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Unconventional therapies

M Vouri, D R Croucher, S P Kennedy, Q An, G J Pilkington, S Hafizi
Acquired resistance to conventional and targeted therapies is becoming a major hindrance in cancer management. It is increasingly clear that cancer cells are able to evolve and rewire canonical signalling pathways to their advantage, thus evading cell death and promoting cell invasion. The Axl receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) has been shown to modulate acquired resistance to EGFR-targeted therapies in both breast and lung cancers. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly infiltrative and invasive form of brain tumour with little response to therapy...
October 24, 2016: Oncogenesis
Emanuele D'Amico, Francesco Patti, Aurora Zanghì, Mario Zappia
Using the term of progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS), we considered a combined population of persons with secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS). These forms of MS cannot be challenged with efficacy by the licensed therapy. In the last years, several measures of risk estimation were developed for predicting clinical course in MS, but none is specific for the PMS forms. Personalized medicine is a therapeutic approach, based on identifying what might be the best therapy for an individual patient, taking into account the risk profile...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jens Geginat, Moira Paroni, Ilko Kastirr, Paola Larghi, Massimiliano Pagani, Sergio Abrignani
Th17 cells are a heterogeneous population of pro-inflammatory T cells that have been shown to mediate immune responses against intestinal bacteria. Th17 cells are highly plastic and can transdifferentiate to Th1/17 cells or unconventional Th1 cells, which are highly pathogenic in animal models of immune-mediated diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases. A recent European Journal of Immunology article by Liu et al. (Eur. J. Immunol. 2015. 45:1010-1018) showed, surprisingly, that Th1 cells have a similar plasticity, and could transdifferentiate to Th17 cells...
October 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Min Thura, Abdul Qader Omer Al-Aidaroos, Wei Peng Yong, Koji Kono, Abhishek Gupta, You Bin Lin, Kousaku Mimura, Jean Paul Thiery, Boon Cher Goh, Patrick Tan, Ross Soo, Cheng William Hong, Lingzhi Wang, Suling Joyce Lin, Elya Chen, Sun Young Rha, Hyun Cheol Chung, Jie Li, Sayantani Nandi, Hiu Fung Yuen, Shu-Dong Zhang, Yeoh Khay Guan, Jimmy So, Qi Zeng
Novel, tumor-specific drugs are urgently needed for a breakthrough in cancer therapy. Herein, we generated a first-in-class humanized antibody (PRL3-zumab) against PRL-3, an intracellular tumor-associated phosphatase upregulated in multiple human cancers, for unconventional cancer immunotherapies. We focused on gastric cancer (GC), wherein elevated PRL-3 mRNA levels significantly correlated with shortened overall survival of GC patients. PRL-3 protein was overexpressed in 85% of fresh-frozen clinical gastric tumor samples examined but not in patient-matched normal gastric tissues...
June 16, 2016: JCI Insight
Rosa Falcone, Michela Roberto, Chiara D'Antonio, Adriana Romiti, Annalisa Milano, Concetta Elisa Onesti, Paolo Marchetti, Stefano Fais
BACKGROUND: In recent years, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been investigated at high-dose to modulate tumour microenvironment acidification thus restoring chemotherapeutic sensitivity. Moreover, several clinical data supports the role of cytotoxic drugs at low-dose continuously delivered as anticancer therapy. METHODS: Clinical records of three patients affected with gastrointestinal cancer refractory to standard treatments, who had received a combination of high-dose rabeprazole and metronomic chemotherapy were reviewed...
September 1, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
Caroline Cole
CASE SUMMARY: A 6 yr old 45 kg child with severe Cushinoid features was admitted to PICU with probable hypertensive encephalopathy. She presented with increasing headaches, vomiting and seizures becoming unresponsive with a GCS of 3. She was profoundly hypertensive and her cortisol levels were significantly elevated (>2000 nmol/L). Rapid reduction in cortisol levels was required to stabilise her condition prior to surgery. Etomidate is the only readily available intravenous preparation which reliably suppresses adrenocortical function...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Karin E Reuter-Rice, Bradley M Peterson
Amlodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, is commonly prescribed for the treatment of hypertension. Ingestion of an overdose leads to severe hypotension; if the hypotension is not treated, death may be imminent. Conventional and unconventional interventions were used to treat an adolescent who ingested a life-threatening dose of amlodipine. Severe hypotension resistant to conventional treatment with intralipids and hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia therapy led to the use of plasmapheresis and a pneumatic antishock garment as lifesaving measures...
August 2016: Critical Care Nurse
Oscar Fernández, Roberto Cachán-Cruz
One of the major transformations in religion in contemporary societies has been the decline of church institutions and their reconstruction within a diverse network of associations, therapies, markets and other unconventional spiritual services. Based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork on religious behaviours and dynamics in sports contexts, and taking the similarities between sport and religion as the point of departure, this paper analyses, reflects on and theorises about the symbolic affinities of these two contemporary social institutions...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
Mizuki Nishino
The recent study by Hodi et al. published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology has evaluated unconventional response patterns during PD-1 inhibitor therapy using immune-related response criteria (irRC) in comparison with RECIST1.1, which constitutes an important step to further understand immune-related response phenomena. This commentary discusses the key observations in the study in terms of their implications and pitfalls, and describes unmet needs that remain to be addressed. The article also emphasizes the important role of tumor response criteria as a "common language" to describe the results of cancer treatment, and discusses future directions for further advances of the field of immuno-oncology...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Denise J Lo, Blayne A Sayed, Nicole A Turgeon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in surgical technique and immunosuppression have significantly improved outcomes after pancreas transplantation, and as a result pancreas transplants increasingly are being performed for indications other than type 1 diabetes mellitus. This review summarizes the current literature on pancreas transplantation in unconventional recipient populations. RECENT FINDINGS: An increasing body of work suggests that pancreas transplantation can be performed with good outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and those 50 years of age and older...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Marie-Christine R Shakib, Shreef G N Gabrial, Gamal N Gabrial
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is one of the chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (lymphoid neoplasms). It is characterized by a progressive accumulation of functionally incompetent lymphocytes. Patients with leukemia often seek unconventional treatments not prescribed by hematologist in order to improve their cancer treatment outcome or to manage symptoms. In the present report, a 76-year-old patient was diagnosed with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Beetroot-carrot juice is used as a complementary and or/alternative therapy used in conjunction with conventional leukemic treatment (chlorambucil) that has been a standard first-line chemotherapeutic agent for patients with CLL and known to have serious and undesirable side-effects...
June 15, 2015: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Elodie Picarda, Kim C Ohaegbulam, Xingxing Zang
B7-H3 (CD276) is an important immune checkpoint member of the B7 and CD28 families. Induced on antigen-presenting cells, B7-H3 plays an important role in the inhibition of T-cell function. Importantly, B7-H3 is highly overexpressed on a wide range of human solid cancers and often correlates with both negative prognosis and poor clinical outcome in patients. Challenges remain to identify the receptor(s) of B7-H3 and thus better elucidate the role of the B7-H3 pathway in immune responses and tumor evasion. With a preferential expression on tumor cells, B7-H3 is an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy...
July 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Jeremy Y Ng, Heather S Boon, Alison K Thompson, Cynthia R Whitehead
BACKGROUND: Medical pluralism has flourished throughout the Western world in spite of efforts to legitimize Western biomedical healthcare as "conventional medicine" and thereby relegate all non-physician-related forms of healthcare to an "other" category. These "other" practitioners have been referred to as "unconventional", "alternative" and "complementary", among other terms throughout the past half century. METHODS: This study investigates the discourses surrounding the changes in the terms, and their meanings, used to describe unconventional medicine in North America...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Kate Johnson, Bryan Brunet
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common malignancy in males aged 20 to 39, and the incidence is increasing. TGCTs have a tendency to grow rapidly with a high risk of metastatic spread. TGCTs generally present with a palpable testicular mass, yet may present less commonly with symptoms arising from metastatic disease.  A 24-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with progressive headaches. Initial imaging reported a single mass in the right frontal lobe. Complete surgical resection revealed suspicion for metastatic poorly differentiated carcinoma with an inconclusive immunohistochemical profile...
2016: Curēus
Ernest B Izevbigie, C B Howard, K S Lee
Folk medicine (FM) is practiced by people without access to conventional medical services; it usually involves the use of natural remedies such as herbs or vegetable substances. Before the use of pharmaceutical drugs, and surgical procedures, these healing methods were used, and are still in use today. It is estimated that twenty five percent of all therapeutic drugs trace their origins to plants, and almost two-thirds of the people of the world rely on their healing powers. One hundred years ago, health care in the U...
2008: Current Pharmaceutical Analysis
Elizabeth Allen, Pascal Miéville, Carmen M Warren, Sadegh Saghafinia, Leanne Li, Mei-Wen Peng, Douglas Hanahan
Therapeutic targeting of tumor angiogenesis with VEGF inhibitors results in demonstrable, but transitory efficacy in certain human tumors and mouse models of cancer, limited by unconventional forms of adaptive/evasive resistance. In one such mouse model, potent angiogenesis inhibitors elicit compartmental reorganization of cancer cells around remaining blood vessels. The glucose and lactate transporters GLUT1 and MCT4 are induced in distal hypoxic cells in a HIF1α-dependent fashion, indicative of glycolysis...
May 10, 2016: Cell Reports
P N Matkar, H Leong-Poi, K K Singh
The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing throughout the world and is associated with elevated morbidity and mortality. Gene therapy to treat cardiac dysfunction is gaining importance because of the limited therapeutic benefit offered by pharmacotherapies. The growing knowledge of the complex signaling pathways and the development of sophisticated vectors and delivery systems, are facilitating identification and targeting of specific molecular candidates involved in initiation and progression of CVDs...
August 2016: Gene Therapy
Kimberly F Raab-Graham, Emily R Workman, Sanjeev Namjoshi, Farr Niere
Healthy neurons have an optimal operating range, coded globally by the frequency of action potentials or locally by calcium. The maintenance of this range is governed by homeostatic plasticity. Here, we discuss how new approaches to treat depression alter synaptic activity. These approaches induce the neuron to recruit homeostatic mechanisms to relieve depression. Homeostasis generally implies that the direction of activity necessary to restore the neuron's critical operating range is opposite in direction to its current activity pattern...
September 15, 2016: Brain Research
Hao Tan, Lu Zhang, Yuding Weng, Ronghao Chen, Feng Zhu, Yongxin Jin, Zhihui Cheng, Shouguang Jin, Weihui Wu
Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes acute and chronic infections in human. Its increasing resistance to antibiotics requires alternative treatments that are more effective than available strategies. Among the alternatives is the unconventional usage of conventional antibiotics, of which the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM) provides a paradigmatic example. AZM therapy is associated with a small but consistent improvement in respiratory function of cystic fibrosis patients suffering from chronic P. aeruginosa infection...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
E Rugini, V Cristofori, C Silvestri
In olive (Olea europaea L.) traditional methods of genetic improvement have up to now produced limited results. Intensification of olive growing requires appropriate new cultivars for fully mechanized groves, but among the large number of the traditional varieties very few are suitable. High-density and super high-density hedge row orchards require genotypes with reduced size, reduced apical dominance, a semi-erect growth habit, easy to propagate, resistant to abiotic and biotic stresses, with reliably high productivity and quality of both fruits and oil...
September 2016: Biotechnology Advances
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