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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164845/current-therapeutic-options-and-treatments-in-development-for-the-management-of-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#1
Jeffrey M Liebmann, Jeannie K Lee
Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma, and is responsible for approximately 90% of glaucoma cases in North America. POAG is characterized by an asymptomatic onset, where patients do not present with symptoms until significant visual loss occurs in late stages of the disease. Importantly, while glaucoma is associated with several risk factors that contribute to damage and disease progression, intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only proven modifiable risk factor at this time. Treatments for POAG include use of pharmacologic and surgical interventions...
September 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163483/cd4-t-cell-dysregulation-in-psoriatic-arthritis-reveals-a-regulatory-role-for-il-22
#2
Amara Ezeonyeji, Helen Baldwin, Milica Vukmanovic-Stejic, Michael R Ehrenstein
Dysregulation of interleukin-22 (IL-22) has been associated with autoimmune diseases but divergent effects upon inflammation have hampered efforts to define its contribution to pathogenesis. Here, we examined the role of IL-22 in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). In the peripheral blood of PsA patients, there was a decrease in IL-22(+)CD4(+) T cells compared with healthy controls resulting in a heightened CD4(+) IFNγ(+)/IL-22(+) ratio accompanied by diminished CCR6 expression. IL-22 expressing cells were depleted primarily from the central memory CD4 T-cell subset in PsA patients...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122973/capsaicin-cream-for-treatment-of-cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-in-adolescents-a-case-series
#3
Jessica Graham, Michael Barberio, George Sam Wang
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is an underrecognized diagnosis among adolescents. In the adult literature, it is characterized as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain in patients with chronic marijuana use. CHS is often refractory to the standard treatment of nausea and vomiting. Unconventional antiemetics, such as haloperidol, have been successful in alleviating symptoms; however, even 1 dose of haloperidol can lead to grave adverse effects, such as dystonia, extrapyramidal reactions, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome...
November 9, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122246/nurses-knowledge-clinical-practice-and-attitude-towards-unconventional-medicine-implications-for-intercultural-healthcare
#4
Razak Mohammed Gyasi, Kabila Abass, Samuel Adu-Gyamfi, Burnett Tetteh Accam
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this hospital-based, cross-sectional study was to examine nurses' knowledge, personal and professional practices and attitude towards complementary and alternative medical therapies in urban Ghana. METHOD: Using convenience sampling technique, cross-sectional data were collected from 210 registered and practicing nurses with self-administered questionnaire based on the Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Health Belief Questionnaire (CHBQ)...
November 2017: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091327/unconventional-t-cells-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-on-long-term-suppressive-therapy-with-tenofovir-followed-by-a-peg-ifn-add-on-strategy-a-randomized-study
#5
Elvira Stefania Cannizzo, Camilla Tincati, Francesca Binda, Paola Ronzi, Federico Angelo Cazzaniga, Spinello Antinori, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Giulia Marchetti, Laura Milazzo
HBV eradication in Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) subjects is rarely achieved with either nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) or pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN), which both have a limited effect in restoring immune responses. 30 CHB subjects on long-term treatment with tenofovir (TDF) and HBV suppression were enrolled and randomized 1:2 to either receive Peg-IFN-α-2a add-on therapy or continue TDF alone. We studied γδT and iNKT frequency and function (by flow cytometry) at baseline, at 12 weeks and 12 weeks after the end of treatment...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077695/human-b-regulatory-cells-the-new-players-in-autoimmune-disease
#6
José L Maravillas-Montero, Ernesto Acevedo-Ochoa
Although the production of antigen-specific antibodies has been the originally accepted function of B-cells during immune responses, specific subsets that can negatively regulate inflammation, designated regulatory B-cells (Bregs), have been identified recently. These immunosuppressive cells support tolerance, mainly through the production of interleukin 10 and other unconventional factors. There have been emerging data suggesting their importance in diverse normal and pathologic processes. Novel and in development B-cell targeted therapies seem to be ideal treatments for different types of diseasessuch as cancer and allergy...
September 2017: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077522/a-novel-uveolymphatic-drainage-pathway-possible-new-target-for-glaucoma-treatment
#7
Martyna Tomczyk-Socha, Anna Turno-Kręcicka
Glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of ophthalmic diseases leading to irreversible damage to the optic nerve. While the overall mechanism responsible for glaucoma remains obscure, the most important risk factor is elevated intraocular pressure. The current therapies, whether pharmacological or surgical, are primarily symptomatic with the aim to lower the intraocular pressure (IOP). Poorer response to treatment is associated, for example, with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, which is determined by blocking the trabecular meshwork (TM) both by pigment grains and the pseudoexfoliation material...
October 27, 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043889/unconventional-treatments-for-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy
#8
Yusuf A Rajabally
This article focuses on the unconventional treatments used in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). First line, evidence-based treatments for CIDP include corticosteroids, immunoglobulins and plasma exchanges. Several unproven treatments are however given in treatment-refractory disease or to reduce requirements in validated therapies for reasons of side effects/practical delivery/cost. Despite methodological issues, IFN-α, azathioprine and methotrexate have not been shown to be useful in randomized controlled trials...
October 18, 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983271/-health-in-the-mirror-an-unconventional-approach-to-unmet-psychological-needs-in-oncology
#9
Valentina E Di Mattei, Letizia Carnelli, Paola Taranto, Martina Bernardi, Chiara Brombin, Federica Cugnata, Angela Noviello, Morag Currin, Giorgia Mangili, Emanuela Rabaiotti, Lucio Sarno, Massimo Candiani
Background: The introduction of aesthetic care programs for cancer patients inside hospitals could help patients cope with the side effects of both disease and treatment. The specific objective of this study is to evaluate whether a complementary and supportive program, called "Health in the Mirror," has a positive effect on participants by analyzing certain psychological variables. Methods: Eighty-eight female cancer patients were included in this analysis. The support program is composed of three group aesthetic interventions that address both physical and psychological aspects that accompany cancer and its treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977573/dicer-independent-processing-of-small-rna-duplexes-mechanistic-insights-and-applications
#10
REVIEW
Elena Herrera-Carrillo, Ben Berkhout
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in the regulation of cellular gene expression via the conserved RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism. Biogenesis of the unusual miR-451 does not require Dicer. This molecule is instead processed by the Argonaute 2 (Ago2) enzyme. Similarly, unconventional short hairpin RNA (shRNA) molecules have been designed as miR-451 mimics that rely exclusively on Ago2 for maturation. We will review recent progress made in the understanding of this alternative processing route. Next, we describe different Dicer-independent shRNA designs that have been developed and discuss their therapeutic advantages and disadvantages...
October 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977448/optic-neuropathies-the-tip-of-the-neurodegeneration-iceberg
#11
Valerio Carelli, Chiara La Morgia, Fred N Ross-Cisneros, Alfredo A Sadun
The optic nerve and the cells that give origin to its 1.2 million axons, the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), are particularly vulnerable to neurodegeneration related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Optic neuropathies may range from non-syndromic genetic entities, to rare syndromic multisystem diseases with optic atrophy such as mitochondrial encephalomyopathies, to age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease where optic nerve involvement has, until recently, been a relatively overlooked feature...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952395/open-angle-glaucoma-therapeutically-targeting-the-extracellular-matrix-of-the-conventional-outflow-pathway
#12
REVIEW
Jeffrey O'Callaghan, Paul S Cassidy, Pete Humphries
Ocular hypertension in open-angle glaucoma is caused by a reduced rate of removal of aqueous humour (AH) from the eye, with the majority of AH draining from the anterior chamber through the conventional outflow pathway, comprising the trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's Canal. Resistance to outflow is generated, in part, by the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the outflow tissues. Current pressure-lowering topical medications largely suppress AH production, or enhance its clearance through the unconventional pathway...
November 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821454/low-dose-antithymocyte-globulin-for-graft-versus-host-disease-prophylaxis-in-matched-unrelated-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#13
Adam Bryant, Ranjeeta Mallick, Lothar Huebsch, David Allan, Harold Atkins, Grizel Anstee, Mitchell Sabloff, Nicholas Scrivens, Dawn Maze, Chris Bredeson, Natasha Kekre
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT). Prophylactic in vivo T cell depletion with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) has been associated with decreased GVHD rates in many alloHCT settings. Despite decades of clinical study, optimal ATG dosing has not been established. Understanding that higher rates of GVHD are observed with matched unrelated donor (MUD) versus matched related donor (MRD) alloHCT, at our institution MUD alloHCT recipients have historically had low-dose Thymoglobulin (total dose, 2...
August 15, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777906/can-amputation-be-prevented-in-diabetic-foot-interdisciplinary-approach-to-diabetic-foot-a-case-report
#14
Ali Erdal Gunes, Maide Cimsit
Diabetic foot ulcers may result in loss of an extremity and may even lead to mortality. The use of comprehensive foot care programs which include early screening and evaluation of problems, foot care education, preventive therapy and referral to specialists has been shown to reduce amputation rates by 49-85 [percent]. A 51-year-old woman with Type 2 diabetes under surveillance for nine months was referred from the emergency department. She presented with an entirely inflamed right foot with ulcer covering two-thirds proximal of the foot for 30 days' duration...
March 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756306/atypical-responses-in-patients-with-advanced-melanoma-lung-cancer-renal-cell-carcinoma-and-other-solid-tumors-treated-with-anti-pd-1-drugs-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Paola Queirolo, Francesco Spagnolo
Anti-programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) drugs nivolumab and pembrolizumab were recently approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma and other solid tumors. Atypical patterns of response (i.e. tumor shrinkage or stabilization after initial progression) were observed in about 10% of metastatic melanoma patients treated with anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) drug ipilimumab and were associated with improved survival; however, the rate of atypical response patterns to anti-PD-1 therapy is not clear...
September 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716051/mir-380-5p-mediated-repression-of-tep1-and-tspyl5-interferes-with-telomerase-activity-and-favours-the-emergence-of-an-alt-like-phenotype-in-diffuse-malignant-peritoneal-mesothelioma-cells
#16
Graziella Cimino-Reale, Paolo Gandellini, Francesca Santambrogio, Marta Recagni, Nadia Zaffaroni, Marco Folini
BACKGROUND: Understanding the molecular/cellular underpinnings of diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM), a fatal malignancy with limited therapeutic options, is of utmost importance for the fruitful management of the disease. In this context, we previously found that telomerase activity (TA), which accounts for the limitless proliferative potential of cancer cells, is prognostic for disease relapse and cancer-related death in DMPM patients. Consequently, the identification of factors involved in telomerase activation/regulation may pave the way towards the development of novel therapeutic interventions for the disease...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707391/role-of-sentinel-lymph-node-biopsy-as-a-staging-procedure-in-patients-with-melanoma-a-critical-appraisal
#17
REVIEW
Omgo E Nieweg, Alan Cooper, John F Thompson
Worldwide, sentinel node (SN) biopsy for accurate staging is now part of the standard work-up of patients with melanomas ≥1.0 mm Breslow thickness, as it is for staging patients with breast cancer. Nuclear medicine imaging and surgical techniques have evolved to such a degree that a SN can be identified and removed in virtually every patient. Nevertheless, some opposition to a routine SN biopsy remains, perhaps due to a failure to appreciate the serious implications of incomplete or inaccurate staging. Guided by a critical appraisal of the available evidence, this review elucidates the definition of an SN, discusses the sensitivity and specificity of the information it provides, emphasises that it is a minor staging procedure that can lead to improved survival when followed by appropriate therapy, and explains the necessarily unconventional and complex design of the only randomised trial that addresses this subject...
July 14, 2017: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686935/effectiveness-of-an-individually-tailored-computerised-cbt-programme-deprexis-for-depression-a-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Conal Twomey, Gary O'Reilly, Björn Meyer
Computerised cognitive behavioural therapy (cCBT) programmes differ widely but have rarely been evaluated separately through meta-analysis. Through a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, we investigated the effectiveness of 'Deprexis', an unconventional and individually-tailored cCBT programme for depression. Comparisons from eight studies (N = 2402) demonstrated the effectiveness of Deprexis for depressive symptoms at post-intervention, with a medium effect size (g = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.39-0.69). Analogous results arose when study quality, screening, and randomisation procedure were taken into account...
June 27, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680208/sarcoidosis-presenting-with-tracheobronchial-calcification-and-nodularity-an-unusual-case-presentation-with-treatment-response-assessment-by-18-f-fdg-pet-ct
#19
Sameer Bansal, Ketaki Utpat, Unnati Desai, Sandip Basu, Jyotsna M Joshi
Airway involvement, tracheobronchial nodularity, and calcification are rare occurrences and unorthodox phenomena in sarcoidosis. Here, we report such an unusual case manifesting as tracheal calcification and nodules of the central airways. Radiology and bronchoscopy provide useful diagnostic clues when combined with histopathology. This case serves as an aide-memorie for the variegated presentations of sarcoidosis and emphasizes a high index of suspicion for the entity in such unconventional circumstances. An early favorable treatment response assessment to corticosteroid therapy was shown with (18)F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675648/boronic-acid-functionalized-photosensitizers-a-strategy-to-target-the-surface-of-bacteria-and-implement-active-agents-in-polymer-coatings
#20
Anzhela Galstyan, Roswitha Schiller, Ulrich Dobrindt
Advanced methods for preventing and controlling hospital-acquired infections via eradication of free-floating bacteria and bacterial biofilms are of great interest. In this regard, the attractiveness of unconventional treatment modalities such as antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) continues to grow. This study investigated a new and innovative strategy for targeting polysaccharides found on the bacterial cell envelope and the biofilm matrix using the boronic acid functionalized and highly effective photosensitizer (PS) silicon(IV) phthalocyanine...
July 4, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
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