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Yaogong Zhang, Jiahui Liu, Xiaohu Liu, Yuxiang Hong, Xin Fan, Yalou Huang, Yuan Wang, Maoqiang Xie
Gene-phenotype association prediction can be applied to reveal the inherited basis of human diseases and facilitate drug development. Gene-phenotype associations are related to complex biological processes and influenced by various factors, such as relationship between phenotypes and that among genes. While due to sparseness of curated gene-phenotype associations and lack of integrated analysis of the joint effect of multiple factors, existing applications are limited to prediction accuracy and potential gene-phenotype association detection...
April 24, 2018: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
X S Qian, S Ge
Along with the development of periodontal medicine, there is a growing number of evidence showing that periodontitis could influence systemic health. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by microbial infection mediated by dental plaque. Periodontal pathogenic microorganisms and its toxic products can disseminate through the blood stream or may cause the host immune response, which may lead to pathological changes of cerebral vessels and brain tissues to establish connection with Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
April 9, 2018: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
Siqiu Guo, Tao Zhang, Yulong Song, Feng Qian
This paper presents a particle swarm tracking algorithm with improved inertia weight based on color features. The weighted color histogram is used as the target feature to reduce the contribution of target edge pixels in the target feature, which makes the algorithm insensitive to the target non-rigid deformation, scale variation, and rotation. Meanwhile, the influence of partial obstruction on the description of target features is reduced. The particle swarm optimization algorithm can complete the multi-peak search, which can cope well with the object occlusion tracking problem...
April 23, 2018: Sensors
Alejandro Baldominos, Yago Saez, Pedro Isasi
Human activity recognition is a challenging problem for context-aware systems and applications. It is gaining interest due to the ubiquity of different sensor sources, wearable smart objects, ambient sensors, etc. This task is usually approached as a supervised machine learning problem, where a label is to be predicted given some input data, such as the signals retrieved from different sensors. For tackling the human activity recognition problem in sensor network environments, in this paper we propose the use of deep learning (convolutional neural networks) to perform activity recognition using the publicly available OPPORTUNITY dataset...
April 23, 2018: Sensors
Fulong Ren, Peng Cao, Dazhe Zhao, Chao Wan
BACKGROUND: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is one of the severe complication of diabetic retinopathy causing severe vision loss and leads to blindness in severe cases if left untreated. OBJECTIVE: To grade the severity of DME in retinal images. METHODS: Firstly, the macular is localized using its anatomical features and the information of the macula location with respect to the optic disc. Secondly, a novel method for the exudates detection is proposed...
April 10, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Jirui Lin, Laiyuan Xiao, Tao Wu
BACKGROUND: Video-based face recognition has attracted much attention owning to its wide range of applications such as video surveillance. There are various approaches for facial feature extraction. Feature vectors extracted by these approaches tend to have large dimension and may include redundant information for face representation, which limits the application of methods with high accuracy such as machine learning. OBJECTIVE: Facial landmarks represent the intrinsic characteristics of human face, which can be utilized to decrease redundant information and reduce the computation complexity...
April 10, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Michael Schubert, Martin Oberreich, Jan Scholten
The analysis of natural radium-in-water activity concentrations is for two reasons of general interest: (1) radium in natural waters may pose a problem with regard to radiation protection and (2) radium isotopes in natural waters can be used as environmental tracers in hydrological studies. A state-of-the-art method for radium extraction from (generally large) water sample volumes is radium adsorption onto MnO2 coated acrylic fibers. In our study we comparatively evaluated four methodical approaches for post-extraction preparation of the fiber to allow gamma spectrometric measurements...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Shanshan Chen, Erica Wohlers, Eric Ruud, Jon Moon, Bin Ni, Francesco S Celi
Metabolic chambers are powerful tools for assessing human energy expenditure, providing flexibility and comfort for the subjects in a near free-living environment. However, the flexibility offered by the large living room size creates challenges in the assessment of dynamic human metabolic signals-such as those generated during high-intensity interval training and short-term involuntary physical activities-with sufficient temporal accuracy. Therefore, this paper presents methods to improve the temporal accuracy of metabolic chambers...
2018: PloS One
Birgit Spiess, Nicole Naumann, Norbert Galuschek, Sébastien Rinaldetti, Ute Kossak-Roth, Irina Tarnopolscaia, Elena Felde, Alice Fabarius, Wolf-Karsten Hofmann, Susanne Saußele, Wolfgang Seifarth
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is state of the art in molecular monitoring of minimal residual disease in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In this context, maintenance of assay fidelity and detection of technical inaccuracy are crucial. Beside multiple common negative controls for the clinical sample preparations, quality control charts (QCC) are a common validation tool to sustain high process quality by continuously recording of qRT-PCR control parameters. Here, we report on establishment and benefit of QCC in qRT-PCR-based CML diagnostics...
2018: PloS One
Giacomo Talenti, Renzo Manara, Davide Brotto, Felice D'Arco
Inner ear malformations (IEMs), recognized by imaging in 20% of children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), can be caused by both genetic anomalies and environmental causes. Recent histopathologic studies have provided new insights on the anatomy and pathogenesis of incomplete partitions and cochlear hypoplasia, for which different subtypes have been identified. Current IEM's classification systems are radiologically based, and modern advances in MR imaging now allow distinction of such different subtypes in most of the cases...
April 24, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
David de Gonzalo-Calvo, Angela Vea, Christian Bär, Jan Fiedler, Liam S Couch, Carlos Brotons, Vicenta Llorente-Cortes, Thomas Thum
Current clinical guidelines emphasize the unmet need for technological innovations to guide physician decision-making and to transit from conventional care to personalized cardiovascular medicine. Biomarker-guided cardiovascular therapy represents an interesting approach to inform tailored treatment selection and monitor ongoing efficacy. However, results from previous publications cast some doubts about the clinical applicability of biomarkers to direct individualized treatment. In recent years, the non-coding human transcriptome has emerged as a new opportunity for the development of novel therapeutic strategies and biomarker discovery...
April 24, 2018: European Heart Journal
Xianxiao Zhou, Minghui Wang, Igor Katsyv, Hanna Irie, Bin Zhang
Motivation: Availability of large-scale genomic, epigenetic and proteomic data in complex diseases makes it possible to objectively and comprehensively identify therapeutic targets that can lead to new therapies. The Connectivity Map has been widely used to explore novel indications of existing drugs. However, the prediction accuracy of the existing methods, such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic remains low. Here we present a novel high-performance drug repositioning approach that improves over the state-of-the-art methods...
April 24, 2018: Bioinformatics
Pim W J M Frederix, Ilias Patmanidis, Siewert J Marrink
In bionanotechnology, the field of creating functional materials consisting of bio-inspired molecules, the function and shape of a nanostructure only appear through the assembly of many small molecules together. The large number of building blocks required to define a nanostructure combined with the many degrees of freedom in packing small molecules has long precluded molecular simulations, but recent advances in computational hardware as well as software have made classical simulations available to this strongly expanding field...
April 24, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Georg E Kindermann, Ferdinand Kristöfel, Markus Neumann, Günter Rössler, Thomas Ledermann, Silvio Schueler
In 1892 a forest spacing experiment with four different spacing patterns was established with Norway spruce (Picea abies). From 1923 until 1997, when the stand was harvested, diameter, height and height to crown base of in total 4507 trees were measured up to 23 times. The original aim of the experiment during establishment was to analyse short term effects of different spacing patterns. The thinning regime followed state of the art forestry practises. During the observation time of more than 100 years, the individual observers and the measurement technology changed several times...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Data
Amy E Settle, Laura Berstis, Shuting Zhang, Nicholas Rorrer, Haiming Hu, Ryan Richards, Gregg Beckham, Michael Crowley, Derek Vardon
cis,cis-Muconic acid is a platform biobased chemical that can be upgraded to drop-in commodity and novel monomers. Among the possible drop-in products, dimethyl terephthalate can be synthesized via esterification, isomerization, Diels-Alder cycloaddition, and dehydrogenation. The isomerization of cis,cis-dimethyl muconate (ccDMM) to the trans,trans-form (ttDMM) can be catalyzed by iodine; however, studies have yet to address (i) the mechanism and reaction barriers unique to DMM, and (ii) the influence of solvent, potential for catalyst recycle, and recovery of high-purity ttDMM...
April 16, 2018: ChemSusChem
Ming-Zhi Zhu, Gui-Lin Chen, Jian-Lin Wu, Na Li, Zhong-Hua Liu, Ming-Quan Guo
INTRODUCTION: Medicinal plants are gaining increasing attention worldwide due to their empirical therapeutic efficacy and being a huge natural compound pool for new drug discovery and development. The efficacy, safety and quality of medicinal plants are the main concerns, which are highly dependent on the comprehensive analysis of chemical components in the medicinal plants. With the advances in mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, comprehensive analysis and fast identification of complex phytochemical components have become feasible, and may meet the needs, for the analysis of medicinal plants...
April 23, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Karl Ravet, Eric L Patterson, Hansjörg Krähmer, Kateřina Hamouzová, Longjiang Fan, Marie Jasieniuk, Amy Lawton-Rauh, Jenna M Malone, J Scott McElroy, Aldo Merotto, Philip Westra, Christopher Preston, Martin M Vila-Aiub, Roberto Busi, Patrick J Tranel, Carl Reinhardt, Christopher Saski, Roland Beffa, Paul Neve, Todd A Gaines
There have been previous calls for, and efforts focused on, realizing the power and potential of weed genomics for better understanding of weeds. Sustained advances in genome sequencing and assembly technologies now make it possible for individual research groups to generate reference genomes for multiple weed species at reasonable costs. Here, we present the outcomes from several meetings, discussions, and workshops focused on establishing an International Weed Genomics Consortium (IWGC) for a coordinated international effort in weed genomics...
April 24, 2018: Pest Management Science
Chao Luo, Xiao Ji, Singyuk Hou, Nico Eidson, Xiulin Fan, Yujia Liang, Tao Deng, Jianjun Jiang, Chunsheng Wang
Organic compounds are desirable alternatives for sustainable lithium-ion battery electrodes. However, the electrochemical properties of state-of-the-art organic electrodes are still worse than commercial inorganic counterparts. Here, a new chemistry is reported based on the electrochemical conversion of nitro compounds to azo compounds for high performance lithium-ion batteries. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid lithium salt (NBALS) is selected as a model nitro compound to systemically investigate the structure, lithiation/delithiation mechanism, and electrochemical performance of nitro compounds...
April 24, 2018: Advanced Materials
Atul Kumar Verma, Indu Saini, Barjinder Singh Saini
The electrocardiogram (ECG) non-invasively monitors the electrical activities of the heart. During the process of recording and transmission, ECG signals are often corrupted by various types of noises. Minimizations of these noises facilitate accurate detection of various anomalies. In the present paper, Alexander fractional differential window (AFDW) filter is proposed for ECG signal denoising. The designed filter is based on the concept of generalized Alexander polynomial and the R-L differential equation of fractional calculus...
April 23, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Kirsten Ziman, Andrew C Heusser, Paxton C Fitzpatrick, Campbell E Field, Jeremy R Manning
Verbal responses are a convenient and naturalistic way for participants to provide data in psychological experiments (Salzinger, The Journal of General Psychology, 61(1),65-94:1959). However, audio recordings of verbal responses typically require additional processing, such as transcribing the recordings into text, as compared with other behavioral response modalities (e.g., typed responses, button presses, etc.). Further, the transcription process is often tedious and time-intensive, requiring human listeners to manually examine each moment of recorded speech...
April 23, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
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