keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

brainstem syndromes

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904123/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-with-extensive-deep-white-matter-lesions-including-the-temporal-pole
#1
Junichiro Ohira, Nobuyuki Mori, Shunsuke Kajikawa, Takeshi Nakamura, Tetsuya Arisato, Makio Takahashi
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) typically affects the posterior subcortical white matter. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with atypical PRES, who had malignant hypertension and renal dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed extensive vasogenic edema in the deep white matter including the temporal pole, as well as in the brainstem and cerebellum. Antihypertensive therapy and hemodialysis contributed to both clinical and radiological improvement. Involvement of the deep white matter including the temporal pole, which is rarely affected in an ischemic stroke, should be recognized as a potential sign of PRES...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888275/acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-following-campylobacter-jejuni-gastroenteritis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Simone Marziali, Eliseo Picchi, Francesca Di Giuliano, Simone Altobelli, Giorgia Mataluni, Girolama Marfia, Francesco Garaci, Roberto Floris
We describe a case of a 25-year-old male with a diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) following infection with Campylobacter jejuni, which is implicated in various human pathologies regarding the central nervous system (CNS) with acute course like Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS), Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BEE), acute transverse myelitis (ATM) as well as ADEM. These conditions are caused by cross-reactivity between Campylobacter's epitopes and cells of the CNS that causes an immunomediated inflammatory demyelination of the CNS...
November 25, 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884797/breathing-abnormalities-in-animal-models-of-rett-syndrome-a-female-neurogenetic-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Chun Jiang, Ningren Cui, Weiwei Zhong, Christopher M Johnson, Yang Wu
A characteristic feature of Rett syndrome (RTT) is abnormal breathing accompanied by several other neurological and cognitive disorders. Since RTT rodent models became available, studies have begun shedding insight into the breathing abnormalities at behavioral, cellular and molecular levels. Defects are found in several groups of brainstem neurons involved in respiratory control, and potential neural mechanisms have been suggested. The findings in animal models are helpful in therapeutic strategies for people with RTT with respect to lowering sudden and unexpected death, preventing secondary developmental consequences, and improving the quality of lives...
November 21, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872228/child-neurology-diencephalic-syndrome-like-presentation-of-a-cervicomedullary-brainstem-tumor
#4
Melanie Conway, Resham Ejaz, Elizabeth Kouzmitcheva, Deena Savlov, James T Rutka, Mahendranath Moharir
Diencephalic syndrome is a rare clinical entity, traditionally encompassing severe failure to thrive, nystagmus, and hyperkinesis, secondary to an intracranial neoplasm that is classically located in the hypothalamic region and its vicinity. However, the presenting features can be variable, often resulting in delayed diagnosis, which may worsen prognosis. This case report describes the atypical presentation of a posterior fossa tumor with features reminiscent of diencephalic syndrome that have not previously been reported in the literature...
November 22, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865668/a-small-pons-as-a-characteristic-finding-in-down-syndrome-a-quantitative-mri-study
#5
Yuta Fujii, Noriko Aida, Tetsu Niwa, Mikako Enokizono, Kumiko Nozawa, Tomio Inoue
BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal aberration, but the characteristics of the brainstem component in this condition during childhood (from newborn to preteen stages) have not been clarified. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the morphological features of the brainstem in DS on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRIs for 32 children with DS (16 boys and girls each; age range, 0-11years) without major brain insults, and 32 age-matched controls (16 boys and girls each) were retrospectively analyzed...
November 16, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861223/gastrointestinal-and-urologic-sphincter-dysfunction-in-stiff-person-syndrome
#6
Oana M Dumitrascu, Evgeny I Tsimerinov, Richard A Lewis
OBJECTIVES: Stiff person syndrome is a neurologic disorder characterized by axial rigidity leading to progressive disability, with broad clinical spectrum. METHODS: We report 2 cases with unique clinical presentation. RESULTS: Two young men suffered progressive urinary retention requiring bladder catheterization, anorectal spasms and constipation, complicated subsequently with lower extremity trigger-induced spasms, and gait instability. Associated symptoms revealed brainstem involvement (vertigo, diplopia, and cranial neuropathies) and dysautonomia (abnormal sweating and orthostatic hypotension)...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854093/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-mimicking-brainstem-infarction-a-dilemma
#7
Tsung-Han Ho, Chia-Lin Tsai, Yaw-Don Hsu, Jiunn-Tay Lee, Fu-Chi Yang, Chia-Ching Hsu, Chun-Chieh Lin
PURPOSE: We had recently reported one case at American Journal of Emergency Medicine about centralvariant posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in an 84-year-old woman with an initial misdiagnosis as central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). Here, we introduce another case of centralvariant PRES in a 49-year-old man mimicking as acute brainstem infarction in the cranial computed tomography (CT) findings. CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with a 5-day history of vertigo, cognitive decline, and difficulty in walking...
June 15, 2016: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853394/long-term-impact-after-fulminant-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Alain Rougé, Jérémie Lemarié, Sébastien Gibot, Pierre Edouard Bollaert
A 47-year-old man was admitted to the intensive care unit a few hours after presenting to emergency department with acute diplopia and dysphonia. Swallowing disorders and respiratory muscular weakness quickly required invasive ventilation. On day 3, the patient was in a "brain-death"-like state with deep coma and absent brainstem reflexes. Electroencephalogram ruled out brain death diagnosis as a paradoxical sleep trace was recorded. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis, electrophysiologic studies, and a recent history of diarrhea led to the diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni-related fulminant Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) mimicking brain death...
2016: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849248/what-we-know-of-the-central-auditory-disorders-in-children-exposed-to-alcohol-during-pregnancy-systematic-review
#9
Humberto de Oliveira Simões, Sthella Zanchetta, Erikson Felipe Furtado
Purpose: To identify the effects of alcohol intake during pregnancy on the central auditory nervous system in relation to their possible diagnosis, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Alcohol-Related Birth Defects and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder, his extension and the hearing assessment method. Research strategy: Systematic and integrative review searched the databases PubMed, LILACS and SciELO, with terms in Portuguese and English "fetal alcohol syndrome", "alcohol-related disorders" associated with "hearing"...
September 2016: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821089/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-as-the-first-manifestation-of-bickerstaff-s-brainstem-encephalitis
#10
Pei-Ru Chen, Shih-Pin Chen
BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) has been associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome in rare cases. Here we report a patient in whom PRES was the presenting manifestation of Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old woman presented with acute onset of hypertension, headache, blurred vision, and left eyelid drooping. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed characteristic PRES lesions involving the parietal and occipital lobes bilaterally...
November 8, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818548/rhombencephalitis-pictorial-essay
#11
Líllian Gonçalves Campos, Régis Augusto Reis Trindade, Ângela Faistauer, Juliano Adams Pérez, Leonardo Modesti Vedolin, Juliana Ávila Duarte
The term rhombencephalitis refers to inflammatory diseases affecting the hindbrain (brainstem and cerebellum). Rhombencephalitis has a wide variety of etiologies, including infections, autoimmune diseases, and paraneoplastic syndromes. Infection with bacteria of the genus Listeria is the most common cause of rhombencephalitis. Primary rhombencephalitis caused by infection with Listeria spp. occurs in healthy young adults. It usually has a biphasic time course with a flu-like syndrome, followed by brainstem dysfunction; 75% of patients have cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, and nearly 100% have an abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging scan...
September 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801769/adult-onset-opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome-associated-with-ganglionic-acetylcholine-receptor-autoantibody
#12
Jonathan R Galli, Stacey L Clardy, M Mateo Paz Soldán
INTRODUCTION: Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) may have a toxin induced, parainfectious, or paraneoplastic etiology. Several autoantibodies have been associated with adult-onset OMS, most commonly antineuronal nuclear antibody 2 (Ri), and it is most frequently associated with breast or small cell lung cancer. The nicotinic ganglionic acetylcholine receptor autoantibody (α3-AChR Ab) has not been described in association. CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old woman was evaluated for symptoms of oscillopsia, tremor, gait imbalance, and mild cognitive deficits that began 6 weeks prior...
November 2016: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798752/structural-brain-alterations-of-down-s-syndrome-in-early-childhood-evaluation-by-dti-and-volumetric-analyses
#13
Hediye Pınar Gunbey, Meltem Ceyhan Bilgici, Kerim Aslan, Arzu Ceylan Has, Methiye Gonul Ogur, Aslıhan Alhan, Lutfi Incesu
OBJECTIVES: To provide an initial assessment of white matter (WM) integrity with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the accompanying volumetric changes in WM and grey matter (GM) through volumetric analyses of young children with Down's syndrome (DS). METHODS: Ten children with DS and eight healthy control subjects were included in the study. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were used in the DTI study for whole-brain voxelwise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of WM...
October 31, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797801/weston-hurst-syndrome-a-rare-fulminant-form-of-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-adem
#14
Sumaira Nabi, Mazhar Badshah, Shahzad Ahmed, Ali Zohair Nomani
A 25-year-old Pakistani woman presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of rapidly progressive tetraplegia followed by sudden loss of consciousness. This was preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection. On examination, she was deeply comatose with a GCS of 3/15 and intact brainstem reflexes. She was in respiratory distress, and an endotracheal tube had been passed. She had flaccid quadriplegia with depressed deep tendon reflexes and upgoing plantar response. Her MRI brain with contrast showed extensive brainstem involvement with haemorrhagic foci along with signal changes in the corpus callosum...
October 19, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796753/promotion-of-the-unfolding-protein-response-in-orexin-dynorphin-neurons-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-sids-elevated-pperk-and-atf4-expression
#15
Nicholas J Hunt, Karen A Waters, Rita Machaalani
We previously demonstrated that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants have decreased orexin immunoreactivity within the hypothalamus and pons compared to non-SIDS infants. In this study, we examined multiple mechanisms that may promote loss of orexin expression including programmed cell death, impaired maturation/structural stability, neuroinflammation and impaired unfolding protein response (UPR). Immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical staining for a number of markers was performed in the tuberal hypothalamus and pons of infants (1-10 months) who died from SIDS (n = 27) compared to age- and sex-matched non-SIDS infants (n = 19)...
October 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787875/posterior-fossa-syndrome-review-of-the-behavioral-and-emotional-aspects-in-pediatric-cancer-patients
#16
REVIEW
Jane C Lanier, Annah N Abrams
Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood, occurs in the posterior fossa, the part of the intracranial cavity that contains the brainstem and the cerebellum. The cerebellum is involved in many complex aspects of human behavior and function, and when it is disrupted or insulted, this can lead to significant sequelae in children with posterior fossa tumors. A constellation of impairing and distressing symptoms, including mutism, ataxia/hypotonia, and emotional lability, develops in approximately 25% of children after the surgical resection of posterior fossa tumors...
October 27, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785575/diagnosis-of-joubert-syndrome-via-ultrasonography
#17
Baris Buke, Emre Canverenler, Göksun İpek, Semiha Canverenler, Hatice Akkaya
Joubert syndrome (JS) and related disorders (JSRD) are a group of multiple congenital anomaly syndromes in which the diagnostic hallmark is the molar tooth sign (MTS), a complex midbrain malformation visible on brain imaging. Detection of the MTS should be followed by a diagnostic protocol to assess multi-organ involvement. The incidence of JSRD ranges between 1/80,000 and 1/100,000 live births, although these values may represent an underestimate. The neurological components of JSRD include hypotonia, ataxia, intellectual disability, abnormal eye movements, and neonatal breathing problems...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773590/variant-type-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-with-diffuse-cerebral-white-matter-and-brainstem-involvement-associated-with-intracranial-hemorrhage
#18
Yin-Xi Zhang, Yang Zheng, Bi-Jun Zhang, Yun Zhang, Mei-Ping Ding, Bao-Rong Zhang
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological syndrome characterized by reversible vasogenic edema typically at a posterior location of the cerebrum. PRES with prominent brainstem or basal ganglia involvement is defined as central-variant, which is rare. We herein report an atypical case of a 35-year-old man with a 2-year history of untreated hypertension who complained of recurrent dizziness. The patient presented with brainstem and diffuse white matter involvement associated with intracranial hemorrhage and recovered fully after therapy...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773428/biallelic-mutations-in-tmtc3-encoding-a-transmembrane-and-tpr-containing-protein-lead-to-cobblestone-lissencephaly
#19
Julie Jerber, Maha S Zaki, Jumana Y Al-Aama, Rasim Ozgur Rosti, Tawfeg Ben-Omran, Esra Dikoglu, Jennifer L Silhavy, Caner Caglar, Damir Musaev, Beate Albrecht, Kevin P Campbell, Tobias Willer, Mariam Almuriekhi, Ahmet Okay Çağlayan, Jiri Vajsar, Kaya Bilgüvar, Gonul Ogur, Rami Abou Jamra, Murat Günel, Joseph G Gleeson
Cobblestone lissencephaly (COB) is a severe brain malformation in which overmigration of neurons and glial cells into the arachnoid space results in the formation of cortical dysplasia. COB occurs in a wide range of genetic disorders known as dystroglycanopathies, which are congenital muscular dystrophies associated with brain and eye anomalies and range from Walker-Warburg syndrome to Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy. Each of these conditions has been associated with alpha-dystroglycan defects or with mutations in genes encoding basement membrane components, which are known to interact with alpha-dystroglycan...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769253/the-role-of-anti-aquaporin-4-antibody-in-the-conversion-of-acute-brainstem-syndrome-to-neuromyelitis-optica
#20
Chen Cheng, Ying Jiang, Xiaodong Lu, Fu Gu, Zhuang Kang, Yongqiang Dai, Zhengqi Lu, Xueqiang Hu
BACKGROUND: Acute brainstem syndrome (ABS) may herald multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), or occur as an isolated syndrome. The aquaporin 4 (AQP4)-specific serum autoantibody, NMO-IgG, is a biomarker for NMO. However, the role of anti-AQP4 antibody in the conversion of ABS to NMO is unclear. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with first-event ABS were divided into two groups according to the presence of anti-AQP4 antibodies, their clinical features and outcomes were retrospectively analyzed...
October 21, 2016: BMC Neurology
keyword
keyword
113191
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"