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sensory strabismus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742638/extraocular-muscle-findings-in-myasthenia-gravis-associated-treatment-resistant-ophthalmoplegia-a-case-report
#1
Robyn M Rautenbach, Komala Pillay, Anthony D N Murray, Jeannine M Heckmann
We report the histopathological and ultrastructural tissue analysis of extraocular muscle (EOM) obtained from a patient with seronegative myasthenia gravis (MG) with treatment-resistant ophthalmoplegia for 3.5 years. The EOM demonstrated predominantly myopathic features and ultrastructural evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction, but the most striking features were increased endomysial collagen and adipocyte replacement of muscle fibers. By contrast, control EOM from a patient undergoing strabismus surgery for a sensory exotropia in a nonseeing eye and a similar duration of deviation, showed normal muscle histology...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642003/strabismus-and-binocular-diplopia-due-to-advanced-glaucomatous-visual-field-loss
#2
Cheryl L Khanna, Jonathan M Holmes
PURPOSE: To describe a small series of patients with glaucoma whose strabismus and binocular diplopia were due to advanced visual field loss and inability to maintain sensory and motor fusion. METHODS: This study is an observational case series of 3 patients with binocular diplopia, associated with variable strabismus, which was due to advanced visual field loss. RESULTS: Specific characteristics of the strabismus associated with advanced glaucomatous visual field loss were a subjective floating second image and marked variability of the prism and alternate cover measurements...
June 20, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532347/strabismus-and-the-oculomotor-system-insights-from-macaque-models
#3
Vallabh E Das
Disrupting binocular vision in infancy leads to strabismus and oftentimes to a variety of associated visual sensory deficits and oculomotor abnormalities. Investigation of this disorder has been aided by the development of various animal models, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. In comparison to studies of binocular visual responses in cortical structures, investigations of neural oculomotor structures that mediate the misalignment and abnormalities of eye movements have been more recent, and these studies have shown that different brain areas are intimately involved in driving several aspects of the strabismic condition, including horizontal misalignment, dissociated deviations, A and V patterns of strabismus, disconjugate eye movements, nystagmus, and fixation switch...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476458/-sensory-and-motor-clinical-presentation-of-congenital-retraction-syndromes-stilling-duane-and-brown-syndrome
#4
V Promelle, M Fortier, S Milazzo
INTRODUCTION: Congenital Brown syndrome and Stilling-Duane syndrome, two rare causes of strabismus are caused by fibrosis of one or more extraocular muscles. This series aims to report the clinical sensory and motor features of patients with Brown or Stilling-Duane syndrome. METHODS: Seventeen patients' records were retrospectively assessed for: the ocular deviation in primary position and in the 9 positions of gaze, head tilt, visual acuity and binocular vision...
May 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315737/botulinum-toxin-as-an-adjunct-to-monocular-recession-resection-surgery-for-large-angle-sensory-strabismus
#5
Betül Tuğcu, Eda Sönmezay, Fadime Nuhoğlu, Hakan Özdemir, Seyhan Bahar Özkan
PURPOSE: To evaluate the result of using intraoperative botulinum toxin A (BTA) as an adjunct to monocular recession-resection surgery in the management of large-angle sensory strabismus. METHODS: The medical records of patients diagnosed with sensory strabismus with constant large-angle strabismus were reviewed retrospectively to identify those who underwent monocular recession-resection surgery combined with 5 units of BTA injection into the recessed muscle of the nonfixating eye...
April 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260365/-ultrastructural-alteration-of-extraocular-muscle-proprioceptor-in-congenital-idiopathic-nystagmus
#6
C Y Zhang, D Y Bai, Y H Cui, S L Hu, Y Zhang, C Li, L Li
Objective: To explore the ultrastructural alteration of extraocular muscle proprioceptor in congenital idiopathic nystagmus (CIN). Methods: Case-control study. Ten extraocular muscle samples were collected from five CIN children who underwent nystagmus surgeries in Beijing Children's Hospital from March 2015 to March 2016. Another ten extraocular muscle specimens were collected from five strabismus children in surgery at the same period as normal contrast. There were 3 male patients and 2 female patients of CIN with age of 61-147 months (median age: 91 months)...
February 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253424/botulinum-toxin-for-the-treatment-of-strabismus
#7
REVIEW
Fiona J Rowe, Carmel P Noonan
BACKGROUND: The use of botulinum toxin as an investigative and treatment modality for strabismus is well reported in the medical literature. However, it is unclear how effective it is in comparison to other treatment options for strabismus. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to examine the efficacy of botulinum toxin therapy in the treatment of strabismus compared with alternative conservative or surgical treatment options. This review sought to ascertain those types of strabismus that particularly benefit from the use of botulinum toxin as a treatment option (such as small angle strabismus or strabismus with binocular potential, i...
March 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112979/ocular-manifestations-in-the-x-linked-intellectual-disability-syndromes
#8
Natario L Couser, Maheer M Masood, Arthur S Aylsworth, Roger E Stevenson
Intellectual disability (ID), a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by limitations of both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, affects an estimated 1-2% of children. Genetic causes of ID are often accompanied by recognizable syndromal patterns. The vision apparatus is a sensory extension of the brain, and individuals with intellectual disabilities frequently have coexisting abnormalities of ocular structures and the visual pathway system. About one-third of the X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndromes have significant eye or ocular adnexa abnormalities that provide important diagnostic clues...
January 23, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092393/surgical-treatment-of-adult-onset-esotropia-characteristics-and-outcomes
#9
Sara F Grace, Kara M Cavuoto, Wei Shi, Hilda Capo
PURPOSE: To describe the characteristics of the strabismus, surgical management, and outcomes of patients who underwent surgery for adult-onset esotropia. METHODS: This was a retrospective case study of patients at an academic tertiary referral center who underwent surgical treatment of esotropia acquired at or after age 18 years. Primary outcome measures were resolution of diplopia in primary position and a deviation of 10 prism diopters or less in primary gaze...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018672/acute-acquired-comitant-esotropia-in-adults-is-it-neurologic-or-not
#10
Kadriye Erkan Turan, Tulay Kansu
Objectives. Acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE) can be a diagnostic challenge for ophthalmologists and neurologists because of its association with neurological pathologies. Our study describes a series of adult patients with AACE of undetermined etiology. Methods. Data on the clinical findings of patients presented with AACE of undetermined etiology with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were retrieved from the medical records and the results analyzed. Results. A series of 9 esotropia cases (age range: 20-43 years) was reviewed...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895559/reorganization-of-visual-callosal-connections-following-alterations-of-retinal-input-and-brain-damage
#11
REVIEW
Laura Restani, Matteo Caleo
Vision is a very important sensory modality in humans. Visual disorders are numerous and arising from diverse and complex causes. Deficits in visual function are highly disabling from a social point of view and in addition cause a considerable economic burden. For all these reasons there is an intense effort by the scientific community to gather knowledge on visual deficit mechanisms and to find possible new strategies for recovery and treatment. In this review, we focus on an important and sometimes neglected player of the visual function, the corpus callosum (CC)...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820875/improvement-of-eye-alignment-in-adult-strabismic-monkeys-by-sustained-igf-1-treatment
#12
Linda K McLoon, Stephen P Christiansen, Geoffrey M Ghose, Vallabh E Das, Michael J Mustari
Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine if continuous application of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) could improve eye alignment of adult strabismic nonhuman primates and to assess possible mechanisms of effect. Methods: A continuous release pellet of IGF-1 was placed on one medial rectus muscle in two adult nonhuman primates (M1, M2) rendered exotropic by the alternating monocular occlusion method during the first months of life. Eye alignment and eye movements were recorded for 3 months, after which M1 was euthanized, and the lateral and medial rectus muscles were removed for morphometric analysis of fiber size, nerve, and neuromuscular density...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800244/effect-of-visual-acuity-on-the-surgical-outcomes-of-secondary-sensory-strabismus
#13
Kadriye Erkan Turan, Hande Taylan Şekeroğlu, Emin Cumhur Şener, Ali Şefik Sanaç
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the outcomes of secondary sensory strabismus surgery and to discuss the effect of visual acuity on success. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of patients with sensory strabismus who underwent recession-resection on the eye with vision loss were reviewed. Only patients with visual acuity of ≤0.2 in the operated eye were enrolled. Data including age at surgery, visual acuity, etiology of vision loss, preoperative and postoperative deviations, follow-up duration, and surgical outcomes were recorded...
December 2015: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783093/the-incidence-of-reoperation-and-related-risk-factors-among-patients-with-infantile-exotropia
#14
Zhale Rajavi, Ali Lashgari, Hamideh Sabbaghi, Narges Behradfar, Mehdi Yaseri
PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and related risk factors of reoperation among patients with infantile exotropia who were operated on at Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran, from 2001 to 2015. METHODS: In this study, 82 children (55 girls and 27 boys) with infantile exotropia were divided into two groups 3 months after their first operation: children with horizontal deviation of 10 prism diopters (PD) or less (n = 64; success group) and those with horizontal deviation greater than 10 PD (n = 18; failure group)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555711/multiple-ocular-and-systemic-disorders-in-association-with-bilateral-duane-s-retraction-syndrome
#15
Mohammad Ali Zare, Mohammad Reza Akbari, Mohammad Yaser Kiarudi, Hadi Zare Mehrjardi
Duane's retraction syndrome (DRS) is characterized by limitations in horizontal eye movements, globe retraction, and palpebral fissure narrowing on attempted adduction. This disorder is caused by a disturbance in innervation originating in the brain stem and represents <1% of all cases of strabismus. It is postulated that this syndrome is due to an insult during the early weeks (8-10 weeks) of pregnancy and is 10-20 times more frequently associated with other systemic congenital anomalies. This case report of bilateral DRS included bilateral iris-retinal coloboma and congenital heart disease, sensory hearing loss, and inguinal hernia...
July 2016: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508887/-indication-and-results-of-the-anderson-procedure
#16
M Gräf, B Lorenz
The major goal of extraocular muscle surgery for nystagmus is to reduce the abnormal head turn (AHT) which is caused by an eccentric null zone of the nystagmus. Shifting the null zone to the primary gaze position will eliminate the AHT. The Kestenbaum procedure consists of bilateral recession of the yoke muscles opposite to the AHT, combined with bilateral resection or plication of their antagonists. The Anderson procedure is confined to bilateral recession of the yoke muscles and is therefore less invasive...
October 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485819/multifocal-surgically-induced-necrotizing-scleritis-following-strabismus-surgery-a-case-report
#17
REVIEW
Mohammad Reza Akbari, Masoomeh Mohebbi, Mohammadkarim Johari, Arash Mirmohammadsadeghi, Alireza Mahmoudi
PURPOSE: To present clinical findings of a 28-year-old woman with multifocal surgically induced necrotizing scleritis following uncomplicated strabismus surgery. METHOD: A 28-year-old woman underwent uncomplicated strabismus surgery of her right eye for sensory exotropia under general anesthesia (6 mm right medial rectus muscle resection and 8 mm right lateral rectus muscle recession). DESIGN: Retrospective, observational case report and literature review...
September 2016: Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367798/essential-infantile-esotropia-postoperative-sensory-outcomes-of-strabismus-surgery
#18
Adriano Magli, Roberta Carelli, Francesca Esposito, Dario Bruzzese
BACKGROUND: The optimum age for Essential Infantile Esotropia surgery is a controversial subject. Sensory status was evaluated in patients who underwent surgery at different ages in a retrospective study. The setting of the study is the ophthalmology department of a teaching hospital. METHODS: Different clinical characters were analyzed pre- and postoperatively; nine different surgeries were performed. A total of 188 patients presented valid postoperative sensorial data, divided in two groups: surgery at ≤2 years (n=69) or >2 years (n=119)...
July 1, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27050880/deficient-binocular-combination-of-second-order-stimuli-in-amblyopia
#19
Jiawei Zhou, Rong Liu, Lixia Feng, Yifeng Zhou, Robert F Hess
PURPOSE: Sensory imbalances in humans with amblyopia have been well documented using luminance-modulated (first-order) stimuli. However, little is known regarding whether there is a deficient binocular combination in amblyopes for stimuli defined by modulations in contrast (second-order stimuli). To address this, we asked two questions: Does a sensory imbalance also exist in the binocular combination of second-order stimuli, and if so, is it more severe than that expected on the basis of the imbalance for first-order stimuli? METHODS: The sensory imbalances of 14 adult amblyopes (mean age: 30...
April 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27006860/extraocular-muscles-tension-tonus-and-proprioception-in-infantile-strabismus-role-of-the-oculomotor-system-in-the-pathogenesis-of-infantile-strabismus-review-of-the-literature
#20
REVIEW
Costantino Schiavi
The role played by the extraocular muscles (EOMs) in the etiology of concomitant infantile strabismus is still debated and it has not yet definitively established if the sensory anomalies in concomitant strabismus are a consequence or a primary cause of the deviation. The commonest theory supposes that most strabismus results from abnormal innervation of the EOMs, but the cause of this dysfunction and its origin, whether central or peripheral, are still unknown. The interaction between sensory factors and innervational factors, that is, esotonus, accommodation, convergence, divergence, and vestibular reflexes in visually immature infants with family predisposition, is suspected to create conditions that prevent binocular alignment from stabilizing and strengthening...
2016: Scientifica
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