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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812472/modifiable-risk-factors-associated-with-bronchiolitis
#1
Raffaella Nenna, Renato Cutrera, Antonella Frassanito, Claudia Alessandroni, Ambra Nicolai, Giulia Cangiano, Laura Petrarca, Serena Arima, Serena Caggiano, Nicola Ullman, Paola Papoff, Enea Bonci, Corrado Moretti, Fabio Midulla
BACKGROUND: We sought to clarify possibly modifiable risk factors related to pollution responsible for acute bronchiolitis in hospitalized infants. METHODS: For this observational study, we recruited 213 consecutive infants with bronchiolitis (cases: median age: 2 months; age range: 0.5-12 months; boys: 55.4%) and 213 children aged <3 years (controls: median age: 12 months; age range: 0.5-36 months; boys: 54.5%) with a negative medical history for lower respiratory tract diseases hospitalized at 'Sapienza' University Rome and IRCCS Bambino Gesù Hospital...
August 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812438/acute-formaldehyde-exposure-induced-early-alzheimer-like-changes-in-mouse-brain
#2
Xudong Liu, Yuchao Zhang, Ruliu Wu, Meng Ye, Yuqing Zhao, Jun Kang, Ping Ma, Jinquan Li, Xu Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious, common, global disease, yet its etiology and pathogenesis are incompletely understood. Although an association between AD and exposure to air pollutants has been discussed, the effects of pollutants on the functioning of the brain remain unclear. The indoor environment is where exposure to formaldehyde (FA) can occur. Whether exposure to FA contributes to the development of AD needs to be investigated. To determine the objective, C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily to FA (0, 0...
August 16, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810512/co-digestion-of-rice-straw-and-cow-dung-to-supply-cooking-fuel-and-fertilizers-in-rural-india-impact-on-human-health-resource-flows-and-climate-change
#3
Sophie Sfez, Steven De Meester, Jo Dewulf
Anaerobic digestion of cow dung with new feedstock such as crop residues to increase the biogas potential is an option to help overcoming several issues faced by India. Anaerobic digestion provides biogas that can replace biomass cooking fuels and reduce indoor air pollution. It also provides digestate, a fertilizer that can contribute to compensate nutrient shortage on agricultural land. Moreover, it avoids the burning of rice straw in the fields which contributes to air pollution in India and climate change globally...
August 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801708/characterizing-particulate-matter-exfiltration-estimates-for-alternative-cookstoves-in-a-village-like-household-in-rural-nepal
#4
Sutyajeet I Soneja, James M Tielsch, Subarna K Khatry, Benjamin Zaitchik, Frank C Curriero, Patrick N Breysse
Alternative stoves are an intervention option to reduce household air pollution. The amount of air pollution exiting homes when alternative stoves are utilized is not known. In this paper, particulate matter exfiltration estimates are presented for four types of alternative stoves within a village-like home, which was built to reflect the use of local materials and common size, in rural Nepal. Four alternative stoves with chimneys were examined, which included an alternative mud brick stove, original Envirofit G3355 model, manufacture altered Envirofit G3355, and locally altered Envirofit G3355...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800414/global-distribution-of-perfluorochemicals-pfcs-in-potential-human-exposure-source-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Jun-Meng Jian, Ying Guo, Lixi Zeng, Liu Liang-Ying, Xingwen Lu, Fei Wang, Eddy Y Zeng
Human exposure to perfluorochemicals (PFCs) has attracted mounting attention due to their potential harmful effects. Breathing, dietary intake, and drinking are believed to be the main routes for PFC entering into human body. Thus, we profiled PFC compositions and concentrations in indoor air and dust, food, and drinking water with detailed analysis of literature data published after 2010. Concentrations of PFCs in air and dust samples collected from home, office, and vehicle were outlined. The results showed that neutral PFCs (e...
August 8, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768223/predicting-pm10-concentration-in-seoul-metropolitan-subway-stations-using-artificial-neural-network-ann
#6
Sechan Park, Minjeong Kim, Minhae Kim, Hyeong-Gyu Namgung, Ki-Tae Kim, Kyung Hwa Cho, Soon-Bark Kwon
The indoor air quality of subway systems can significantly affect the health of passengers since these systems are widely used for short-distance transit in metropolitan urban areas in many countries. The particles generated by abrasion during subway operations and the vehicle-emitted pollutants flowing in from the street in particular affect the air quality in underground subway stations. Thus the continuous monitoring of particulate matter (PM) in underground station is important to evaluate the exposure level of PM to passengers...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766331/emissions-from-electronic-cigarettes-assessing-vapers-intake-of-toxic-compounds-secondhand-exposures-and-the-associated-health-impacts
#7
Jennifer M Logue, Mohamad Sleiman, V Nahuel Montesinos, Marion L Russell, Marta I Litter, Neal L Benowitz, Lara A Gundel, Hugo Destaillats
E-cigarettes likely represent a lower risk to health than traditional combustion cigarettes, but they are not innocuous. Recently reported emission rates of potentially harmful compounds were used to assess intake and predict health impacts for vapers and bystanders exposed passively. Vapers' toxicant intake was calculated for scenarios in which different e-liquids were used with various vaporizers, battery power settings and vaping regimes. For a high rate of 250 puff day(-1) using a typical vaping regime and popular tank devices with battery voltages from 3...
August 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755047/potential-impacts-of-modifiable-behavioral-and-environmental-exposures-on-reducing-burden-of-under-five-mortality-associated-with-household-air-pollution-in-nepal
#8
Sabrina Naz, Andrew Page, Kingsley Emwinyore Agho
Objectives Household air pollution (HAP) is one of the leading causes of respiratory illness and deaths among young children in low and lower-middle income countries. This study examines for the first time trends in the association between HAP from cooking fuel and under-five mortality and measures the potential impact of interventions to reduce HAP using Nepal Demographic and Health Survey datasets (2001-2011). Methods A total of 17,780 living children across four age-groups (neonatal 0-28 days, post-neonatal 1-11 months, child 12-59 months and under-five 0-59 months) were included and multi-level logistic regression models were used for analyses...
July 28, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728136/indoor-wood-burning-stove-and-fireplace-use-and-breast-cancer-in-a-prospective-cohort-study
#9
Alexandra J White, Dale P Sandler
BACKGROUND: Indoor burning of fuel for heating or cooking releases carcinogens. Little is known about the impact of indoor air pollution from wood-burning stoves or fireplaces on breast cancer risk. OBJECTIVES: In a large prospective cohort study, we evaluated the risk of breast cancer in relation to indoor heating and cooking practices. METHODS: Sister Study participants () were recruited from 2003-2009. Breast cancer-free women in the United States or Puerto Rico, 35-74 y old, with a sister with breast cancer were eligible...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722632/pilot-intervention-study-of-household-ventilation-and-fine-particulate-matter-concentrations-in-a-low-income-urban-area-dhaka-bangladesh
#10
Anne M Weaver, Shahana Parveen, Doli Goswami, Christina Crabtree-Ide, Carole Rudra, Jihnhee Yu, Lina Mu, Alicia M Fry, Iffat Sharmin, Stephen P Luby, Pavani K Ram
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a risk factor for pneumonia; ventilation may be protective. We tested behavioral and structural ventilation interventions on indoor PM2.5 in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We recruited 59 good ventilation (window or door in ≥ 3 walls) and 29 poor ventilation (no window, one door) homes. We monitored baseline indoor and outdoor PM2.5 for 48 hours. We asked all participants to increase ventilation behavior, including opening windows and doors, and operating fans. Where permitted, we installed windows in nine poor ventilation homes, then repeated PM2...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715576/association-of-ozone-exposure-with-cardiorespiratory-pathophysiologic-mechanisms-in-healthy-adults
#11
Drew B Day, Jianbang Xiang, Jinhan Mo, Feng Li, Mingkei Chung, Jicheng Gong, Charles J Weschler, Pamela A Ohman-Strickland, Jan Sundell, Wenguo Weng, Yinping Zhang, Junfeng Jim Zhang
Importance: Exposure to ozone has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but the underlying biological mechanisms are not yet understood. Objective: To examine the association between ozone exposure and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic mechanisms. Design, Setting, and Participants: A longitudinal study involving 89 healthy adult participants living on a work campus in Changsha City, China, was conducted from December 1, 2014, to January 31, 2015...
July 17, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710404/assuring-quality-in-microplastic-monitoring-about-the-value-of-clean-air-devices-as-essentials-for-verified-data
#12
Charlotte Wesch, Anna Maria Elert, Manuel Wörner, Ulrike Braun, Roland Klein, Martin Paulus
Avoiding aerial microfibre contamination of environmental samples is essential for reliable analyses when it comes to the detection of ubiquitous microplastics. Almost all laboratories have contamination problems which are largely unavoidable without investments in clean-air devices. Therefore, our study supplies an approach to assess background microfibre contamination of samples in the laboratory under particle-free air conditions. We tested aerial contamination of samples indoor, in a mobile laboratory, within a laboratory fume hood and on a clean bench with particles filtration during the examining process of a fish...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682605/characterizing-aggregated-exposure-to-primary-particulate-matter-recommended-intake-fractions-for-indoor-and-outdoor-sources
#13
Peter Fantke, Olivier Jolliet, Joshua S Apte, Natasha Hodas, John Evans, Charles J Weschler, Katerina S Stylianou, Matti Jantunen, Thomas E McKone
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from indoor and outdoor sources is a leading environmental contributor to global disease burden. In response, we established under the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative a coupled indoor-outdoor emission-to-exposure framework to provide a set of consistent primary PM2.5 aggregated exposure factors. We followed a matrix-based mass balance approach for quantifying exposure from indoor and ground-level urban and rural outdoor sources using an effective indoor-outdoor population intake fraction and a system of archetypes to represent different levels of spatial detail...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679081/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pah-in-portuguese-educational-settings-a-comparison-between-preschools-and-elementary-schools
#14
Klara Slezakova, Marta Oliveira, Joana Madureira, Eduardo de Oliveira Fernandes, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Simone Morais, Maria do Carmo Pereira
The aim of this study was to determine levels and risks due to inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in different educational settings, namely for 3- to 5- year-old and 6- to 10-year-old children. Eighteen PAH (16 priority designated by US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene and benzo[j]fluoranthene) were simultaneously collected in indoor and outdoor air at two Portuguese preschools (PS1-PS2) and five elementary schools (ES1-ES5) from March to May 2014. Indoor concentrations at PS and ES were significantly different, with total levels (∑PAHs) 0...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679072/long-term-associations-of-morbidity-with-air-pollution-a-catalogue-and-synthesis
#15
Frederick W Lipfert
I searched the NIH Medline database through January 2017 for long-term studies of morbidity and air pollution and cataloged them with respect to cardiovascular, respiratory, cancer, diabetes, hospitalization, neurological, and pregnancy-birth endpoints. The catalogue is presented as an online appendix. Associations with PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 were evaluated most frequently among the 417 ambient air quality studies identified. Associations with TSP, carbon, ozone, sulfur, vehicular traffic, radon, and indoor air quality were also reported...
July 5, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673399/environmental-determinants-of-allergy-and-asthma-in-early-life
#16
REVIEW
Allison J Burbank, Amika K Sood, Matthew J Kesic, David B Peden, Michelle L Hernandez
Allergic disease prevalence has increased significantly in recent decades. Primary prevention efforts are being guided by study of the exposome (or collective environmental exposures beginning during the prenatal period) to identify modifiable factors that affect allergic disease risk. In this review we explore the evidence supporting a relationship between key components of the external exposome in the prenatal and early-life periods and their effect on atopy development focused on microbial, allergen, and air pollution exposures...
July 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667414/indoor-airborne-fungal-pollution-in-newborn-units-in-turkey
#17
Rasime Demirel, Burhan Sen, Duygu Kadaifciler, Aysegul Yoltas, Suzan Okten, Evrim Ozkale, Derya Berikten, Robert A Samson, Alev Haliki Uztan, Neriman Yilmaz, Ozlem Abaci Gunyar, Halide Aydogdu, Ahmet Asan, Merih Kivanc, Soner Ozdil, Erhan Sakartepe
Pathogenic and/or opportunistic fungal species are major causes of nosocomial infections, especially in controlled environments where immunocompromised patients are hospitalized. Indoor fungal contamination in hospital air is associated with a wide range of adverse health effects. Regular determination of fungal spore counts in controlled hospital environments may help reduce the risk of fungal infections. Because infants have inchoate immune systems, they are given immunocompromised patient status. The aim of the present study was to evaluate culturable airborne fungi in the air of hospital newborn units in the Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, and Central Anatolia regions of Turkey...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662448/arterial-blood-pressure-responses-to-short-term-exposure-to-fine-and-ultrafine-particles-from-indoor-sources-a-randomized-sham-controlled-exposure-study-of-healthy-volunteers
#18
Vanessa J Soppa, Roel P F Schins, Frauke Hennig, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Bryan Hellack, Ulrich Quass, Heinz Kaminski, Birgitta Sasse, Samir Shinnawi, Thomas A J Kuhlbusch, Barbara Hoffmann
OBJECTIVES: Particulate air pollution is linked to adverse cardiovascular effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of short-term exposure to indoor particles on blood pressure (BP). METHODS: We analyzed the association of particle emissions from indoor sources (candle burning, toasting bread, frying sausages) with BP changes in 54 healthy volunteers in a randomized cross-over controlled exposure study. Particle mass concentration (PMC), size-specific particle number concentration (PNC) and lung-deposited particle surface area concentration (PSC) were measured during the 2h exposure...
June 26, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656559/assessing-indoor-air-quality-of-school-environments-transplanted-lichen-pseudovernia-furfuracea-as-a-new-tool-for-biomonitoring-and-bioaccumulation
#19
Carmela Protano, Malgorzata Owczarek, Arianna Antonucci, Maurizio Guidotti, Matteo Vitali
The aim of this research is to evaluate the ability of transplanted lichen Pseudovernia (P). furfuracea to biomonitor and bioaccumulate in urban indoor environments. The elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni and Pb and 12 selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were used to assess P. furfuracea as a biomonitoring tool for the indoor air quality of school environments. To achieve this purpose, lichen samples were exposed for 2 months in the outdoor and indoor environments of five school settings located in urban and rural areas...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651316/a-permeation-controlled-formaldehyde-reference-source-for-application-in-environmental-test-chambers
#20
Tunga Salthammer, Ruth Giesen, Tobias Schripp
In a wide range of indoor air pollutants, formaldehyde is one of the most-used and best-known substances. In order to protect human health, many countries have established threshold values for the release of formaldehyde from miscellaneous products and revise them constantly. Compliance with these regulations is usually assessed by emission test chamber measurements or derived methods. To control and improve the mechanisms of an emission test chamber, a reliable reference source with sample mimicking emission properties is required but not available so far...
October 2017: Chemosphere
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