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Cardiac, hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217927/hypertension-induced-remodelling-on-the-interactions-of-cardiac-risk-factors
#1
Jakub Tomek, Gil Bub
Hypertension induces considerable cardiac remodelling, such as hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and abnormal activity of cardiac sympathetic nervous system, which are established risk factors in several highly dangerous heart diseases, such as ventricular fibrillation and congestive heart failure. All these risk factors and heart diseases are studied extensively in isolation, but to our knowledge, there is no comprehensive review of their interactions. At the same time, there is growing evidence suggesting that such interactions are numerous and that a successful therapy against a particular condition may have unexpectedly weak effects on mortality, as treated patients may die of a different cause exacerbated by the therapy...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180206/multiple-cardiac-complications-after-adjuvant-therapy-for-breast-cancer-the-importance-of-echocardiography-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Adriana Luminita Gurghean, Ilinca Savulescu-Fiedler, Anca Mihailescu
Cardiovascular complications induced by adjuvant cancer therapies may become symptomatic after many years, being responsible for increased morbidity and mortality in long-term survivors. We report a case of a 54-year old female admitted for severe heart failure induced by myocardial and valvular damage after postoperative adjuvant therapy for left breast cancer 6 years ago. Her recent history revealed nonST elevation myocardial infarction in the absence of significant cardiovascular risk factors. Transthoracic echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging and speckle-tracking imaging revealed severe biventricular systolic dysfunction, severe mitral and tricuspid regurgitation and severe pulmonary hypertension...
January 31, 2017: Medical Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168513/drop-out-from-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-does-not-cause-selection-bias-on-endpoints
#3
Peter Nørkjær Laursen, L Holmvang, H Kelbæk, N Vejlstrup, T Engstrøm, J Lønborg
BACKGROUND: The extent of selection bias due to drop-out in clinical trials of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) as surrogate endpoints is unknown. We sought to interrogate the characteristics and prognosis of patients who dropped out before acute CMR assessment compared to CMR-participants in a previously published double-blinded, placebo-controlled all-comer trial with CMR outcome as the primary endpoint. METHODS: Baseline characteristics and composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, heart failure and re-infarction after 30 days and 5 years of follow-up were assessed and compared between CMR-drop-outs and CMR-participants using the trial screening log and the Eastern Danish Heart Registry...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166592/renin-angiotensin-system-blockade-improves-cardiac-indices-in-acromegaly-patients
#4
Julia D J Thomas, Abhishek Dattani, Filip Zemrak, Thomas Burchell, Scott A Akker, Felicity J L Kaplan, Bernard Khoo, Simon Aylwin, Ashley B Grossman, L Ceri Davies, Márta Korbonits
Blockade of the angiotensin-renin system, with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), has been shown to improve cardiac outcomes following myocardial infarction and delay progression of heart failure. Acromegaly is associated with a disease-specific cardiomyopathy, the pathogenesis of which is poorly understood.The cardiac indices of patients with active acromegaly with no hypertension (Group A, n=4), established hypertension not taking ACEi/ARBs (Group B, n=4) and established hypertension taking ACEi/ARBs (Group C, n=4) were compared using cardiac magnetic imaging...
February 6, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163023/a-novel-urotensin-ii-receptor-antagonist-kr-36996-improved-cardiac-function-and-attenuated-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-experimental-heart-failure
#5
Kwang-Seok Oh, Jeong Hyun Lee, Kyu Yang Yi, Chae Jo Lim, Byung Kil Park, Ho Won Seo, Byung Ho Lee
Urotensin II and its receptor are thought to be involved in various cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and atherosclerosis. Since the regulation of the urotensin II/urotensin II receptor offers a great potential for therapeutic strategies related to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the study of selective and potent antagonists for urotensin II receptor is more fascinating. This study was designed to determine the potential therapeutic effects of a newly developed novel urotensin II receptor antagonist, N-(1-(3-bromo-4-(piperidin-4-yloxy)benzyl)piperidin-4-yl)benzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxamide (KR-36996), in experimental models of heart failure...
February 3, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150485/obesity-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#6
Sergey Kachur, Carl J Lavie, Alban DE Schutter, Richard V Milani, Hector O Ventura
Obesity is increasingly more common in post-industrial societies, and the burden of childhood obesity is increasing. The major effects of obesity on cardiovascular (CV) health are mediated through the risk of metabolic syndrome (insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension), such that an absence of these risk factors in obese individuals may not be associated with increased mortality risk. In individuals already diagnosed with chronic CV disease (CVD), the overweight and class I obese have significant associations with improved survival...
February 1, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149843/gamma-glutamyl-transferase-and-cardiovascular-disease
#7
REVIEW
Gjin Ndrepepa, Adnan Kastrati
Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is an enzyme located on the external surface of cellular membranes. GGT contributes in maintaining the physiological concentrations of cytoplasmic glutathione and cellular defense against oxidative stress via cleavage of extracellular glutathione and increased availability of amino acids for its intracellular synthesis. Increased GGT activity is a marker of antioxidant inadequacy and increased oxidative stress. Ample evidence suggests that elevated GGT activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, arterial hypertension, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause and CVD-related mortality...
December 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132040/erectile-dysfunction-as-a-predictor-of-cardiovascular-disease
#8
Sh Janjgava, T Doliashvili
Endothelial dysfunction precedes the clinical stage of atherosclerotic disease and is recognized as an additional risk factor when detecting symptomatic patients. Endothelial function is largely mediated by nitric oxide, and this vasodilatory mechanism is also responsible for the venous and arterial dilatation required to obtain and maintain an erection. The physiological effects and clinical aspects of sexual function have been extensively studied and reported in patients who have angina or who have experienced a myocardial infarction and in those who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery or heart transplant...
December 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130064/cardiovascular-consequences-of-metabolic-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Johnathan D Tune, Adam G Goodwill, Daniel J Sassoon, Kieren J Mather
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the concurrence of obesity-associated cardiovascular risk factors including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, decreased HDL cholesterol, and/or hypertension. Earlier conceptualizations of the MetS focused on insulin resistance as a core feature, and it is clearly coincident with the above list of features. Each component of the MetS is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the combination of these risk factors elevates rates and severity of cardiovascular disease, related to a spectrum of cardiovascular conditions including microvascular dysfunction, coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, cardiac dysfunction, myocardial infarction, and heart failure...
January 9, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128671/marital-status-cardiovascular-diseases-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-a-review-of-the-evidence
#10
Roberto Manfredini, Alfredo De Giorgi, Ruana Tiseo, Benedetta Boari, Rosaria Cappadona, Raffaella Salmi, Massimo Gallerani, Fulvia Signani, Fabio Manfredini, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Fabio Fabbian
BACKGROUND: There is evidence showing that marital status (MS) and marital disruption (i.e., separation, divorce, and being widowed) are associated with poor physical health outcomes, including for all-cause mortality. We checked for the available evidence on the association between MS and cardiovascular (CV) diseases, outcomes, and CV risk factors. METHODS: A search across the PubMed database of all articles, including the term "marital status" in their title, was performed...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113017/cardiac-toxicity-after-radiotherapy-for-stage-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-pooled-analysis-of-dose-escalation-trials-delivering-70-to-90-gy
#11
Kyle Wang, Michael J Eblan, Allison M Deal, Matthew Lipner, Timothy M Zagar, Yue Wang, Panayiotis Mavroidis, Carrie B Lee, Brian C Jensen, Julian G Rosenman, Mark A Socinski, Thomas E Stinchcombe, Lawrence B Marks
Purpose The significance of radiotherapy (RT) -associated cardiac injury for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear, but higher heart doses were associated with worse overall survival in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0617 study. We assessed the impact of heart dose in patients treated at our institution on several prospective dose-escalation trials. Patients and Methods From 1996 to 2009, 127 patients with stage III NSCLC (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, 0 to 1) received dose-escalated RT to 70 to 90 Gy (median, 74 Gy) in six trials...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990115/urgent-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery-in-a-patient-with-postinfarction-angina-and-active-myelomonocytic-leukaemia
#12
Samuel Anthony Galea, Joseph Galea
Chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) is a myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm affecting the production and differentiation of the monocyte cell lineage. Cardiac surgery in the context of CMML poses challenges that are not routinely encountered. This is the first reported case in the literature of a patient with active CMML undergoing urgent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. A 68-year-old Caucasian man with a history of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, hypothyroidism, and hypercholesterolaemia, who had been diagnosed by the haematologists with CMML a few months earlier but had remained untreated, underwent urgent surgical coronary revascularisation because of postinfarction angina following a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction associated with troponin I rise...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987279/falsely-elevated-troponin-rare-occurrence-or-future-problem
#13
James Nguyen, Rosy Thachil, Neil Vyas, Thomas Marino
INTRODUCTION: Troponins are known to be released in response to cardiac damage and therefore are the biomarkers of choice for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), improving outcome in patients presenting with chest pain. However, false results can occur due to interference from other substances in the blood. CASE: A 52-year-old male with a past medical history of alcohol abuse, hypertension, and coronary artery bypass graft at age 34 with normal stress test 2 years before presented to the emergency department (ED) complaining of 1 day of non-exertional chest pain with radiation to the neck and left arm...
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895487/combination-therapy-with-lercanidipine-and-enalapril-in-the-management-of-the-hypertensive-patient-an-update-of-the-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Christina Antza, Stella Stabouli, Vasilios Kotsis
Hypertension is an important risk factor for premature death as it increases the probability of stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Antihypertensive drugs can decrease cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. The majority of hypertensive patients need more than one antihypertensive agent to attain blood pressure (BP) targets. Monotherapy can effectively reduce BP only in 20%-40% of patients. Multiple mechanisms including increased peripheral vascular resistance, increased cardiac work, and hypervolemia are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883184/epigenetics-in-reactive-and-reparative-cardiac-fibrogenesis-the-promise-of-epigenetic-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Asish K Ghosh, Rahul Rai, Panagiotis Flevaris, Douglas E Vaughan
Epigenetic changes play a pivotal role in the development of a wide spectrum of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and intellectual disabilities. Cardiac fibrogenesis is a common pathophysiological process seen during chronic and stress-induced accelerated cardiac aging. While adequate production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is necessary for post-injury wound healing, excessive synthesis and accumulation of extracellular matrix protein in the stressed or injured hearts causes decreased or loss of lusitropy that leads to cardiac failure...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864249/positive-predictive-value-of-cardiovascular-diagnoses-in-the-danish-national-patient-registry-a-validation-study
#16
Jens Sundbøll, Kasper Adelborg, Troels Munch, Trine Frøslev, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Hans Erik Bøtker, Morten Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: The majority of cardiovascular diagnoses in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR) remain to be validated despite extensive use in epidemiological research. We therefore examined the positive predictive value (PPV) of cardiovascular diagnoses in the DNPR. DESIGN: Population-based validation study. SETTING: 1 university hospital and 2 regional hospitals in the Central Denmark Region, 2010-2012. PARTICIPANTS: For each cardiovascular diagnosis, up to 100 patients from participating hospitals were randomly sampled during the study period using the DNPR...
November 18, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837397/from-arb-to-arni-in-cardiovascular-control
#17
REVIEW
Estrellita Uijl, Lodi C W Roksnoer, Ewout J Hoorn, A H Jan Danser
Coexistence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease synergistically aggravates the risk of cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality. These high-risk, multi-morbid patient populations benefit less from currently available anti-hypertensive treatment. Simultaneous angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade and neprilysin inhibition ('ARNI') with valsartan/sacubitril (LCZ696) might potentiate the beneficial effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibition by reinforcing its endogenous counterbalance, the natriuretic peptide system...
December 2016: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822383/neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-hypertension-an-update
#18
REVIEW
Yin Hua Zhang
Hypertension is a prevalent condition worldwide and is the key risk factor for fatal cardiovascular complications, such as stroke, sudden cardiac death and heart failure. Reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) in the endothelium is an important precursor for impaired vasodilation and hypertension. In the heart, NO deficiency deteriorates the adverse consequences of pressure-overload and causes cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and myocardial infarction which lead to fatal heart failure and sudden cardiac death...
2016: Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772643/intensive-hemodialysis-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-and-cardiovascular-disease
#19
Peter A McCullough, Christopher T Chan, Eric D Weinhandl, John M Burkart, George L Bakris
The prevalence of cardiovascular disease, including cardiac arrhythmia, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and valvular heart disease, is higher in hemodialysis (HD) patients than in the US resident population. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in HD patients and the principal discharge diagnosis accompanying 1 in 4 hospital admissions. Furthermore, the rate of hospital admissions for either heart failure or fluid overload is persistently high despite widespread use of β-blockers and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and attempts to manage fluid overload with ultrafiltration...
November 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755239/pathophysiology-of-cardiotoxicity-from-target-therapy-and-angiogenesis-inhibitors
#20
Nicola Maurea, Carmela Coppola, Giovanna Piscopo, Francesca Galletta, Gennaro Riccio, Emanuela Esposito, Claudia De Lorenzo, Michelino De Laurentiis, Paolo Spallarossa, Giuseppe Mercuro
The progress in cancer therapy and the increase in number of long-term survivors reveal the issue of cardiovascular side-effects of anticancer drugs. Cardiotoxicity has become a significant problem, and the risks of adverse cardiac events induced by systemic drugs need to be seriously considered. Potential cardiovascular toxicities linked to anticancer agents include arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia and infarction, hypertension, thromboembolism, left ventricular dysfunction, and heart failure. It has been shown that several anticancer drugs seriously affect the cardiovascular system, such as ErbB2 inhibitors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, multitargeted kinase inhibitors, Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog inhibitors, and others...
May 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
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