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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925740/household-air-pollution-is-associated-with-altered-cardiac-function-among-women-in-kenya
#1
Anubha Agarwal, Kipruto Kirwa, Melissa N Eliot, Fawaz Alenezi, Diana Menya, Sumeet S Mitter, Eric J Velazquez, Rajesh Vedanthan, Gregory A Wellenius, Gerald S Bloomfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919119/global-regional-and-national-comparative-risk-assessment-of-84-behavioural-environmental-and-occupational-and-metabolic-risks-or-clusters-of-risks-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#2
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. METHODS: We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917179/emission-reduction-potentials-of-improved-cookstoves-and-their-issues-in-adoption-an-indian-outlook
#3
REVIEW
Monikankana Sharma, S Dasappa
Biomass as a fuel for cooking is a common practice in rural India, and about 700 million people use traditional stoves to meet their energy demand. However, the thermal and the combustion efficiencies of these stoves are very low, leading to an inefficient use of biomass, and also, resulting in significant indoor air pollution. Research development has however led to the development of some improved stoves viz., natural draft and forced draft for both domestic as well as large scale cooking applications and government is trying to promote them...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915540/impact-of-partial-fuel-switch-on-household-air-pollutants-in-sub-sahara-africa
#4
Vianney Tumwesige, Gabriel Okello, Sean Semple, Jo Smith
Over 700 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa depend on solid biomass fuel and use simple cookstoves in poorly ventilated kitchens, which results in high indoor concentrations of household air pollutants. Switching from biomass to biogas as a cooking fuel can reduce airborne emissions of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO), but households often only partially convert to biogas, continuing to use solid biomass fuels for part of their daily cooking needs. There is little evidence of the benefits of partial switching to biogas...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911003/personal-exposure-to-fine-particulate-matter-and-benzo-a-pyrene-from-indoor-air-pollution-and-leukocyte-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-in-rural-china
#5
Jason Y Y Wong, Wei Hu, George S Downward, Wei Jie Seow, Bryan A Bassig, Bu-Tian Ji, Fusheng Wei, Guoping Wu, Jihua Li, Jun He, Chin-San Liu, Wen-Ling Cheng, Yunchao Huang, Kaiyun Yang, Ying Chen, Nathaniel Rothman, Roel C Vermeulen, Qing Lan
Households in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China, possess hazardous levels of fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microns (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal combustion. Previous studies found that increased exposure to PM2.5 and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP; a PAH) were associated with decreased mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn), a marker of oxidative stress. We further evaluated these associations in a cross-sectional study of 148 healthy non-smoking women from Xuanwei and Fuyuan...
September 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910585/analysis-of-glycols-glycol-ethers-and-other-volatile-organic-compounds-present-in-household-water-based-hand-pump-sprays
#6
Tsuyoshi Kawakami, Kazuo Isama, Toshiko Tanaka-Kagawa, Hideto Jinnno
The aim of this investigation is to clarify the types and concentrations of VOCs present in various commercial household water-based hand pump spray products used in Japan, and to estimate their average concentrations in indoor air when the spray product is used. We selected glycol and glycol ethers as the main target compounds, as these chemicals were detected at high frequencies and concentrations in a national survey of Japanese indoor air pollution. The extraction of these chemicals using graphite carbon cartridges was examined, with good recoveries and reproducibilities being obtained...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888127/environmental-injustice-and-sexual-minority-health-disparities-a%C3%A2-national-study-of-inequitable-health-risks-from-air-pollution-among-same-sex-partners
#7
Timothy W Collins, Sara E Grineski, Danielle X Morales
Air pollution is deleterious to human health, and numerous studies have documented racial and socioeconomic inequities in air pollution exposures. Despite the marginalized status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations, no national studies have examined if they experience inequitable exposures to air pollution. This cross-sectional study investigated inequities in the exposure of same-sex partner households to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the US. We examined cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs across 71,207 census tracts using National Air Toxics Assessment and US Census data...
September 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886596/assessing-exposure-to-household-air-pollution-a-systematic-review-and-pooled-analysis-of-carbon-monoxide-as-a-surrogate-measure-of-particulate-matter
#8
REVIEW
Ellison Carter, Christina Norris, Kathie L Dionisio, Kalpana Balakrishnan, William Checkley, Maggie L Clark, Santu Ghosh, Darby W Jack, Patrick L Kinney, Julian D Marshall, Luke P Naeher, Jennifer L Peel, Sankar Sambandam, James J Schauer, Kirk R Smith, Blair J Wylie, Jill Baumgartner
BACKGROUND: Household air pollution from solid fuel burning is a leading contributor to disease burden globally. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is thought to be responsible for many of these health impacts. A co-pollutant, carbon monoxide (CO) has been widely used as a surrogate measure of PM2.5 in studies of household air pollution. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to evaluate the validity of exposure to CO as a surrogate of exposure to PM2.5 in studies of household air pollution and the consistency of the PM2...
July 28, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867770/peri-urbanism-in-globalizing-india-a-study-of-pollution-health-and-community-awareness
#9
Linda Waldman, Ramila Bisht, Rajashree Saharia, Abhinav Kapoor, Bushra Rizvi, Yasir Hamid, Meghana Arora, Ima Chopra, Kumud T Sawansi, Ritu Priya, Fiona Marshall
This paper examines the intersection between environmental pollution and people's acknowledgements of, and responses to, health issues in Karhera, a former agricultural village situated between the rapidly expanding cities of New Delhi (India's capital) and Ghaziabad (an industrial district in Uttar Pradesh). A relational place-based view is integrated with an interpretive approach, highlighting the significance of place, people's emic experiences, and the creation of meaning through social interactions. Research included surveying 1788 households, in-depth interviews, participatory mapping exercises, and a review of media articles on environment, pollution, and health...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857062/online-media-coverage-of-air-pollution-risks-and-current-policies-in-india-a-content-analysis
#10
Nandita Murukutla, Nalin S Negi, Pallavi Puri, Sandra Mullin, Lesley Onyon
Background Air pollution is of particular concern in India, which contains 11 of the 20 most polluted cities in the world. Media coverage of air pollution issues plays an important role in influencing public opinion and increasing citizen demand for action on clean air policy. Hence, this study was designed to assess news coverage of air pollution in India and its implications for policy advancement. Methods Articles published online between 1 January 2014 and 31 October 2015 that discussed air pollution in India were systematically content analysed...
September 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855033/-risk-factors-of-lung-cancer-in-xuanwei-yunnan-province-china
#11
Liqun Liu, Xia Wan, Gongbo Chen, Xiangyun Ma, Bofu Ning, Gonghuan Yang
BACKGROUND: Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. METHODS: Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012...
August 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852908/suitability-of-selected-bioindicators-of-atmospheric-pollution-in-the-industrialised-region-of-ostrava-upper-silesia-czech-republic
#12
Anna Francová, Vladislav Chrastný, Hana Šillerová, Jana Kocourková, Michael Komárek
This study is a continuation of our preceding research identifying suitable environmental samples for the tracing of atmospheric pollution in industrial areas. Three additional types of environmental samples were used to characterise contamination sources in the industrial area of Ostrava city, Czech Republic. The region is known for its extensive metallurgical and mining activities. Fingerprinting of stable Pb isotopes was applied to distinguish individual sources of anthropogenic Pb. A wide range of (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios was observed in the investigated samples: (206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1...
August 29, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846984/household-air-pollution-and-personal-inhalation-exposure-to-particles-tsp-pm2-5-pm1-0-pm0-25-in-rural-shanxi-north-china
#13
Ye Huang, Wei Du, Yuanchen Chen, Guofeng Shen, Shu Su, Nan Lin, Huizhong Shen, Dan Zhu, Chenyi Yuan, Yonghong Duan, Junfeng Liu, Bengang Li, Shu Tao
Personal exposure to size-segregated particles among rural residents in Shanxi, China in summer, 2011 were investigated using portable carried samplers (N = 84). Household air pollution was simultaneously studied using stationary samplers in nine homes. Information on household fuel types, cooking activity, smoking behavior, kitchen ventilation conditions etc., were also collected and discussed. The study found that even in the summer period, the daily average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM1.0 in the kitchen were as high as 376 ± 573 and 288 ± 397 μg/m(3) (N = 6), that were nearly 3 times of 114 ± 81 and 97 ± 77 μg/m(3) in the bedroom (N = 8), and significantly higher than those of 64 ± 28 and 47 ± 21 μg/m(3) in the outdoor air (N = 6)...
August 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841502/wintertime-pollution-level-size-distribution-and-personal-daily-exposure-to-particulate-matters-in-the-northern-and-southern-rural-chinese-homes-and-variation-in-different-household-fuels
#14
Wei Du, Guofeng Shen, Yuanchen Chen, Shaojie Zhuo, Yang Xu, Xinyue Li, Xuelian Pan, Hefa Cheng, Xilong Wang, Shu Tao
This study investigated and compared wintertime air pollution and personal exposure in the rural northern and southern Chinese homes. Daily indoor and outdoor particle samples were simultaneously collected by using stationary samplers, and personal exposure was directly measured using portable carried samplers. The daily average concentrations of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 were 521 ± 234 and 365 ± 185 μg/m(3) in the northern village, that were about 2.3-2.7 times of 188 ± 104 and 150 ± 29 μg/m(3) in indoor and outdoor air in the southern villages...
August 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827142/a-score-to-predict-and-stratify-risk-of-tuberculosis-in-adult-contacts-of-tuberculosis-index-cases-a-prospective-derivation-and-external-validation-cohort-study
#15
Matthew J Saunders, Tom Wingfield, Marco A Tovar, Matthew R Baldwin, Sumona Datta, Karine Zevallos, Rosario Montoya, Teresa R Valencia, Jon S Friedland, Larry H Moulton, Robert H Gilman, Carlton A Evans
BACKGROUND: Contacts of tuberculosis index cases are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis. Screening, preventive therapy, and surveillance for tuberculosis are underused interventions in contacts, particularly adults. We developed a score to predict risk of tuberculosis in adult contacts of tuberculosis index cases. METHODS: In 2002-06, we recruited contacts aged 15 years or older of index cases with pulmonary tuberculosis who lived in desert shanty towns in Ventanilla, Peru...
August 18, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822787/global-regional-and-national-deaths-prevalence-disability-adjusted-life-years-and-years-lived-with-disability-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-asthma-1990-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#16
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are common diseases with a heterogeneous distribution worldwide. Here, we present methods and disease and risk estimates for COPD and asthma from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) 2015 study. The GBD study provides annual updates on estimates of deaths, prevalence, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), a summary measure of fatal and non-fatal disease outcomes, for over 300 diseases and injuries, for 188 countries from 1990 to the most recent year...
September 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815367/microplastic-pollution-a-threat-to-marine-ecosystem-and-human-health-a-short-review
#17
Shivika Sharma, Subhankar Chatterjee
Human populations are using oceans as their household dustbins, and microplastic is one of the components which are not only polluting shorelines but also freshwater bodies globally. Microplastics are generally referred to particles with a size lower than 5 mm. These microplastics are tiny plastic granules and used as scrubbers in cosmetics, hand cleansers, air-blasting. These contaminants are omnipresent within almost all marine environments at present. The durability of plastics makes it highly resistant to degradation and through indiscriminate disposal they enter in the aquatic environment...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812989/small-smart-fast-and-cheap-microchip-based-sensors-to-estimate-air-pollution-exposures-in-rural-households
#18
Ajay Pillarisetti, Tracy Allen, Ilse Ruiz-Mercado, Rufus Edwards, Zohir Chowdhury, Charity Garland, L Drew Hill, Michael Johnson, Charles D Litton, Nicholas L Lam, David Pennise, Kirk R Smith
Over the last 20 years, the Kirk R. Smith research group at the University of California Berkeley-in collaboration with Electronically Monitored Ecosystems, Berkeley Air Monitoring Group, and other academic institutions-has developed a suite of relatively inexpensive, rugged, battery-operated, microchip-based devices to quantify parameters related to household air pollution. These devices include two generations of particle monitors; data-logging temperature sensors to assess time of use of household energy devices; a time-activity monitoring system using ultrasound; and a CO₂-based tracer-decay system to assess ventilation rates...
August 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801708/characterizing-particulate-matter-exfiltration-estimates-for-alternative-cookstoves-in-a-village-like-household-in-rural-nepal
#19
Sutyajeet I Soneja, James M Tielsch, Subarna K Khatry, Benjamin Zaitchik, Frank C Curriero, Patrick N Breysse
Alternative stoves are an intervention option to reduce household air pollution. The amount of air pollution exiting homes when alternative stoves are utilized is not known. In this paper, particulate matter exfiltration estimates are presented for four types of alternative stoves within a village-like home, which was built to reflect the use of local materials and common size, in rural Nepal. Four alternative stoves with chimneys were examined, which included an alternative mud brick stove, original Envirofit G3355 model, manufacture altered Envirofit G3355, and locally altered Envirofit G3355...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792949/does-environmental-policy-affect-scaling-laws-between-population-and-pollution-evidence-from-american-metropolitan-areas
#20
Nicholas Z Muller, Akshaya Jha
Modern cities are engines of production, innovation, and growth. However, urbanization also increases both local and global pollution from household consumption and firms' production. Do emissions change proportionately to city size or does pollution tend to outpace or lag urbanization? Do emissions scale differently with population versus economic growth or are emissions, population, and economic growth inextricably linked? How are the scaling relationships between emissions, population, and economic growth affected by environmental regulation? This paper examines the link between urbanization, economic growth and pollution using data from Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States between 1999 and 2011...
2017: PloS One
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