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hepatitis b and pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323748/serum-aminotransferase-flares-in-pregnant-and-postpartum-women-with-current-or-prior-treatment-for-chronic-hepatitis-b
#1
Christine Y Chang, Natali Aziz, Mugilan Poongkunran, Asad Javaid, Huy N Trinh, Daryl T Lau, Mindie H Nguyen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Antiviral therapy is recommended for pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA>200,000 IU/mL, but there is less consensus on management of women who discontinue therapy in anticipation of pregnancy or who become pregnant while on therapy. The goal of this study was to describe flares in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) during pregnancy and postpartum in CHB women with current and/or prior treatment. METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective study of 67 pregnancies in 56 CHB women treated before and/or during pregnancy...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322675/update-on-viral-hepatitis-in-pregnancy
#2
REVIEW
Zhili Shao, Mohammad Al Tibi, Jamile Wakim-Fleming
Pregnant women with acute viral hepatitis are at higher risk of morbidity and death than pregnant women with chronic viral hepatitis. The risk of death is highest with acute viral hepatitis E, and the rate of transmission to the baby may be highest with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Managing viral hepatitis in pregnancy requires assessing the risk of transmission to the baby, determining the gestational age at the time of infection and the mother's risk of decompensation, and understanding the side effects of antiviral drugs...
March 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318080/hepatitis-e-and-pregnancy-current-state
#3
REVIEW
María Teresa Pérez-Gracia, Beatriz Suay-García, María Luisa Mateos-Lindemann
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for more than 50% of acute viral hepatitis cases in endemic countries. Approximately 2 billion individuals live in hepatitis E-endemic areas and, therefore, are at risk of infection. According to World Health Organization, HEV causes about 20.1 million infections and 70 000 deaths every year. In developing countries with poor sanitation, this disease is transmitted through contaminated water and is associated with large outbreaks, affecting hundreds or thousands of people...
March 20, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317045/fibrolamellar-variant-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-presenting-during-pregnancy-management-dilemmas
#4
Nagalapuram Vishnu, Aditya V Kulkarni, Sreenivasan Vidhyalakshmi, Swaminathan Sambandam, Prerna Garg, Venkatakrishnan LeelaKrishnan, Krishnaveni Janarthan, Gursharan Singh, Maninder Kaur, T V Chitra, Biku Joseph John
The Fibrolamellar variant of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (FLHCC) is a rare form of liver cancer that presents in the 3(rd) decade of life, is rarely associated with cirrhosis or chronic Hepatitis B/C virus infection, and usually presents with normal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. FLHCC presenting during pregnancy is extremely rare, with only 4 cases reported. We present a case of FLHCC in pregnancy and discuss the dilemmas in management. A 26 year-old primigravida, 26 weeks of gestation presented with a month's history of obstructive jaundice secondary...
February 2017: Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288409/zygomycotic-infective-endocarditis-in-pregnancy
#5
Pradeep Vaideeswar, Rushabh Shah
Under the circumstances of cardiovascular adaptations and immunomodulation, an uncommon but disastrous complication of infective endocarditis (IE) can occur in pregnancy. Almost all the cases reported earlier were caused by bacteria. We report a fatal case of zygomycotic valvular and mural endocarditis in a young non-diabetic primigravida with a positive hepatitis B serology.
March 3, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284515/hepatitis-b-and-pregnancy
#6
Eliana Castillo, Kellie Murphy, Julie van Schalkwyk
OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiology, natural history, evaluation, and treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during pregnancy. This will aid obstetric care providers in counseling their patients regarding perinatal risks and management options available to pregnant women with hepatitis B. OUTCOMES: Outcomes evaluated include thresholds for HBV anti-viral treatment for prevention of perinatal transmission and for invasive procedures during pregnancy for women with hepatitis B infection...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237319/epilepsy-treatment-in-adults-and-adolescents-expert-opinion-2016
#7
REVIEW
Jerry J Shih, Julia B Whitlock, Nicole Chimato, Emily Vargas, Steven C Karceski, Ryan D Frank
INTRODUCTION: There are over twenty anti-seizure medications and anti-seizure devices available commercially in the United States. The multitude of treatment options for seizures can present a challenge to clinicians, especially those who are not subspecialists in the epilepsy field. Many clinical questions are not adequately answered in double-blind randomized controlled studies. In the presence of a knowledge gap, many clinicians consult a respected colleague with acknowledged expertise in the field...
February 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231660/-effect-of-telbivudine-on-infants-born-to-hbsag-positive-mothers-with-non-hypo-response-to-hepatitis-b-vaccine-during-their-second-and-third-trimesters-of-pregnancy
#8
X X Xu, B Wang, X F Wang, H X Wen, F Zhang, Z Q Yang, H Y Hao, T Wang, X H Shi, Z D Fu, B Wang, S P Wang
Objective: To explore the effect of telbivudine treatment in a prevention program on infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers with non-/hypo-responsiveness to hepatitis B vaccine. Methods: A retrospective cohort study with a total of 321 HBsAg-positive pregnant women and their infants enrolled, was conducted. The mothers were recruited from the Third People' s Hospital of Taiyuan, from July 2011 to January 2013. According to the situation of telbivudine intake in second and third trimesters of pregnancy, the participants were divided into two groups: with telbivudine-treated or as control...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209492/reproductive-considerations-in-the-setting-of%C3%A2-chronic-viral-illness
#9
REVIEW
Brent M Hanson, Jessie A Dorais
Special considerations must be taken when patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B, or hepatitis C desire to become pregnant. Patients with chronic viral illnesses desire to have children at rates similar to the general population, and options are available to decrease both vertical transmission and viral transmission between partners. Preconception counseling or consultation with fertility specialists is imperative in patients with HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C so that reproductive goals can be addressed and optimized...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199772/a-retrospective-study-of-hepatitis-b-mother-to-child-transmission-prevention-and-post-vaccination-serological-test-results-of-infants-at-risk-of-perinatal-transmission-in-two-counties-of-middle-china
#10
Guo Yonghao, Dong Pumei, Yang Jianhui, Xu Jin, Zhang Yanyang, Wang Zhe
Approximately 240 million people have chronic hepatitis B worldwide, with mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) accounting for most cases. Therefore, Henan Province, China launched a public health program to prevent MTCT. To determine the efficacy of this health program, a survey was carried out in Huixian and Xinan counties, which are located in northern and western Henan. All infants born in these two counties between January 1, 2013 and March 31, 2014 to a mother positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), were surveyed; in total, there were 438 mother-infant pairs...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199770/prevalence-of-hbsag-hbeag-among-1-936-801-couples-preparing-for-pregnancy-in-rural-china-an-observational-study
#11
Jue Liu, Shikun Zhang, Qiaomei Wang, Shenhai Ping, Man Zhang, Yiping Zhang, Donghai Yan, Min Liu
OBJECTIVE: There are few extant studies on the prevalence of HBV infection in couples preparing for pregnancy. We assessed the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) in couples preparing for pregnancy in rural China, and the association between HBV prevalence and the statuses of HBsAg/HBeAg and ALT in the spouses. METHODS: We performed a nationwide cross-sectional study, using data from a health check-up program for 1 936 801 rural couples from 31 provinces preparing for pregnancy between 2010 and 2012...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188612/hepatitis-b-immunoglobulin-during-pregnancy-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#12
REVIEW
Ahizechukwu C Eke, George U Eleje, Uzoamaka A Eke, Yun Xia, Jiao Liu
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis is a viral infection of the liver. It is mainly transmitted between people through contact with infected blood, frequently from mother to baby in-utero. Hepatitis B poses significant risk to the fetus and up to 85% of infants infected by their mothers at birth develop chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) is a purified solution of human immunoglobulin that could be administered to the mother, newborn, or both. HBIG offers protection against HBV infection when administered to pregnant women who test positive for hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) or hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), or both...
February 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183456/regulation-of-the-novel-adipokines-hepatokines-fetuin-a-and-fetuin-b-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Susan Kralisch, Annett Hoffmann, Ulrike Lössner, Jürgen Kratzsch, Matthias Blüher, Michael Stumvoll, Mathias Fasshauer, Thomas Ebert
OBJECTIVE: Fetuin B has recently been introduced as a novel adipokine/hepatokine which is significantly increased in hepatic steatosis and mediates impaired insulin action, as well as glucose intolerance. However, regulation of fetuin B in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), as well as its longitudinal changes in the peripartum period, have not been elucidated, so far. DESIGN AND METHODS: Circulating fetuin A and fetuin B were quantified in 74 women with GDM and 74 healthy and gestational age-matched controls by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay during pregnancy (median gestational age: 201days)...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178298/the-impact-of-prenatal-exposure-to-parasitic-infections-and-to-anthelminthic-treatment-on-antibody-responses-to-routine-immunisations-given-in-infancy-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Stephen Nash, Alexander J Mentzer, Swaib A Lule, Dennison Kizito, Gaby Smits, Fiona R M van der Klis, Alison M Elliott
BACKGROUND: Chronic parasitic infections are associated with active immunomodulation which may include by-stander effects on unrelated antigens. It has been suggested that pre-natal exposure to parasitic infections in the mother impacts immunological development in the fetus and hence the offspring's response to vaccines, and that control of parasitic infection among pregnant women will therefore be beneficial. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used new data from the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, a trial of anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy conducted in Uganda, to further investigate this hypothesis...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168206/passive-immunoprophylaxis-for-the-protection-of-the-mother-and-her-baby-insights-from-in-vivo-models-of-antibody-transport
#15
Yanqun Xu, Iftekhar Mahmood, Lilin Zhong, Pei Zhang, Evi B Struble
Pregnant women are at high risk for infection by pathogens. Vertical transmission of infectious agents, such as Zika, hepatitis B, and cytomegalovirus during pregnancy, remains a public health problem, associated with dire outcomes for the neonate. Thus, a safe prophylactic and therapeutic approach for protecting the mother and the neonate from infections remains a high priority. Our work is focused on better understanding the safety and efficacy determinants of IgG antibody preparations when used during pregnancy to benefit the mother and her baby...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166970/effects-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-during-late-pregnancy-on-the-cell-apoptosis-and-related-gene-expression-in-ovine-fetal-liver
#16
Yingchun Liu, Chi Ma, Hui Li, Lingyao Li, Feng Gao, Changjin Ao
This study investigated the effect of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) during late pregnancy on the cell apoptosis and related gene expression in ovine fetal liver. Eighteen time-mated Mongolian ewes with singleton fetuses were allocated to three groups at d 90 of pregnancy: Restricted Group 1 (RG1, 0.18 MJ ME kg BW(-0.75) d(-1), n = 6), Restricted Group 2 (RG2, 0.33 MJ ME kg BW(-0.75) d(-1), n = 6) and a Control Group (CG, ad libitum, 0.67 MJ ME kg BW (-0.75) d (-1), n = 6). Fetuses were recovered at slaughter on d 140...
March 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161170/maternal-supplementation-with-rumen-protected-methionine-increases-prepartal-plasma-methionine-concentration-and-alters-hepatic-mrna-abundance-of-1-carbon-methionine-and-transsulfuration-pathways-in-neonatal-holstein-calves
#17
C B Jacometo, Z Zhou, D Luchini, M N Corrêa, J J Loor
An important mechanism of nutritional "programming" induced by supplementation with methyl donors during pregnancy is the alteration of mRNA abundance in the offspring. We investigated the effects of rumen-protected Met (RPM) on abundance of 17 genes in the 1-carbon, Met, and transsulfuration pathways in calf liver from cows fed the same basal diet without (control, CON) or with RPM at 0.08% of diet dry matter/d (MET) from -21 through +30 d around calving. Biopsies (n = 8 calves per diet) were harvested on d 4, 14, 28, and 50 of age...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133615/pregnancy-during-adolescence-and-associated-risks-an-8-year-hospital-based-cohort-study-2007-2014-in-romania-the-country-with-the-highest-rate-of-teenage-pregnancy-in-europe
#18
Demetra-Gabriela Socolov, Magdalena Iorga, Alexandru Carauleanu, Ciprian Ilea, Iolanda Blidaru, Lucian Boiculese, Razvan-Vladimir Socolov
Aim. To determine pregnancy and delivery outcomes among teenagers. Materials and Methods. An 8-year retrospective comparative hospital-based cohort study is analysing singleton pregnancy comorbidities and delivery parameters of a teenage group under the age of 20 compared with a young adult group 20-24 years of age in a university hospital. Results. Teenage is a risk factor for preterm birth <37 weeks (1.21 [1.08-1.35]), foetal growth restriction (1.34 [1.21-1.48]), episiotomy (1.27 [1.21-1.34]), uterine revision (1...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128518/maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-in-women-with-severe-early-onset-pre-eclampsia-before-26-weeks-of-gestation-a-case-series
#19
M F van Oostwaard, L van Eerden, M W de Laat, J J Duvekot, Jjhm Erwich, Kwm Bloemenkamp, A C Bolte, Jpf Bosma, S V Koenen, R F Kornelisse, B Rethans, P van Runnard Heimel, Hcj Scheepers, W Ganzevoort, Bwj Mol, C J de Groot, Ipm Gaugler-Senden
OBJECTIVE: To describe the maternal and neonatal outcomes and prolongation of pregnancies with severe early onset pre-eclampsia before 26 weeks of gestation. DESIGN: Nationwide case series. SETTING: All Dutch tertiary perinatal care centres. POPULATION: All women diagnosed with severe pre-eclampsia who delivered between 22 and 26 weeks of gestation in a tertiary perinatal care centre in the Netherlands, between 2008 and 2014...
January 27, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123559/cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia-in-pregnancy-interference-of-pregnancy-status-with-p16-and-ki-67-protein-expression
#20
Andrea Ciavattini, Francesco Sopracordevole, Jacopo Di Giuseppe, Lorenzo Moriconi, Guendalina Lucarini, Francesca Mancioli, Antonio Zizzi, Gaia Goteri
To date, there are evidence-based guidelines available for cervical dysplasia diagnosed in pregnancy. Certain functional biomarkers have proven useful in the prediction of regressing and non-regressing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions in non-pregnant women. In the present study, Ki-67 and p16 immunostaining were evaluated in different grades of CIN lesions diagnosed in pregnant or non-pregnant women with the aim to identify any differences in order to better understand the behavior of CIN in pregnancy...
January 2017: Oncology Letters
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