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Unconventional therapies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349613/tumor-treating-fields-a-new-approach-to-glioblastoma-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan Rick, Ankush Chandra, Manish K Aghi
Glioblastoma is an aggressive brain malignancy with poor outcomes. Current standard of care involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Even with optimal treatment, 5-year survival rates are low. Many patients are unable to tolerate the considerable side effects that therapy involves and suffer from low quality of life. Anti-mitotic tumor treating fields have shown potential in treating glioblastoma with data suggesting that they prolong disease-free survival and overall survival. Novocure has marketed a device that generates these fields via externally placed electrodes...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323464/light-driven-shape-memory-porous-films-with-precisely-controlled-dimensions
#2
Wei Wang, Dingfeng Shen, Xiao Li, Yuan Yao, Jiaping Lin, Aurelia Wang, Jiwoo Yu, Zhonglin Wang, Suck Won Hong, Shaoliang Lin, Zhiqun Lin
Here we report an unconventional strategy for crafting light-driven shape memory porous films (SMPFs) by judiciously constructing highly ordered porous films via a facile "breath figure" approach, followed by sequential vapor crosslinking and nondestructive directional light manipulation. The latter can conveniently and precisely transform round micropores into other shapes including round-rectangle, round-rhombus and size-reduced micropores at room temperature. Importantly, the transformed micropores can be perfectly reverted to original shapes by either thermal annealing or UV irradiation...
January 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280201/yolk-shell-nanostructures-design-synthesis-and-biomedical-applications
#3
REVIEW
Li-Sen Lin, Jibin Song, Huang-Hao Yang, Xiaoyuan Chen
Yolk-shell nanostructures (YSNs) composed of a core within a hollow cavity surrounded by a porous outer shell have received tremendous research interest owing to their unique structural features, fascinating physicochemical properties, and widespread potential applications. Here, a comprehensive overview of the design, synthesis, and biomedical applications of YSNs is presented. The synthetic strategies toward YSNs are divided into four categories, including hard-templating, soft-templating, self-templating, and multimethod combination synthesis...
December 27, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273103/emerging-unconventional-therapies-for-alopecia-areata
#4
Natasha Atanaskova Mesinkovska
Alopecia areata is a prevalent autoimmune skin disease with no cure or indicated treatment options. In the absence of an approved treatment, some patients are eager to try unconventional therapies, despite the very limited research evaluating their safety and efficacy. Recently emerging unconventional therapies for alopecia areata discussed include antihistamines, cryotherapy, and low-dose naltrexone.
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234495/response-of-letter-to-the-editor-on-procalcitonin-a-promising-diagnostic-marker-for-sepsis-and-antibiotic-therapy
#5
R Saikant, Shilpa Ravindran, Ashitha Vijayan, Vani Maya, S Lakshmi, R Kartik, Manoj G
In a letter to the editor, Raineri SM et al. have given an insight of another dimension of procalcitonin (PCT) use as a diagnostic tool in invasive candidiasis. But based on our preliminary information, PCT is reported as unconventional modes of diagnosis approach which yet to prove its stand-alone biomarker properties for invasive candidiasis.
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193848/mesoporous-silica-and-organosilica-nanoparticles-physical-chemistry-biosafety-delivery-strategies-and-biomedical-applications
#6
REVIEW
Jonas G Croissant, Yevhen Fatieiev, Abdulaziz Almalik, Niveen M Khashab
Predetermining the physico-chemical properties, biosafety, and stimuli-responsiveness of nanomaterials in biological environments is essential for safe and effective biomedical applications. At the forefront of biomedical research, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles are increasingly investigated to predict their biological outcome by materials design. In this review, it is first chronicled that how the nanomaterial design of pure silica, partially hybridized organosilica, and fully hybridized organosilica (periodic mesoporous organosilicas) governs not only the physico-chemical properties but also the biosafety of the nanoparticles...
November 30, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182990/patterns-of-responses-in-metastatic-nsclc-during-pd-1-or-pdl-1-inhibitor-therapy-comparison-of-recist-1-1-irrecist-and-irecist-criteria
#7
M Tazdait, L Mezquita, J Lahmar, R Ferrara, F Bidault, S Ammari, C Balleyguier, D Planchard, A Gazzah, J C Soria, A Marabelle, B Besse, C Caramella
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are an important tool in the therapeutic strategy against metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, radiological evaluation is challenging due to the emergence of atypical patterns of responses. Several evaluation criteria have been proposed, such as the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST), version 1.1, immune -related RECIST (irRECIST) and iRECIST, but have not been systematically compared in a homogeneous population...
November 25, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164845/current-therapeutic-options-and-treatments-in-development-for-the-management-of-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#8
Jeffrey M Liebmann, Jeannie K Lee
Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma, and is responsible for approximately 90% of glaucoma cases in North America. POAG is characterized by an asymptomatic onset, where patients do not present with symptoms until significant visual loss occurs in late stages of the disease. Importantly, while glaucoma is associated with several risk factors that contribute to damage and disease progression, intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only proven modifiable risk factor at this time. Treatments for POAG include use of pharmacologic and surgical interventions...
September 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163483/cd4-t-cell-dysregulation-in-psoriatic-arthritis-reveals-a-regulatory-role-for-il-22
#9
Amara Ezeonyeji, Helen Baldwin, Milica Vukmanovic-Stejic, Michael R Ehrenstein
Dysregulation of interleukin-22 (IL-22) has been associated with autoimmune diseases but divergent effects upon inflammation have hampered efforts to define its contribution to pathogenesis. Here, we examined the role of IL-22 in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). In the peripheral blood of PsA patients, there was a decrease in IL-22+CD4+ T cells compared with healthy controls resulting in a heightened CD4+ IFNγ+/IL-22+ ratio accompanied by diminished CCR6 expression. IL-22 expressing cells were depleted primarily from the central memory CD4 T-cell subset in PsA patients...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122973/capsaicin-cream-for-treatment-of-cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-in-adolescents-a-case-series
#10
Jessica Graham, Michael Barberio, George Sam Wang
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is an underrecognized diagnosis among adolescents. In the adult literature, it is characterized as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain in patients with chronic marijuana use. CHS is often refractory to the standard treatment of nausea and vomiting. Unconventional antiemetics, such as haloperidol, have been successful in alleviating symptoms; however, even 1 dose of haloperidol can lead to grave adverse effects, such as dystonia, extrapyramidal reactions, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome...
December 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122246/nurses-knowledge-clinical-practice-and-attitude-towards-unconventional-medicine-implications-for-intercultural-healthcare
#11
Razak Mohammed Gyasi, Kabila Abass, Samuel Adu-Gyamfi, Burnett Tetteh Accam
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this hospital-based, cross-sectional study was to examine nurses' knowledge, personal and professional practices and attitude towards complementary and alternative medical therapies in urban Ghana. METHOD: Using convenience sampling technique, cross-sectional data were collected from 210 registered and practicing nurses with self-administered questionnaire based on the Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Health Belief Questionnaire (CHBQ)...
November 2017: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091327/unconventional-t-cells-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-on-long-term-suppressive-therapy-with-tenofovir-followed-by-a-peg-ifn-add-on-strategy-a-randomized-study
#12
Elvira Stefania Cannizzo, Camilla Tincati, Francesca Binda, Paola Ronzi, Federico Angelo Cazzaniga, Spinello Antinori, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Giulia Marchetti, Laura Milazzo
HBV eradication in Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) subjects is rarely achieved with either nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) or pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN), which both have a limited effect in restoring immune responses. 30 CHB subjects on long-term treatment with tenofovir (TDF) and HBV suppression were enrolled and randomized 1:2 to either receive Peg-IFN-α-2a add-on therapy or continue TDF alone. We studied γδT and iNKT frequency and function (by flow cytometry) at baseline, at 12 weeks and 12 weeks after the end of treatment...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077695/human-b-regulatory-cells-the-new-players-in-autoimmune-disease
#13
José L Maravillas-Montero, Ernesto Acevedo-Ochoa
Although the production of antigen-specific antibodies has been the originally accepted function of B-cells during immune responses, specific subsets that can negatively regulate inflammation, designated regulatory B-cells (Bregs), have been identified recently. These immunosuppressive cells support tolerance, mainly through the production of interleukin 10 and other unconventional factors. There have been emerging data suggesting their importance in diverse normal and pathologic processes. Novel and in development B-cell targeted therapies seem to be ideal treatments for different types of diseasessuch as cancer and allergy...
September 2017: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077522/a-novel-uveolymphatic-drainage-pathway-possible-new-target-for-glaucoma-treatment
#14
Martyna Tomczyk-Socha, Anna Turno-Kręcicka
Glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of ophthalmic diseases leading to irreversible damage to the optic nerve. While the overall mechanism responsible for glaucoma remains obscure, the most important risk factor is elevated intraocular pressure. The current therapies, whether pharmacological or surgical, are primarily symptomatic with the aim to lower the intraocular pressure (IOP). Poorer response to treatment is associated, for example, with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, which is determined by blocking the trabecular meshwork (TM) both by pigment grains and the pseudoexfoliation material...
December 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043889/unconventional-treatments-for-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy
#15
Yusuf A Rajabally
This article focuses on the unconventional treatments used in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). First line, evidence-based treatments for CIDP include corticosteroids, immunoglobulins and plasma exchanges. Several unproven treatments are however given in treatment-refractory disease or to reduce requirements in validated therapies for reasons of side effects/practical delivery/cost. Despite methodological issues, IFN-α, azathioprine and methotrexate have not been shown to be useful in randomized controlled trials...
October 18, 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983271/-health-in-the-mirror-an-unconventional-approach-to-unmet-psychological-needs-in-oncology
#16
Valentina E Di Mattei, Letizia Carnelli, Paola Taranto, Martina Bernardi, Chiara Brombin, Federica Cugnata, Angela Noviello, Morag Currin, Giorgia Mangili, Emanuela Rabaiotti, Lucio Sarno, Massimo Candiani
Background: The introduction of aesthetic care programs for cancer patients inside hospitals could help patients cope with the side effects of both disease and treatment. The specific objective of this study is to evaluate whether a complementary and supportive program, called "Health in the Mirror," has a positive effect on participants by analyzing certain psychological variables. Methods: Eighty-eight female cancer patients were included in this analysis. The support program is composed of three group aesthetic interventions that address both physical and psychological aspects that accompany cancer and its treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977573/dicer-independent-processing-of-small-rna-duplexes-mechanistic-insights-and-applications
#17
REVIEW
Elena Herrera-Carrillo, Ben Berkhout
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in the regulation of cellular gene expression via the conserved RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism. Biogenesis of the unusual miR-451 does not require Dicer. This molecule is instead processed by the Argonaute 2 (Ago2) enzyme. Similarly, unconventional short hairpin RNA (shRNA) molecules have been designed as miR-451 mimics that rely exclusively on Ago2 for maturation. We will review recent progress made in the understanding of this alternative processing route. Next, we describe different Dicer-independent shRNA designs that have been developed and discuss their therapeutic advantages and disadvantages...
October 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977448/optic-neuropathies-the-tip-of-the-neurodegeneration-iceberg
#18
Valerio Carelli, Chiara La Morgia, Fred N Ross-Cisneros, Alfredo A Sadun
The optic nerve and the cells that give origin to its 1.2 million axons, the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), are particularly vulnerable to neurodegeneration related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Optic neuropathies may range from non-syndromic genetic entities, to rare syndromic multisystem diseases with optic atrophy such as mitochondrial encephalomyopathies, to age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease where optic nerve involvement has, until recently, been a relatively overlooked feature...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952395/open-angle-glaucoma-therapeutically-targeting-the-extracellular-matrix-of-the-conventional-outflow-pathway
#19
REVIEW
Jeffrey O'Callaghan, Paul S Cassidy, Pete Humphries
Ocular hypertension in open-angle glaucoma is caused by a reduced rate of removal of aqueous humour (AH) from the eye, with the majority of AH draining from the anterior chamber through the conventional outflow pathway, comprising the trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's Canal. Resistance to outflow is generated, in part, by the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the outflow tissues. Current pressure-lowering topical medications largely suppress AH production, or enhance its clearance through the unconventional pathway...
November 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821454/low-dose-antithymocyte-globulin-for-graft-versus-host-disease-prophylaxis-in-matched-unrelated-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#20
Adam Bryant, Ranjeeta Mallick, Lothar Huebsch, David Allan, Harold Atkins, Grizel Anstee, Mitchell Sabloff, Nicholas Scrivens, Dawn Maze, Chris Bredeson, Natasha Kekre
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT). Prophylactic in vivo T cell depletion with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) has been associated with decreased GVHD rates in many alloHCT settings. Despite decades of clinical study, optimal ATG dosing has not been established. Understanding that higher rates of GVHD are observed with matched unrelated donor (MUD) versus matched related donor (MRD) alloHCT, at our institution MUD alloHCT recipients have historically had low-dose Thymoglobulin (total dose, 2...
August 15, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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