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diabetes, drug discovery, medicinal plant phytochemicals

Oby Dulla, Farhana Israt Jahan
AIM: The traditional source of medicinal plants is an important way for daily curative uses in the rural area throughout Bangladesh. An ethnomedicinal survey was conducted in a randomized manner among traditional medicinal practitioners to find out about the medicinal plants of Kalaroa, Bangladesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The information was collected through conducting interviews, discussion, and field observations with herbal healers and knowledgeable elders of the study areas from November 01, 2015, to December 31, 2015, who pointed out various medicinal plants and described their uses, using semi-structured questionnaires...
July 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Muhammad Ibrahim, Kanwal Rehman, Iqbal Hussain, Tahir Farooq, Bisharat Ali, Irum Majeed, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
The genus Cuscuta, of the family Cuscutaceae, is present in plants and has been traditionally used medicinally against many diseases and conditions, notably depression, mental illness, headache, spleen disease, jaundice, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Large numbers of phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, lignins, oxygen heterocyclic compounds, steroids, fatty acids, phenolic acids, resin glycosides, and polysaccharides have been isolated from different species of Cuscuta. Ethnopharmacological studies conducted on such constituents have also been shown Cuscuta to possess anticancer, antiviral, antispasmodic, antihypertensive, anticonvulsant, antibacterial, antioxidant, diuretic, and hair-growth activity...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Suraj Singh Yadav, Manish Kumar Singh, Pawan Kumar Singh, Vipin Kumar
Plants are the integral part of the traditional indigenous healthcare system and are becoming concrete source of new drug discovery, evident by the increasing numbers of modern drugs derived from the phytochemicals. Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn (family Phyllanthaceae) has been explained extensively and well documented for its therapeutic efficacies in indigenous system of medicine, in India. Every part of this plant possesses high medicinal value but fruits are the most valuable part in folklore and therapeutic uses...
September 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Abdur Rauf, Ghias Uddin, Seema Patel, Ajmal Khan, Sobia Ahsan Halim, Saud Bawazeer, Khalid Ahmad, Naveed Muhammad, Mohammad S Mubarak
The genus Diospyros from family Ebenaceae has versatile uses including edible fruits, valuable timber, and ornamental uses. The plant parts of numerous species have been in use as remedies in various folk healing practices, which include therapy for hemorrhage, incontinence, insomnia, hiccough, diarrhea etc. Phytochemical constituents such as terpenoids, ursanes, lupanes, polyphenols, tannins, hydrocarbons, and lipids, benzopyrones, naphthoquinones, oleananes, and taraxeranes have been isolated from different species of this genus...
July 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Waqas Ahmad, Ibrahim Jantan, Syed N A Bukhari
Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. f. & Thomson (Menispermaceae), found in the rainforests or mixed deciduous forests in Asia and Africa, is used in traditional medicines to treat numerous health conditions. This review summarizes the up-to-date reports about the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, toxicology, and clinical trials of the plant. It also provides critical assessment about the present knowledge of the plant which could contribute toward improving its prospect as a source of lead molecules for drug discovery...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Andrea Vasas, Orsolya Orbán-Gyapai, Judit Hohmann
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The approximately 200 species of the genus Rumex (sorrel, Polygonaceae) are distributed worldwide (European, Asian, African and American countries). Some species have been used traditionally as vegetables and for their medicinal properties. Based on the traditional knowledge, different phytochemical and pharmacological activities have been at the focus of research. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of local and traditional medical uses, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, toxicity, and safety of Rumex species, in order to identify the therapeutic potential of Rumex species and further directions of research...
December 4, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Shivalika Pathania, Sai Mukund Ramakrishnan, Vinay Randhawa, Ganesh Bagler
BACKGROUND: Plant-derived molecules (PDMs) are known to be a rich source of diverse scaffolds that could serve as a basis for rational drug design. Structured compilation of phytochemicals from traditional medicinal plants can facilitate prospection for novel PDMs and their analogs as therapeutic agents. Rauvolfia serpentina is an important medicinal plant, endemic to Himalayan mountain ranges of Indian subcontinent, reported to be of immense therapeutic value against various diseases...
2015: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
S B Sharma, Richa Gupta
Modern research in drug discovery from medicinal plants involves a multidimensional approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biochemical combinatorial chemistry and bioassay-guided fractionation approaches. Natural sources continue to provide an alternative as pharmacological leads against various devastating diseases such as diabetes, CVD, cancer etc. Nowadays, there is enormous requirement of safe and effective drugs in the world. This has prompted scientists to revert back towards natural resources as a potential source of therapeutics for treatment and management of such chronic and fatal diseases...
2015: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Wan Cao, Ling Yi, Jun Cao, Shuai-Shuai Hu, Ping Li
The research of drug metabolism is essential for successful drug discovery. Phytochemicals, particularly those from herbal medicines, have the potential to affect diseases such as cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure, etc., showing great advantages in disease prevention and personalized treatment. In the past decade, phytochemical metabolism played a major role in the discovery of valuable leading compounds of new drugs. However, the metabolic studies of phytochemical compounds are extremely challenging due to numerous analogs with similar structures, complex endogenous matrices with multi-components in biofluids and cell or tissue extracts...
2014: Current Drug Metabolism
Shaik M Fayaz, Valsala S Suvanish Kumar, Krishnamurthy G Rajanikant
Diabetes mellitus is a debilitating metabolic disorder and remains a significant threat to public health. Herbal medicines have been proven to be effective anti-diabetic agents compared to synthetic drugs in terms of side effects. However, the complexity in their chemical constituents and mechanism of action, hinder the effort to discover novel anti-diabetic drugs. Hence, understanding the biological and chemical basis of pharmacological action of phytochemicals is essential for the discovery of potential anti-diabetic drugs...
2014: PloS One
Fidele Ntie-Kang, Lydia Likowo Lifongo, Luc Meva'a Mbaze, Nnange Ekwelle, Luc C Owono Owono, Eugene Megnassan, Philip N Judson, Wolfgang Sippl, Simon M N Efange
BACKGROUND: In Cameroon herbs are traditionally used to meet health care needs and plans are on the way to integrate traditional medicine in the health care system, even though the plans have not been put into action yet. The country however has a rich biodiversity, with ~8,620 plant species, some of which are commonly used in the treatment of several microbial infections and a range of diseases (malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, diabetes and tuberculosis). METHODS: Our survey consisted in collecting published data from the literature sources, mainly from PhD theses in Cameroonian university libraries and also using the author queries in major natural product and medicinal chemistry journals...
2013: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
C L T Chang, Yi-Ching Chen, Hui-Ming Chen, Ning-Sun Yang, Wen-Chin Yang
Autoimmune diseases are the third largest category of illness in the industrialized world, following cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Among them, type 1 diabetes, also named autoimmune diabetes, afflicts 10 million people worldwide. This disease is caused by autoimmunity-mediated destruction of pancreatic β-cells, leading to insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia and complications. Currently, there is no cure for type 1 diabetes. Insulin injection is the only medication; however, it accompanies serious medical complications...
2013: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Daisy Pitchai, Rajalakshmi Manikkam, Sasikala R Rajendran, Gnanamani Pitchai
UNLABELLED: Plants continue to be a major source of medicines, as they have been throughout human history. In the present days, drug discovery from plants involves a multidisciplinary approach combining ethnobotanical, phytochemical and biological techniques to provide us new chemical compounds (lead molecules) for the development of drugs against various pharmacological targets, including cancer, diabetes and its secondary complications. In view of this need in current drug discovery from medicinal plants, here we describe another web database containing the information of pharmacophore analysis of active principles possessing antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancerous and antioxidant properties from medicinal plants...
2010: Bioinformation
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