candidates based on the pre-existing immunity. Twenty-six HCC patients refractory to loco-regional therapies (Cohort 1) and 30 patients refractory to both loco-regional and systemic therapies (Cohort 2) were entered to the study...
June 16, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620583/engineering-of-genetically-arrested-parasites-gaps-for-a-precision-malaria-vaccine
#16
REVIEW
Oriana Kreutzfeld, Katja Müller, Kai Matuschewski
Continuous stage conversion and swift changes in the antigenic repertoire in response to acquired immunity are hallmarks of complex eukaryotic pathogens, including Plasmodium species, the causative agents of malaria. Efficient elimination of Plasmodium liver stages prior to blood infection is one of the most promising malaria vaccine strategies. Here, we describe different genetically arrested parasites (GAPs) that have been engineered in Plasmodium berghei, P. yoelii and P. falciparum and compare their vaccine potential...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620164/biodistribution-and-residence-time-of-adenovector-serotype-5-in-normal-and-immunodeficient-mice-and-rats-detected-with-bioluminescent-imaging
#17
Qiang Liu, Shuya Zhou, Changfa Fan, Weijin Huang, Qianqian Li, Susu Liu, Xi Wu, Baowen Li, Youchun Wang
As concerns increase about adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) being a safe gene transfer vector, it is important to evaluate its distribution, residence time, and possible toxicity in immunodeficient populations. To characterize the potential risk associated with different Ad5 vector delivery modes, we used immunocompetent and immunodeficient Rag2 (-/-) animals to establish mouse and rat models that could be monitored with bioluminescent imaging following intramuscular or intravascular infection with an engineered replication-incompetent Ad5 virus carrying the firefly luciferase gene (Ad5-Fluc)...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616492/the-role-of-environmental-health-in-one-health-a-uganda-perspective
#18
David Musoke, Rawlance Ndejjo, Edwinah Atusingwize, Abdullah Ali Halage
BACKGROUND: One Health is the integrative effort of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally and globally to attain optimal health for people, animals and the environment. As the human population continues to increase across the world, the interface of people, animals and the environment becomes more significant and impactful. For the past few years, the One Health concept has brought together experts in the areas of animal and human health. It has provided a new synthesis for public health and veterinary communities across the world...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615211/vesicular-stomatitis-virus-pseudotyped-with-ebola-virus-glycoprotein-serves-as-a-protective-non-infectious-vaccine-against-ebola-virus-challenge-in-mice
#19
Nicholas J Lennemann, Andrew S Herbert, Rachel Brouillette, Bethany Rhein, Russell A Bakken, Katherine J Perschbacher, Ashley L Cooney, Catherine L Miller-Hunt, Patrick Ten Eyck, Julia Biggins, Gene Olinger, John M Dye, Wendy Maury
The recent Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic in West Africa demonstrates the potential for a significant public health burden caused by filoviral infections. No vaccine or antiviral is currently FDA-approved. To expand the vaccine options potentially available, we assessed protection conferred by an EBOV vaccine composed of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudovirions that lack native G glycoprotein (VSVΔG) and bear EBOV glycoprotein (GP). These pseudovirions mediate a single round of infection. Both single dose and prime/boost vaccination regimens protected mice against lethal challenge with mouse-adapted Ebola virus (ma-EBOV) in a dose-dependent manner...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614791/human-vaccination-against-plasmodium-vivax-duffy-binding-protein-induces-strain-transcending-antibodies
#20
Ruth O Payne, Sarah E Silk, Sean C Elias, Kathryn H Milne, Thomas A Rawlinson, David Llewellyn, A Rushdi Shakri, Jing Jin, Geneviève M Labbé, Nick J Edwards, Ian D Poulton, Rachel Roberts, Ryan Farid, Thomas Jørgensen, Daniel Gw Alanine, Simone C de Cassan, Matthew K Higgins, Thomas D Otto, James S McCarthy, Willem A de Jongh, Alfredo Nicosia, Sarah Moyle, Adrian Vs Hill, Eleanor Berrie, Chetan E Chitnis, Alison M Lawrie, Simon J Draper
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread human malaria geographically; however, no effective vaccine exists. Red blood cell invasion by the P. vivax merozoite depends on an interaction between the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) and region II of the parasite's Duffy-binding protein (PvDBP_RII). Naturally acquired binding-inhibitory antibodies against this interaction associate with clinical immunity, but it is unknown whether these responses can be induced by human vaccination...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
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