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pseudomonas biofilm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087408/effects-of-loading-concentration-blood-and-synovial-fluid-on-antibiotic-release-and-anti-biofilm-activity-of-bone-cement-beads
#1
Devendra Dusane, Scott Diamond, Cory Knecht, Nicholas Farrar, Casey Peters, Robert Howlin, Matthew Swearingen, Jason Calhoun, Roger D Plaut, Tanya Nocera, Jeffrey Granger, Paul Stoodley
Antibiotic loaded cement beads are commonly used for the treatment of biofilm related orthopaedic periprosthetic infections; however the effects of antibiotic loading and exposure of beads to body fluids on release kinetics are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of (i) antibiotic loading density (ii) loading amount (iii) material type and (iv) exposure to body fluids (blood or synovial fluid) on release kinetics and efficacy of antibiotics against planktonic and lawn biofilm bacteria...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077760/effective-delivery-of-volatile-biocides-employing-mesoporous-silicates-for-treating-biofilms
#2
Andrea C Chan, Marimar Bravo Cadena, Helen E Townley, Mark D Fricker, Ian P Thompson
Nanoparticulate delivery of biocides has the potential to decrease levels of exposure to non-target organisms, and miminize long-term exposure that can promote the development of resistance. Silica nanoparticles are an ideal vehicle since they are inert, biocompatible, biodegradable, and thermally and chemically stable. Encapsulation of biocides within nanoparticulates can improve their stability and longevity and maximize the biocidal potential of hydrophobic volatile compounds. Herein, we have shown that the plant secondary metabolites allyl isothiocyanate and cinnamaldehyde demonstrated increased antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli in planktonic form, when packaged into mesoporous silica nanoparticles...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076466/ozone-therapy-as-an-adjuvant-for-endondontic-protocols-microbiological-ex-vivo-study-and-citotoxicity-analyses
#3
Carlos Goes Nogales, Marina Beloti Ferreira, Antonio Fernando Montemor, Maria Filomena de Andrade Rodrigues, José Luiz Lage-Marques, João Humberto Antoniazzi
Objectives: This study evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of ozone therapy in teeth contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus using a mono-species biofilm model. Parallel to this, the study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of ozone for human gingival fibroblasts. Material and Methods: One hundred and eighty single-root teeth were contaminated with a mono-species biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076372/bad-to-the-bone-on-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-microbial-biofilm-ability-to-directly-destroy-colonized-bone-surfaces-without-participation-of-host-immunity-or-osteoclastogenesis
#4
Adam Junka, Patrycja Szymczyk, Grzegorz Ziółkowski, Ewa Karuga-Kuzniewska, Danuta Smutnicka, Iwona Bil-Lula, Marzenna Bartoszewicz, Susan Mahabady, Parish Paymon Sedghizadeh
Bone infections are a significant public health burden associated with morbidity and mortality in patients. Microbial biofilm pathogens are the causative agents in chronic osteomyelitis. Research on the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis has focused on indirect bone destruction by host immune cells and cytokines secondary to microbial insult. Direct bone resorption by biofilm pathogens has not yet been seriously considered. In this study, common osteomyelitis pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Streptococcus mutans) were grown as biofilms in multiple in vitro and ex vivo experiments to analyze quantitative and qualitative aspects of bone destruction during infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076361/synergy-and-order-effects-of-antibiotics-and-phages-in-killing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilms
#5
Waqas Nasir Chaudhry, Jeniffer Concepción-Acevedo, Taehyun Park, Saadia Andleeb, James J Bull, Bruce R Levin
In contrast to planktonic cells, bacteria imbedded biofilms are notoriously refractory to treatment by antibiotics or bacteriophage (phage) used alone. Given that the mechanisms of killing differ profoundly between drugs and phages, an obvious question is whether killing is improved by combining antibiotic and phage therapy. However, this question has only recently begun to be explored. Here, in vitro biofilm populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 were treated singly and with combinations of two phages and bactericidal antibiotics of five classes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073812/the-conserved-hypothetical-protein-pspto_3957-is-essential-for-virulence-in-the-plant-pathogen-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-dc3000
#6
Katherine D'Amico, Melanie J Filiatrault
The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae accounts for substantial crop losses and is considered an important agricultural issue. To better manage disease in the field, it is important to have an understanding of the underlying genetic mechanisms that mediate virulence. There are a substantial number of genes in sequenced bacterial genomes, including P. syringae, that encode for conserved hypothetical proteins; some of these have been functionally characterized in other Pseudomonads and have been demonstrated to play important roles in disease...
January 10, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073080/impact-of-environmental-factors-on-the-culturability-and-viability-of-listeria-monocytogenes-under-conditions-encountered-in-food-processing-plants
#7
Anaïs Overney, Joséphine Jacques-André-Coquin, Patricia Ng, Brigitte Carpentier, Laurent Guillier, Olivier Firmesse
The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to adhere to and persist on surfaces for months or even years may be responsible for its transmission from contaminated surfaces to food products. Hence the necessity to find effective means to prevent the establishment of L. monocytogenes in food processing environments. The aim of this study was to assess, through a fractional experimental design, the environmental factors that could affect the survival of L. monocytogenes cells on surfaces to thereby prevent the persistence of this pathogen in conditions mimicking those encountered in food processing plants: culture with smoked salmon juice or meat exudate, use of two materials with different hygiene status, biofilm of L...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066954/ultrashort-self-assembling-fmoc-peptide-gelators-for-anti-infective-biomaterial-applications
#8
Alice P McCloskey, Emily R Draper, Brendan F Gilmore, Garry Laverty
Biomaterial-related infections have a significant impact on society and are a major contributor to the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance. Current licensed antibiotic classes struggle to breakdown or penetrate the exopolysaccharide biofilm barrier, resulting in sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotic at the surface of the biomaterial, treatment failure and increased spread of resistant isolates. This paper focuses for the first time on the ability of ultrashort Fmoc-peptide gelators to eradicate established bacterial biofilms implicated in a variety of medical device infections (Gram-positive: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065820/bioavailability-enhanced-resveramax%C3%A2-modulates-quorum-sensing-and-inhibits-biofilm-formation-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#9
H S Vasavi, H V Sudeep, H B Lingaraju, K Shyam Prasad
Quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication mechanism present in many bacterial species plays a key role in regulating the virulence factor and biofilm formation in many pathogens, which causes severe public health risk. Therefore, interfering with QS mechanism offers an attractive strategy to combat bacterial infections. In the present study, anti-QS activity of a novel resveratrol formulation, Resveramax™, was detected using Chromobacterium violaceum biosensor bioassay and the effect of Resveramax on QS-regulated phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was assessed by standard protocols...
January 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065676/rhamnolipids-from-non-pathogenic-burkholderia-thailandensis-e264-physicochemical-characterization-antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-efficacy-against-oral-hygiene-related-pathogens
#10
Mohamed Elshikh, Scott Funston, Alif Chebbi, Syed Ahmed, Roger Marchant, Ibrahim M Banat
Biosurfactants are naturally occurring surface active compounds that have mainly been exploited for environmental applications and consumer products, with their biomedical efficacy an emerging area of research. Rhamnolipids area major group of biosurfactants that have been reported for their antimicrobial and antibiofilm efficacy. One of the main limiting factors for scaled up production and downstream applications of rhamnolipids is the fact that they are predominantly produced from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
January 5, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062294/assessment-of-biofilm-formation-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-antisense-maze-pna
#11
Hassan Valadbeigi, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard, Majid Baseri Salehi
The hallmark patogenicity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is biofilm formation that is not easy to eradicate, because it has variety mechanisms for antibiotic resistance. In addition, toxin-antitoxin (TA) system may play role in biofilm formation. The current study aimed to evaluate the role of TA loci in biofilm formation. Therefore, 18 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were collected and evaluated for specific biofilm and TA genes. The analysis by RT-qPCR demonstrated that expression of mazE antitoxin in biofilm formation was increase...
January 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062182/exposure-of-airway-epithelial-cells-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilm-derived-quorum-sensing-molecules-decrease-the-activity-of-the-anti-oxidant-response-element-bound-by-nrf2
#12
Lucie Roussel, Simon Rousseau
Chronic bacterial infections in cystic fibrosis lung disease are often characterized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms that are regulated by bacterial intercellular signals termed quorum sensing (QS), such as N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL). This study reports that biofilm-derived exoproducts decrease the transcriptional activity of the anti-oxidant response element in bronchial epithelial cells. In a live co-culture assay of BEAS-2B cells and P. aeruginosa biofilm, the QS molecule 3OC12-HSL was an important but not sole contributor to the inhibition of basal NRF2 luciferase reporter activity...
January 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061510/bacterial-coaggregation-among-the-most-commonly-isolated-bacteria-from-contact-lens-cases
#13
Ananya Datta, Fiona Stapleton, Mark D P Willcox
Purpose: To examine the coaggregation and cohesion between the commonly isolated bacteria from contact lens cases. Methods: Four or five strains each of commonly isolated bacteria from contact lens cases, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens, were grown, washed, mixed in equal proportions, and allowed to coaggregate for 24 hours. Lactose (0.06 M), sucrose (0.06 M), and pronase (2 mg/mL; 2 hours, 37°C) were used to inhibit coaggregation...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056789/evolutionary-diversification-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-an-artificial-sputum-model
#14
Emily V Davies, Chloe E James, Michael A Brockhurst, Craig Winstanley
BACKGROUND: During chronic lung infections of cystic fibrosis patients Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations undergo extensive evolutionary diversification. However, the selective drivers of this evolutionary process are poorly understood. To test the effects of temperate phages on diversification in P. aeruginosa biofilms we experimentally evolved populations of P. aeruginosa for approximately 240 generations in artificial sputum medium with or without a community of three temperate phages...
January 5, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056745/exploiting-quorum-sensing-inhibition-for-the-control-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-biofilms
#15
Israel Castillo-Juarez, Luis Esaú López-Jácome, Gloria Soberón-Chávez, María Tomás, Jintae Lee, Paulina Castañeda-Tamez, Iván Ángelo Hernández-Bárragan, Martha Yumiko Cruz-Muñiz, Toshinari Maeda, Thomas K Wood, Rodolfo García-Contreras
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are two of the main bacteria responsible for nosocomial infections; both organisms are resistant to several classes of antibiotics making their infections very difficult to treat. Moreover, they possess a remarkable ability to form biofilms, which further enhances their antimicrobial resistance. Both organisms coordinate their formation of biofilms and their expression of virulence factors through quorum sensing, a system that regulates gene expression at high cell densities and that plays a key role in the establishment of bacterial infections...
January 5, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054493/epilithic-and-endolithic-microorganisms-and-deterioration-on-stone-church-facades-subject-to-urban-pollution-in-a-sub-tropical-climate
#16
Christine Gaylarde, Jose Antônio Baptista-Neto, Akiko Ogawa, Matthew Kowalski, Sukriye Celikkol-Aydin, Iwona Beech
Weathering of two church facades in Rio de Janeiro was caused substantially by salts, mainly halite and gypsum, detected by SEM and chemical analyses, which cause physical stresses by deposition within the rock. Biofilm populations, determined by SEM and as operational taxonomic units (OTUs), degraded stone by penetration, solubilization and redeposition of minerals on their surfaces. Endolithic cyanobacteria were associated with gypsum deposits. Microbiomes were typical for high-stress environments, high salt, intense insolation, low water and low nutrients (eg halophilic Rubrobacter, Salinicola, Sterigmatomyces)...
January 5, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053782/dexamethasone-abrogates-the-antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-activities-of-different-drugs-against-clinical-isolates-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Aquila Rodrigues, André Gomes, Pedro Henrique Ferreira Marçal, Marcus Vinícius Dias-Souza
Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are part of the human microbiota and are also important bacterial pathogens, for which therapeutic options are lacking nowadays. The combined administration of corticosteroids and antimicrobials is commonly used in the treatment of infectious diseases to control inflammatory processes and to minimize potential toxicity of antimicrobials, avoiding sequelae. Although different pharmaceutical dosage forms of antimicrobials combined to corticosteroids are available, studies on the interference of corticosteroids on the pharmacological activity of antimicrobials are scarce and controversial...
January 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050817/phosphatidylcholine-coatings-deliver-local-antimicrobials-and-reduce-infection-in-a-murine-model-a-preliminary-study
#18
Michael A Harris, Karen E Beenken, Mark S Smeltzer, Warren O Haggard, J Amber Jennings
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylcholine coatings have been shown to elute antibiotics for several days. A recently developed biofilm inhibitor, cis-2-decenoic acid (C2DA), has been shown to exhibit synergistic activity with several common antibiotics. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of C2DA and amikacin dual drug delivery from a phosphatidylcholine coating. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What are the in vitro elution profiles of amikacin and C2DA from phosphatidylcholine-coated coupons in incubated phosphate-buffered saline? (2) Does the presence of C2DA in eluate samples lower the amount of amikacin needed for bacterial inhibition in overnight bacterial turbidity assays? (3) Does addition of amikacin and C2DA result in decreased colony-forming units (CFUs) on wire implants and bone when compared with phosphatidylcholine coatings alone in a mouse model of periprosthetic joint infection? METHODS: Effects of loading concentrations were assessed during 7-day in vitro elution studies for coatings containing all mixtures of 0%, 5%, 15%, and 25% wt of amikacin and C2DA (n = 4) through quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography concentration determination and plotting concentration eluted over time...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049432/identification-of-genes-affecting-alginate-biosynthesis-in-pseudomonas-fluorescens-by-screening-a-transposon-insertion-library
#19
Helga Ertesvåg, Håvard Sletta, Mona Senneset, Yi-Qian Sun, Geir Klinkenberg, Therese Aursand Konradsen, Trond E Ellingsen, Svein Valla
BACKGROUND: Polysaccharides often are necessary components of bacterial biofilms and capsules. Production of these biopolymers constitutes a drain on key components in the central carbon metabolism, but so far little is known concerning if and how the cells divide their resources between cell growth and production of exopolysaccharides. Alginate is an industrially important linear polysaccharide synthesized from fructose 6-phosphate by several bacterial species. The aim of this study was to identify genes that are necessary for obtaining a normal level of alginate production in alginate-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens...
January 3, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049020/eradication-ofpseudomonas-aeruginosacells-by-cathodic-electrochemical-currents-delivered-with-graphite-electrodes
#20
Tagbo H R Niepa, Hao Wang, Jeremy L Gilbert, Dacheng Ren
Antibiotic resistance is a major challenge to the treatment of bacterial infections associated with medical devices and biomaterials. One important intrinsic mechanism of such resistance is the formation of persister cells that are phenotypic variants of microorganisms and highly tolerant to antibiotics. Recently, we reported a new approach to eradicating persister cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using low-level direct electrochemical current (DC) and synergy with the antibiotic tobramycin. To further understand the underlying mechanism and develop this technology toward possible medical applications, we investigated the electricidal activities of non-metallic biomaterial on persister and biofilm cells of P...
December 31, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
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