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Fourth trimester

Annah Lane, Ling Lee, Donna Traves, Andreas Lee
INTRODUCTION: The antenatal diagnosis of open spina bifida (OSB), a neural tube defect, is predominantly made at the second trimester morphology scan by ultrasound detection of structural abnormalities resulting from the associated Chiari II malformation. Evidence has emerged suggesting that these structural abnormalities can be detected earlier, by examination of the posterior fossa as part of the first trimester nuchal translucency scan. In particular, absence of the intra-cranial translucency (IT) of the fourth ventricle has shown promise as a diagnostic marker of OSB, although the sensitivity and specificity of this finding varies widely in the literature...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Netanel A Horowitz, Noa Lavi, Yona Nadir, Benjamin Brenner
With increase of maternal age, the incidence of haematological malignancies during pregnancy is rising and posing diagnostic and treatment challenges. Lymphoma is the fourth most common malignancy diagnosed in pregnancy; Hodgkin lymphoma is more frequent in pregnant women than non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The proportion of highly aggressive lymphomas in pregnant women is significantly higher than in non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Reproductive organ involvement is observed in almost half of pregnant women with NHL...
September 27, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Kimberly Schmitt McKee, Christopher Seplaki, Susan Fisher, Susan W Groth, I Diana Fernandez
Objective To characterize cumulative physiologic dysfunction (CPD) in pregnancy as a measure of the biological effects of chronic stress and to examine its associations with gestational age and birth weight. Methods Women ≤28 weeks gestation were enrolled from obstetric clinics in Rochester, NY and followed through their delivery. CPD parameters included total cholesterol, Interleukin 6 (IL-6), high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index at <14 weeks gestation, glucose tolerance, and urinary albumin collected in the third trimester...
July 20, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Oroma B Nwanodi
Globally, preeclampsia-eclampsia (PE-E) is a major cause of puerperal intensive care unit admission, accounting for up to 10% of maternal deaths. PE-E primary prevention is possible. Antepartum low-dose aspirin prophylaxis, costing USD $10-24 can cut the incidence of PE-E in half. Antepartum low molecular weight heparin combined with low-dose aspirin prophylaxis can cut the incidence of early onset PE-E and fetuses that are small for their gestational age in half. Despite predictive antepartum models for PE-E prophylaxis, said prophylaxis is not routinely provided...
2016: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Supal Mehta, Jane Khoury, Menachem Miodovnik, Tetsuya Kawakita, Shelley Ehrlich, Katherine Bowers
Objective To determine the association between placental weight (PW) and large for gestational age (LGA) in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and whether glycemic control modifies the association. Study Design In a retrospective analysis of a cohort of women with T1DM, poor glycemic control was defined as glycohemoglobin A1(HbA1)≥ 8.5% (≥2 standard deviations [SD] above mean), and LGA as birth weight > 90th percentile, according to gestation, race, and sex. Multivariable logistic regression was used for analysis...
July 11, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
M P Vélez, T E Arbuckle, P Monnier, W D Fraser
STUDY QUESTION: Is the female 2th- to 4th-finger ratio (2D:4D) associated with fecundity as measured by time-to-pregnancy (TTP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our study does not support an association between female 2D:4D and TTP. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The 2th- to 4th-finger ratio (2D:4D) has been proposed as a potential indicator of greater androgen exposure during fetal development. Women exposed in utero to unbalanced steroid hormones may have impaired fecundity in the adulthood...
September 2016: Human Reproduction
Nurzhan Ryskeldiyev, Gabit Olenbay, Raushan Auezova, Tim Killeen, Nurgul Aldiyarova, Zauresh Akhmetzhanova, Evaldas Cesnulis, Serik Akshulakov
We present a case of fourth ventricle anaplastic ependymoma in a pregnancy which was the first result of three rounds of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer. Whether hormonal treatment can directly or indirectly precipitate brain tumors to develop or become symptomatic is unclear.
June 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
Thomas J McLaughlin, Onesky Aupont, Claudia A Kozinetz, David Hubble, Tiffany A Moore-Simas, Deborah Davis, Christina Park, Ruth Brenner, Deidre Sepavich, Marianne Felice, Chantal Caviness, Tim Downs, Beatrice J Selwyn, Michele R Forman
OBJECTIVE: In 2010, the National Children's Study launched 3 alternative recruitment methods to test possible improvements in efficiency compared with traditional household-based recruitment and participant enrollment. In 2012, a fourth method, provider-based sampling (PBS), tested a probability-based sampling of prenatal provider locations supplemented by a second cohort of neonates born at a convenience sample of maternity hospitals. METHODS: From a sampling frame of 472 prenatal care provider locations and 59 maternity hospitals, 49 provider and 7 hospital locations within or just outside 3 counties participated in study recruitment...
June 2016: Pediatrics
Naile Gokkaya, Adem Gungor, Arzu Bilen, Habib Bilen, Darina Gviniashvili, Yusuf Karadeniz
Primary Hyperparathyroidism (PHP) in pregnancy constitutes a serious danger to mother and fetus. The diagnosis of PHP in pregnancy presents a challenge, and PHP commonly goes unidentified and untreated in pregnancy. We present four case reports about patients having PHP, which is very rare condition in pregnancy and their treatment modalities. Three patients, not to be controlled biochemically, denied the parathyroidectomy operation although they are informed about the details of their disease. They are followed up with medical therapy...
May 31, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Milo C Wiltbank, Giovanni M Baez, Alvaro Garcia-Guerra, Mateus Z Toledo, Pedro L J Monteiro, Leonardo F Melo, Julian C Ochoa, José E P Santos, Roberto Sartori
Loss of pregnancy can occur at many different stages of gestation and for a variety of causes but clearly produces a negative impact for reproductive and economic performances of dairy herds. This review describes four pivotal periods for pregnancy loss during the first trimester of gestation and discusses possible causes for pregnancy failure during these periods. The first period occurs during the first week after breeding with lack of fertilization and death of the early embryo producing major losses in pregnancy, particularly under specific environmental and hormonal conditions...
July 1, 2016: Theriogenology
Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi, Parisa Parsa, Farideh Kazemi, Ali Reza Soltanian, Gissoo Dadvand, Shabnam Habib
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a particular period in women's life that is accompanied by an increase in nutritional needs. Having a normal pregnancy period and successful pregnancy outcomes depends on the intake of sufficient amount of food. The present study aimed to determine nutritional behaviors in pregnant women in the first and second trimesters referring to clinics in Hamadan, Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 170 women referred to health and treatment centers of Hamadan in 2013...
2016: Global Journal of Health Science
Håkon K Gjessing, Per Grøttum, Inger Økland, Sturla H Eik-Nes
OBJECTIVES: To develop a complete, population-based system for ultrasound-based fetal size monitoring and birth weight prediction for use in second and third trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: First, with 31 516 ultrasound examinations from a population-based Norwegian clinical data base, we constructed size charts for biparietal diameter, femur length, and abdominal circumference from pregnancy weeks 24-42. Second, a median birth-weight-by-gestational-age reference curve was estimated using 45 037 birth weights...
April 30, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Philip Bolduc, Navid Roder, Emily Colgate, Sarah H Cheeseman
Appropriate screening for HIV infection is the cornerstone of HIV-related care. There have been several recent changes in testing technology and screening recommendations. The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends universal HIV screening at least once for adolescents and adults ages 15 to 65 years, and additional screening for patients at higher risk, although evidence is insufficient to determine optimum rescreening intervals. All pregnant women should be screened for HIV infection in the first trimester, and pregnant women at high risk should be screened again in the third trimester...
April 2016: FP Essentials
Lynn M Yee, William A Grobman
OBJECTIVES: Some have suggested, based on limited data, that knowledge of an estimated fetal weight from a sonogram in a low-risk population, particularly in the setting of a larger fetus, is associated with increased risk of cesarean delivery. We aimed to investigate, among women delivering neonates weighing greater than 3500 g, whether having had a sonographically estimated fetal weight in temporal proximity to delivery was associated with the risk of cesarean delivery. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of term nulliparous women delivering live-born, cephalic, singleton, nonanomalous fetuses with birth weights of greater than 3500 g...
April 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Emily C Heberlein, Amy H Picklesimer, Deborah L Billings, Sarah Covington-Kolb, Naomi Farber, Edward A Frongillo
INTRODUCTION: Women's definitions and experiences of the functions and benefits of their routine prenatal care are largely absent from research and public discourse on prenatal care outcomes. This qualitative study aimed to develop a framework of women's prenatal care experiences by comparing the experiences of women in individual and group prenatal care. METHODS: We conducted serial qualitative interviews with racially diverse low-income women receiving individual prenatal care (n = 14) or group prenatal care (n = 15) through pregnancy and the early postpartum period...
March 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
Andrea Ciavattini, Giovanni Delli Carpini, Nicolò Clemente, Lorenzo Moriconi, Chiara Gentili, Jacopo Di Giuseppe
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the growth trend of small uterine fibroids during early pregnancy, evaluating the potential factors involved, with particular interest in hCG levels. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Tertiary care university hospital. PATIENT(S): Women who had an ultrasound diagnosis of small myomas (diameter, ≥10 mm and ≤50 mm) from January 2007 to December 2013, and who subsequently became pregnant within 1 year...
May 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Gabriel D Shapiro, Linda Dodds, Tye E Arbuckle, Jillian Ashley-Martin, Adrienne S Ettinger, Mandy Fisher, Shayne Taback, Maryse F Bouchard, Patricia Monnier, Renée Dallaire, Anne-Sophie Morisset, William Fraser
BACKGROUND: Studies report increases in rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) over recent decades. Environmental chemicals may increase the risk of diabetes through impacts on glucose metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, and endocrine-disrupting mechanisms including effects on pancreatic β-cell function and adiponectin release. OBJECTIVES: To determine the associations between pesticides, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in early pregnancy and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and GDM in a Canadian birth cohort...
May 2016: Environmental Research
Froilán Tórrez-Morales, Jesús Carlos Briones-Garduño
BACKGROUND: Placenta percreta may lead to massive obstetric haemorrhage, haemodynamic decompensation, and ultimately death. Total obstetric hysterectomy is universally accepted as treatment; however, the emergence of new techniques such as the uterine artery angioembolisation approach, and the use of chemotherapy agents such as methotrexate, are alternatives also described in the literature. CLINICAL CASE: A 28 year-old patient, in her fourth gestation, with a previous history of 2 vaginal and 1 caesarean birth 4, in her 28...
January 29, 2016: Cirugia y Cirujanos
Christopher B Morse, Kurt T Barnhart, Suneeta Senapati, Mary D Sammel, Erica C Prochaska, Anuja Dokras, Charalampos Chatzicharalampous, Christos Coutifaris
OBJECTIVE: To determine if very early serum hCG, a marker of trophoblast differentiation, is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes in singleton pregnancies. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: University fertility program. PATIENT(S): A total of 360 singleton IVF live births. INTERVENTION(S): Serial hCG measurements were used to determine the within-woman slope for hCG (hCG rise)...
May 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Jean-François Huon, Emilie Lenain, Julien LeGuen, Gilles Chatellier, Brigitte Sabatier, Olivier Saint-Jean
BACKGROUND: In France the most recent data on drug use by the elderly living at home were published in 2000. Since then the available drugs and their use have changed. OBJECTIVE: We compared data collected in 2011 with the 2000 data to evaluate how drug use has changed in France. METHODS: The study analysed retrospectively the 2011 data collected prospectively in France from a sample of 600,000 people representative (1/97th) of the French population...
2015: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
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