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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112979/ocular-manifestations-in-the-x-linked-intellectual-disability-syndromes
#1
Natario L Couser, Maheer M Masood, Arthur S Aylsworth, Roger E Stevenson
Intellectual disability (ID), a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by limitations of both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, affects an estimated 1-2% of children. Genetic causes of ID are often accompanied by recognizable syndromal patterns. The vision apparatus is a sensory extension of the brain, and individuals with intellectual disabilities frequently have coexisting abnormalities of ocular structures and the visual pathway system. About one-third of the X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndromes have significant eye or ocular adnexa abnormalities that provide important diagnostic clues...
January 23, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092393/surgical-treatment-of-adult-onset-esotropia-characteristics-and-outcomes
#2
Sara F Grace, Kara M Cavuoto, Wei Shi, Hilda Capo
PURPOSE: To describe the characteristics of the strabismus, surgical management, and outcomes of patients who underwent surgery for adult-onset esotropia. METHODS: This was a retrospective case study of patients at an academic tertiary referral center who underwent surgical treatment of esotropia acquired at or after age 18 years. Primary outcome measures were resolution of diplopia in primary position and a deviation of 10 prism diopters or less in primary gaze...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018672/acute-acquired-comitant-esotropia-in-adults-is-it-neurologic-or-not
#3
Kadriye Erkan Turan, Tulay Kansu
Objectives. Acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE) can be a diagnostic challenge for ophthalmologists and neurologists because of its association with neurological pathologies. Our study describes a series of adult patients with AACE of undetermined etiology. Methods. Data on the clinical findings of patients presented with AACE of undetermined etiology with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were retrieved from the medical records and the results analyzed. Results. A series of 9 esotropia cases (age range: 20-43 years) was reviewed...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895559/reorganization-of-visual-callosal-connections-following-alterations-of-retinal-input-and-brain-damage
#4
REVIEW
Laura Restani, Matteo Caleo
Vision is a very important sensory modality in humans. Visual disorders are numerous and arising from diverse and complex causes. Deficits in visual function are highly disabling from a social point of view and in addition cause a considerable economic burden. For all these reasons there is an intense effort by the scientific community to gather knowledge on visual deficit mechanisms and to find possible new strategies for recovery and treatment. In this review, we focus on an important and sometimes neglected player of the visual function, the corpus callosum (CC)...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820875/improvement-of-eye-alignment-in-adult-strabismic-monkeys-by-sustained-igf-1-treatment
#5
Linda K McLoon, Stephen P Christiansen, Geoffrey M Ghose, Vallabh E Das, Michael J Mustari
Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine if continuous application of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) could improve eye alignment of adult strabismic nonhuman primates and to assess possible mechanisms of effect. Methods: A continuous release pellet of IGF-1 was placed on one medial rectus muscle in two adult nonhuman primates (M1, M2) rendered exotropic by the alternating monocular occlusion method during the first months of life. Eye alignment and eye movements were recorded for 3 months, after which M1 was euthanized, and the lateral and medial rectus muscles were removed for morphometric analysis of fiber size, nerve, and neuromuscular density...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800244/effect-of-visual-acuity-on-the-surgical-outcomes-of-secondary-sensory-strabismus
#6
Kadriye Erkan Turan, Hande Taylan Şekeroğlu, Emin Cumhur Şener, Ali Şefik Sanaç
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the outcomes of secondary sensory strabismus surgery and to discuss the effect of visual acuity on success. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of patients with sensory strabismus who underwent recession-resection on the eye with vision loss were reviewed. Only patients with visual acuity of ≤0.2 in the operated eye were enrolled. Data including age at surgery, visual acuity, etiology of vision loss, preoperative and postoperative deviations, follow-up duration, and surgical outcomes were recorded...
December 2015: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783093/the-incidence-of-reoperation-and-related-risk-factors-among-patients-with-infantile-exotropia
#7
Zhale Rajavi, Ali Lashgari, Hamideh Sabbaghi, Narges Behradfar, Mehdi Yaseri
PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and related risk factors of reoperation among patients with infantile exotropia who were operated on at Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran, from 2001 to 2015. METHODS: In this study, 82 children (55 girls and 27 boys) with infantile exotropia were divided into two groups 3 months after their first operation: children with horizontal deviation of 10 prism diopters (PD) or less (n = 64; success group) and those with horizontal deviation greater than 10 PD (n = 18; failure group)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555711/multiple-ocular-and-systemic-disorders-in-association-with-bilateral-duane-s-retraction-syndrome
#8
Mohammad Ali Zare, Mohammad Reza Akbari, Mohammad Yaser Kiarudi, Hadi Zare Mehrjardi
Duane's retraction syndrome (DRS) is characterized by limitations in horizontal eye movements, globe retraction, and palpebral fissure narrowing on attempted adduction. This disorder is caused by a disturbance in innervation originating in the brain stem and represents <1% of all cases of strabismus. It is postulated that this syndrome is due to an insult during the early weeks (8-10 weeks) of pregnancy and is 10-20 times more frequently associated with other systemic congenital anomalies. This case report of bilateral DRS included bilateral iris-retinal coloboma and congenital heart disease, sensory hearing loss, and inguinal hernia...
July 2016: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508887/-indication-and-results-of-the-anderson-procedure
#9
M Gräf, B Lorenz
The major goal of extraocular muscle surgery for nystagmus is to reduce the abnormal head turn (AHT) which is caused by an eccentric null zone of the nystagmus. Shifting the null zone to the primary gaze position will eliminate the AHT. The Kestenbaum procedure consists of bilateral recession of the yoke muscles opposite to the AHT, combined with bilateral resection or plication of their antagonists. The Anderson procedure is confined to bilateral recession of the yoke muscles and is therefore less invasive...
October 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485819/multifocal-surgically-induced-necrotizing-scleritis-following-strabismus-surgery-a-case-report
#10
Mohammad Reza Akbari, Masoomeh Mohebbi, Mohammadkarim Johari, Arash Mirmohammadsadeghi, Alireza Mahmoudi
PURPOSE: To present clinical findings of a 28-year-old woman with multifocal surgically induced necrotizing scleritis following uncomplicated strabismus surgery. METHOD: A 28-year-old woman underwent uncomplicated strabismus surgery of her right eye for sensory exotropia under general anesthesia (6 mm right medial rectus muscle resection and 8 mm right lateral rectus muscle recession). DESIGN: Retrospective, observational case report and literature review...
September 2016: Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367798/essential-infantile-esotropia-postoperative-sensory-outcomes-of-strabismus-surgery
#11
Adriano Magli, Roberta Carelli, Francesca Esposito, Dario Bruzzese
BACKGROUND: The optimum age for Essential Infantile Esotropia surgery is a controversial subject. Sensory status was evaluated in patients who underwent surgery at different ages in a retrospective study. The setting of the study is the ophthalmology department of a teaching hospital. METHODS: Different clinical characters were analyzed pre- and postoperatively; nine different surgeries were performed. A total of 188 patients presented valid postoperative sensorial data, divided in two groups: surgery at ≤2 years (n=69) or >2 years (n=119)...
July 1, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27050880/deficient-binocular-combination-of-second-order-stimuli-in-amblyopia
#12
Jiawei Zhou, Rong Liu, Lixia Feng, Yifeng Zhou, Robert F Hess
PURPOSE: Sensory imbalances in humans with amblyopia have been well documented using luminance-modulated (first-order) stimuli. However, little is known regarding whether there is a deficient binocular combination in amblyopes for stimuli defined by modulations in contrast (second-order stimuli). To address this, we asked two questions: Does a sensory imbalance also exist in the binocular combination of second-order stimuli, and if so, is it more severe than that expected on the basis of the imbalance for first-order stimuli? METHODS: The sensory imbalances of 14 adult amblyopes (mean age: 30...
April 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27006860/extraocular-muscles-tension-tonus-and-proprioception-in-infantile-strabismus-role-of-the-oculomotor-system-in-the-pathogenesis-of-infantile-strabismus-review-of-the-literature
#13
REVIEW
Costantino Schiavi
The role played by the extraocular muscles (EOMs) in the etiology of concomitant infantile strabismus is still debated and it has not yet definitively established if the sensory anomalies in concomitant strabismus are a consequence or a primary cause of the deviation. The commonest theory supposes that most strabismus results from abnormal innervation of the EOMs, but the cause of this dysfunction and its origin, whether central or peripheral, are still unknown. The interaction between sensory factors and innervational factors, that is, esotonus, accommodation, convergence, divergence, and vestibular reflexes in visually immature infants with family predisposition, is suspected to create conditions that prevent binocular alignment from stabilizing and strengthening...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26917072/sensorimotor-outcomes-by-age-5-years-after-monocular-cataract-surgery-in-the-infant-aphakia-treatment-study-iats
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Erick D Bothun, Michael J Lynn, Stephen P Christiansen, Dan E Neely, Deborah K Vanderveen, Stacey J Kruger, Scott R Lambert
PURPOSE: To evaluate sensorimotor outcomes among children in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). METHODS: Secondary outcome analysis was performed in this randomized, multicenter, clinical trial comparing treatment of unilateral aphakia with a primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens (CL) correction. The alignment characteristics and sensory status of children through age 5 years were evaluated. RESULTS: In the IATS study, 91 of 112 children (81%) developed strabismus through age 5 years...
February 2016: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26896697/abnormal-visual-experience-during-development-alters-the-early-stages-of-visual-tactile-integration
#15
Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo, Jessica Chin, Paul J Wolfe, Christina Popovich, W Richard Staines
Visual experience during the critical periods in early postnatal life is necessary for the normal development of the visual system. Disruption of visual input during this period results in amblyopia, which is associated with reduced activation of the striate and extrastriate cortices. It is well known that visual input converges with other sensory signals and exerts a significant influence on cortical processing in multiple association areas. Recent work in healthy adults has also shown that task-relevant visual input can modulate neural excitability at very early stages of information processing in the primary somatosensory cortex...
May 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26844467/clinical-characteristics-and-surgical-outcomes-in-patients-with-intermittent-exotropia-a-large-sample-study-in-south-china
#16
Min Yang, Jingchang Chen, Tao Shen, Ying Kang, Daming Deng, Xiaoming Lin, Heping Wu, Qiwen Chen, Xuelian Ye, Jianqun Li, Jianhua Yan
The clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes in a large sample of patients with intermittent exotropia (IXT) as well as an analysis of risk factors associated with surgical failures are presented in this article. Data from IXT patients who received surgical management at the Eye Hospital, in the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, of Sun Yat-Sen University, China from January 2009 to December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Included within this analysis were data from pre- and postoperative ocular motility, primary alignment, and binocular vision...
February 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26836001/spontaneous-regression-of-over-elevation-in-adduction-following-esotropia-surgery
#17
Tugba Göncü, Ali Akal, Fatih Mehmet Adibelli, Sevim Çakmak, Mehmet Düsünür
PURPOSE: To evaluate the course of over-elevation in adduction in patients who had esotropia following correction of horizontal deviation. METHODS: The review of the medical files identified 28 patients who had esotropia with over-elevation in adduction. Data collected from the patients' full ophthalmological examinations included visual acuity, ocular alignment, duction, versions and sensory tests for binocularity and stereopsis, cycloplegic retinoscopy, and fundus evaluation...
January 2016: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26835997/clinical-evaluation-of-four-muscle-tenotomy-surgery-for-nystagmus
#18
Michael Dubner, Leonard B Nelson, Kammi B Gunton, Judith Lavrich, Bruce Schnall, Barry N Wasserman
PURPOSE: To document prospectively the effect of four-muscle tenotomy surgery on visual acuity (VA) and nystagmus intensity and assess, by the use of a questionnaire, the experience of adult patients and the parents of children who have had the four-muscle tenotomy procedure for nystagmus in the absence of strabismus or an anomalous head position. The qualitative perceived benefits or lack thereof from the procedure were compared to the subjective effects on nystagmus intensity and VA...
January 2016: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26749329/botulinum-toxin-uses-in-strabismus-a-review-of-the-injections-performed-during-one-year-in-a-general-hospital
#19
E Jarrín, E Arranz Márquez, L Yebra González, J García Gil de Bernabé
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the indications, dosage and efficacy of botulinum toxin A injection performed in patients in a Strabismus Department. METHODS: In this prospective study, botulinum toxin A was injected into 28 patients diagnosed with strabismus. Data was obtained from the records of patients that were evaluated during 2013 in the Strabismus Unit of Rey Juan Carlos Hospital (Móstoles, Madrid, Spain) in order to assess the indications and dosage of botulinum toxin A use in strabismus, as well as its clinical effect and differences in paediatric and adult patients...
March 2016: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26743186/contact-topical-anesthesia-versus-general-anaesthesia-in-strabismus-surgery
#20
J Vallés-Torres, E Garcia-Martin, F J Fernández-Tirado, L M Gil-Arribas, L E Pablo, P Peña-Calvo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anesthetic block provided by contact topical anesthesia (CTA) in strabismus surgery in adult patients. To analyze postoperative pain and surgical outcome obtained by CTA compared with general anesthesia (GA). METHODOLOGY: Prospective longitudinal cohort study of adult patients undergoing strabismus surgery by CTA or GA. The intensity of pain perceived by patients during the course of surgery and in the postoperative period was measured using Numerical Pain Scale...
March 2016: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
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