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Jicong Fan, Zhaoyang Tian, Mingbo Zhao, Tommy W S Chow
The scalability of low-rank representation (LRR) to large-scale data is still a major research issue, because it is extremely time-consuming to solve singular value decomposition (SVD) in each optimization iteration especially for large matrices. Several methods were proposed to speed up LRR, but they are still computationally heavy, and the overall representation results were also found degenerated. In this paper, a novel method, called accelerated LRR (ALRR) is proposed for large-scale data. The proposed accelerated method integrates matrix factorization with nuclear-norm minimization to find a low-rank representation...
February 2, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Moritz Ebeler, Ola Lind, Nils Norrman, Ronnie Palmgren, Matthias Franzreb
Monoclonal antibodies are a dominant component of today's biopharmaceutical market and are typically purified by classical platform processes. However, high costs and rising demands are drivers for the development of new, efficient and flexible integrated purification processes. Currently, high-gradient magnetic separation as a direct capturing tool for protein purification suffers from the lack of suitable GMP-compliant separation equipment for industrial scale. As a solution for this bottleneck, we present a purification process for a monoclonal antibody directly from CHO cell culture by use of protein A-functionalized magnetic particles together with the first pilot-scale GMP-compliant 'rotor-stator' high-gradient magnetic separator...
February 20, 2018: New Biotechnology
Min Zeng, Sha Jin, Kaiming Ye
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting enables the creation of tissue constructs with heterogeneous compositions and complex architectures. It was initially used for preparing scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. It has recently been adopted to create living tissues, such as cartilage, skin, and heart valve. To facilitate vascularization, hollow channels have been created in the hydrogels by 3D bioprinting. This review discusses the state of the art of the technology, along with a broad range of biomaterials used for 3D bioprinting...
February 1, 2018: SLAS Technology
Onkar Krishna, Andrea Helo, Pia Rämä, Kiyoharu Aizawa
Knowledge of the human visual system helps to develop better computational models of visual attention. State-of-the-art models have been developed to mimic the visual attention system of young adults that, however, largely ignore the variations that occur with age. In this paper, we investigated how visual scene processing changes with age and we propose an age-adapted framework that helps to develop a computational model that can predict saliency across different age groups. Our analysis uncovers how the explorativeness of an observer varies with age, how well saliency maps of an age group agree with fixation points of observers from the same or different age groups, and how age influences the center bias tendency...
2018: PloS One
Arnab Chanda, Christian Callaway
Blast injuries affect millions of lives across the globe due to its traumatic after effects on the brain and the whole body. To date, military grade armour materials are designed to mitigate ballistic and shrapnel attacks but are less effective in resisting blast impacts. In order to improve blast absorption characteristics of armours, the first key step is thoroughly understands the effects of blasts on the human body itself. In the last decade, a plethora of experimental and computational work has been carried out to investigate the mechanics and pathophysiology of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Mohcine Elmessaoudi-Idrissi, Arnaud Blondel, Anass Kettani, Marc P Windisch, Soumaya Benjelloun, Sayeh Ezzikouri
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a major global health burden. Interferon alpha and nucleos(t)ide analogues are currently the standard-of-care for chronic HBV infection. However, these antiviral agents have limited efficacy and do not result in a sustained virological response in the majority of infected patients. Virtual Screening (VS) strategies have now a strong impact on drug discovery, the strength of this research field has been corroborated by recent contributions in the development of novel drug candidates which are in clinical trials or which are already available in the clinics...
February 21, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Chiara Tonda-Turo, Nicola Origlia, Clara Mattu, Alice Accorroni, Valeria Chiono
Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease are the most common neurodegenerative diseases worldwide and their incidence is increasing due to the aging population. At the moment, the available therapies are not disease modifying and have several limitations, some of which are discussed in this review. One of the main limitations of these treatments is the low concentration that drugs reach in the central nervous system after systemic administration. Indeed, the presence of biological barriers, particularly the blood brain barrier (BBB), hinders the effective drug delivery to the brain, reducing the potential benefit coming from the administration of the medication...
February 21, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Melaine A Kuenemann, Denis Fourches
The With-No-Lysine (WNK) serine/threonine kinase family constitutes a unique and distinctive branch of the kinome. The four proteins of this family (WNK1/2/3/4) are involved in blood pressure regulation, body fluid, and electrolyte homeostasis. Herein, we modeled and analyzed the binding modes of all publicly-available small orthosteric and allosteric binders (including WNK463 and WNK467) experimentally tested towards any of the WNK family member. To do so, we relied on state-of-the-art cheminformatics approaches including structure-based molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations...
February 23, 2018: Molecular Informatics
Xiaoling Teng, Youzhi Qin, Xia Wang, Hongsen Li, Xiantao Shang, Shuting Fan, Qiang Li, Jie Xu, Derang Cao, Shandong Li
Nanocrystalline Fe2 O3 thin films are deposited directly on the conduct substrates by pulsed laser deposition as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. We demonstrate the well-designed Fe2 O3 film electrodes are capable of excellent high-rate performance (510 mAh g- 1 at high current density of 15,000 mA g- 1 ) and superior cycling stability (905 mAh g- 1 at 100 mA g- 1 after 200 cycles), which are among the best reported state-of-the-art Fe2 O3 anode materials. The outstanding lithium storage performances of the as-synthesized nanocrystalline Fe2 O3 film are attributed to the advanced nanostructured architecture, which not only provides fast kinetics by the shortened lithium-ion diffusion lengths but also prolongs cycling life by preventing nanosized Fe2 O3 particle agglomeration...
February 23, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Yun-Kun Qi, Hua-Song Ai, Yi-Ming Li, Baihui Yan
In the post-genome era, epigenetics has received increasing attentions in recent years. The post-translational modifications (PTMs) of four core histones play central roles in epigenetic regulation of eukaryotic genome by either directly altering the biophysical properties of nucleosomes or by recruiting other effector proteins. In order to study the biological functions and structural mechanisms of these histone PTMs, an obligatory step is to prepare a sufficient amount of homogeneously modified histones. This task cannot be fully accomplished either by recombinant technology or enzymatic modification...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Hiroshi Kageyama, Katsuro Hayashi, Kazuhiko Maeda, J Paul Attfield, Zenji Hiroi, James M Rondinelli, Kenneth R Poeppelmeier
During the last century, inorganic oxide compounds laid foundations for materials synthesis, characterization, and technology translation by adding new functions into devices previously dominated by main-group element semiconductor compounds. Today, compounds with multiple anions beyond the single-oxide ion, such as oxyhalides and oxyhydrides, offer a new materials platform from which superior functionality may arise. Here we review the recent progress, status, and future prospects and challenges facing the development and deployment of mixed-anion compounds, focusing mainly on oxide-derived materials...
February 22, 2018: Nature Communications
Andy Zhou, Benjamin C Johnson, Rikky Muller
Closed-loop and responsive neuromodulation systems improve open-loop neurostimulation by responding directly to measured neural activity and providing adaptive, on-demand therapy. To be effective, these systems must be able to simultaneously record and stimulate neural activity, a task made difficult by persistent stimulation artifacts that distort and obscure underlying biomarkers. To enable simultaneous stimulation and recording, several techniques have been proposed. These techniques involve artifact-preventing system configurations, resilient recording front-ends, and back-end signal processing for removing recorded artifacts...
February 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Jianfeng Qu, Dantong Ouyang, Wen Hua, Yuxin Ye, Ximing Li
Distant supervision for neural relation extraction is an efficient approach to extracting massive relations with reference to plain texts. However, the existing neural methods fail to capture the critical words in sentence encoding and meanwhile lack useful sentence information for some positive training instances. To address the above issues, we propose a novel neural relation extraction model. First, we develop a word-level attention mechanism to distinguish the importance of each individual word in a sentence, increasing the attention weights for those critical words...
January 31, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Lei Deng, Peng Jiao, Jing Pei, Zhenzhi Wu, Guoqi Li
Although deep neural networks (DNNs) are being a revolutionary power to open up the AI era, the notoriously huge hardware overhead has challenged their applications. Recently, several binary and ternary networks, in which the costly multiply-accumulate operations can be replaced by accumulations or even binary logic operations, make the on-chip training of DNNs quite promising. Therefore there is a pressing need to build an architecture that could subsume these networks under a unified framework that achieves both higher performance and less overhead...
February 2, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Giacomo Lorenzini, Cristina Nali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jun-Yan He, Xiao Wu, Yu-Gang Jiang, Qiang Peng, Ramesh Jain
As one of the most common human helminths, hookworm is a leading cause of maternal and child morbidity, which seriously threatens human health. Recently, wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has been applied to automatic hookworm detection. Unfortunately, it remains a challenging task. In recent years, deep convolutional neural network (CNN) has demonstrated impressive performance in various image and video analysis tasks. In this paper, a novel deep hookworm detection framework is proposed for WCE images, which simultaneously models visual appearances and tubular patterns of hookworms...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Xiangyong Cao, Feng Zhou, Lin Xu, Deyu Meng, Zongben Xu, John Paisley
This paper presents a new supervised classification algorithm for remotely sensed hyperspectral image (HSI) which integrates spectral and spatial information in a unified Bayesian framework. First, we formulate the HSI classification problem from a Bayesian perspective. Then, we adopt a convolutional neural network (CNN) to learn the posterior class distributions using a patch-wise training strategy to better use the spatial information. Next, spatial information is further considered by placing a spatial smoothness prior on the labels...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Biao Jie, Mingxia Liu, Daoqiang Zhang, Dinggang Shen
As a simple representation of interactions among distributed brain regions, brain networks have been widely applied to automated diagnosis of brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its early stage, i.e., mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In brain network analysis, a challenging task is how to measure the similarity between a pair of networks. Although many graph kernels (i.e., kernels defined on graphs) have been proposed for measuring the topological similarity of a pair of brain networks, most of them are defined using general graphs, thus ignoring the uniqueness of each node in brain networks...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Han-Mu Park, Kuk-Jin Yoon
This paper addresses the multi-attributed graph matching problem, which considers multiple attributes jointly while preserving the characteristics of each attribute for graph matching. Since most of conventional graph matching algorithms integrate multiple attributes to construct a single unified attribute in an oversimplified manner, the information from multiple attributes is often not completely utilized. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel multi-layer graph structure that can preserve the characteristics of each attribute in separated layers, and also propose a multi-attributed graph matching algorithm based on random walk centrality with the proposed multi-layer graph structure...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Hans-Jorg Schneider
The recent publication by Assaf et al in JPC B is important as it includes experimentally optimal data for the complexation of 22 hydrocarbons with cucurbit[7]uril , and applies state-of-the-art computational methods for their prediction. The correlations between calculated and experimental free binding energies were considered to be good, but one needs to point out that the coefficients ranged between R2 values of e.g. 0.84 and 0.75 and showed very large outliers. More important, the slope of correlation lines were mostly way off the expected value of 1...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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