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hepatitis b and pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093483/treatment-simplification-to-atazanavir-ritonavir%C3%A2-%C3%A2-lamivudine-versus-maintenance-of-atazanavir-ritonavir%C3%A2-%C3%A2-two-nrtis-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infected-patients-48-week-results-from-a-randomized-trial-atlas-m
#1
Simona Di Giambenedetto, Massimiliano Fabbiani, Eugenia Quiros Roldan, Alessandra Latini, Gabriella D'Ettorre, Andrea Antinori, Antonella Castagna, Giancarlo Orofino, Daniela Francisci, Pierangelo Chinello, Giordano Madeddu, Pierfrancesco Grima, Stefano Rusconi, Massimo Di Pietro, Annalisa Mondi, Nicoletta Ciccarelli, Alberto Borghetti, Emanuele Focà, Manuela Colafigli, Andrea De Luca, Roberto Cauda
BACKGROUND: Combination ART (cART)-related toxicities and costs have prompted the need for treatment simplification. The ATLAS-M trial explored 48 week non-inferior efficacy of simplification to atazanavir/ritonavir  +  lamivudine versus maintaining three-drug atazanavir/ritonavir-based cART in virologically suppressed patients. METHODS: We performed an open-label, multicentre, randomized, non-inferiority study, enrolling HIV-infected adults on atazanavir/ritonavir + two NRTIs, with stable HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL and CD4 + >200 cells/mm(3) Main exclusion criteria were hepatitis B virus coinfection, past virological failure on or resistance to study drugs, recent AIDS and pregnancy...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089231/-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus-despite-postexposure-prophylaxis-a-review-of-the-literature-and-description-of-11%C3%A2-observations
#2
B Biot, N Laverdure, F Lacaille, A Lachaux
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection leads to a risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In France, where the prevalence of HBV is low, mother-to-child transmission is the cause of chronic infection in more than one-third of cases. After exposure, the risk of chronic infection is the highest for newborns (90 %). The World Health Organization implemented a global immunization program in 1991, applied in France in 1994. A significant number of children are infected each year, however, and failure of postexposure prophylaxis is reported in 4-10 % of newborns...
January 11, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073406/-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#3
H Zhuang
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is a major mode of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission, especially in high endemic areas. Administration of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B vaccine to infants at birth, followed by completion of the vaccine series, prevented approximately 95% of HBV transmission from HBsAg-positive mothers to their infants. However, immunoprophylaxis failure was still observed in 5~10% infants born to mothers with high levels of viremia. It was demonstrated that antiviral nucleot(s)ide analogues (NUCs) provided to pregnant women with high viral loads in late pregnancy further reduced MTCT...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067163/hbv-coinfection-is-associated-with-reduced-cd4-response-to-antiretroviral-treatment-in-pregnancy
#4
Marco Floridia, Giulia Masuelli, Enrica Tamburrini, Arsenio Spinillo, Giuliana Simonazzi, Giovanni Guaraldi, Anna Maria Degli Antoni, Pasquale Martinelli, Vincenzo Portelli, Serena Dalzero, Marina Ravizza
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection on response to antiretroviral treatment in pregnant women with HIV. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a large case series of pregnant women with HIV in Italy; outcome measures were CD4 changes, HIV viral load, and main pregnancy outcomes (preterm delivery, low birthweight, intrauterine growth restriction, mode of delivery, and major birth defects). RESULTS: Rate of HBV coinfection among 1462 pregnancies was 12...
January 9, 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062543/multiple-slc-and-abc-transporters-contribute-to-the-placental-transfer-of-entecavir
#5
Zhiyuan Ma, Xi Yang, Ting Jiang, Mengru Bai, Caihong Zheng, Su Zeng, Dongli Sun, Huidi Jiang
Entecavir (ETV), a nucleoside analogue with high efficacy against hepatitis B virus, is recommended as a first-line antiviral drug for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. However, scant information is available on the use of ETV in pregnancy. To better understand the safety of ETV in pregnant women, we aimed to demonstrate whether ETV could permeate placental barrier and the underlying mechanism. Our study showed that small amount of ETV could permeate across placenta in mice. ETV accumulation in activated or non-activated BeWo cells (treated with or without forskolin) was sharply reduced in the presence of 100 μM of adenosine, cytidine and in Na+ free medium, indicating that nucleoside transporters possibly mediate the uptake of ETV...
January 6, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039902/long-term-safety-and-efficacy-of-telbivudine-in-infants-born-to-mothers-treated-during-the-second-or-third-trimesters-of-pregnancy
#6
Guo-Rong Han, Hong-Xiu Jiang, Cui-Min Wang, Yi Ding, Gen-Ju Wang, Xin Yue, Liu Zhou, Wei Zhao
Telbivudine, an FDA pregnancy category B drug, has been found to reduce hepatitis B virus (HBV) perinatal transmission with no safety concerns in infants aged up to 1 year. This study evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of telbivudine in 214 infants born to 210 pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B infection who were treated with telbivudine during pregnancy (weeks 20-32 of gestation). The infants were followed for up to 5 years after birth. The efficacy endpoint was the rate of perinatal transmission, which was established by HBsAg and HBV DNA levels at 7 and 12 months...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030527/hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-testing-among-pregnant-women-united-states-2014
#7
Maureen Kolasa, Yuping Tsai, Jing Xu, Nancy Fenlon, Sarah Schillie
BACKGROUND: Post-exposure prophylaxis administered to infants shortly after birth prevents approximately 90% of cases of perinatal Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) transmission. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all pregnant women be tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) at an early prenatal visit during each pregnancy to detect active infection with HBV. This study sought to determine the proportion and characteristics of pregnant women tested\not tested according to ACIP recommendations METHODS:: We analyzed MarketScan databases to assess prenatal HBsAg testing among women with commercial and Medicaid health care coverage according to demographic and clinical characteristics...
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025872/lamivudine-therapy-during-the-second-vs-the-third-trimester-for-preventing-transmission-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#8
C Q Pan, W Yi, M Liu, G Wan, Y-H Hu, M-F Zhou
There are little data on the timing of initiating lamivudine therapy for preventing transmission of hepatitis B in highly viremic mothers. Between May 2008 and January 2015, we retrospectively enrolled mothers with HBV DNA >6 log10  copies/mL who received lamivudine during pregnancy, and we compared them to untreated mothers. The primary measurement was the vertical transmission rate. The secondary outcomes were the mothers' and infants' safety. Among 249 consecutive mothers enrolled, 66 and 94 received lamivudine during the second and third trimesters, respectively, and 89 were untreated...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007783/early-pqq-supplementation-has-persistent-long-term-protective-effects-on-developmental-programming-of-hepatic-lipotoxicity-and-inflammation-in-obese-mice
#9
Karen R Jonscher, Michael S Stewart, Alba Alfonso-Garcia, Brian C DeFelice, Xiaoxin X Wang, Yuhuan Luo, Moshe Levi, Margaret J R Heerwagen, Rachel C Janssen, Becky A de la Houssaye, Ellen Wiitala, Garrett Florey, Raleigh L Jonscher, Eric O Potma, Oliver Fiehn, Jacob E Friedman
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is widespread in adults and children. Early exposure to maternal obesity or Western-style diet (WD) increases steatosis and oxidative stress in fetal liver and is associated with lifetime disease risk in the offspring. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a natural antioxidant found in soil, enriched in human breast milk, and essential for development in mammals. We investigated whether a supplemental dose of PQQ, provided prenatally in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity during pregnancy, could protect obese offspring from progression of NAFLD...
December 22, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995076/diagnosis-of-lchad-tfp-deficiency-in-an-at-risk-newborn-using-umbilical-cord-blood-acylcarnitine-analysis
#10
Donna B Raval, Kristina P Cusmano-Ozog, Omar Ayyub, Callie Jenevein, Laura H Kofman, Brendan Lanpher, Natalie Hauser, Debra S Regier
Trifunctional protein deficiency/Long-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHAD/TFP) deficiency is a disorder of fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. Severe neonatal lactic acidosis, cardiomyopathy, and hepatic dysfunction are caused by the accumulation of toxic long-chain acylcarnitines. The feasibility of umbilical cord blood use in screening for acylcarnitine analysis and free carnitine has been hypothesized but not reported in LCHAD/TFP neonates. We present a 4 week old female who was at risk of inheriting LCHAD/TFP deficiency and was diagnosed at the time of delivery using umbilical cord blood...
March 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934616/pregnancy-and-cirrhosis-four-cases-at-the-lome-campus-university-teaching-hospital-togo
#11
A Bagny, D A E Akolly, L M Lawson-Ananisoh, O Bouglouga, B Douaguibe, R El Hadji Yacoubou, S Koffi, K Lawson Evi, K M Guedenon, Y D Atakouma, K Akpadza, D Redah
To evaluate the hepatic and obstetric complications in pregnant women with cirrhosis. We report the cases of four pregnant women with cirrhosis treated in the gastroenterology and obstetrics-gynecology departments of the Lome Campus University Teaching Hospital between 2013 and 2015. The women's mean age was 32 years. Three were in the first trimester of pregnancy. Almost all had signs of advanced cirrhosis, including ascites (50%), lower-limb edema (75%), and jaundice (25%). All (100%) had liver failure and anemia...
December 8, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916433/assessment-of-cost-sharing-in-the-pima-county-marketplace
#12
Nicholas B Jennings, Howard J Eng
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act established health insurance marketplaces to allow consumers to make educated decisions about their health care coverage. During the first open enrollment period in 2013, the federally facilitated marketplace in Pima County, Arizona listed 119 plans, making it one of the most competitive markets in the country. This study compares these plans based on differences in consumer cost sharing, including deductibles, co-pays and premiums. Consumer costs were reviewed using specific cases including a normal delivery pregnancy, the management of Type II Diabetes, and the utilization of specialty drugs to treat Hepatitis C...
January 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898957/supplementation-of-corn-dried-distillers-grains-plus-solubles-to-gestating-beef-cows-fed-low-quality-forage-ii-impacts-on-uterine-blood-flow-circulating-estradiol-17%C3%AE-and-progesterone-and-hepatic-steroid-metabolizing-enzyme-activity
#13
V C Kennedy, B R Mordhorst, J J Gaspers, M L Bauer, K C Swanson, C O Lemley, K A Vonnahme
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing dried distillers' grains plus solubles (DDGS) during late gestation on uterine blood flow (BF), circulating steroid hormones and hepatic steroid metabolizing enzymes, and calf and placental weights. Multiparous beef cows were randomly divided into a control group (CON; = 15) consuming a diet containing 90% corn stover and 10% corn silage (DM basis) for ad libitum intake and a treatment group (SUP; = 12) consuming the same diet and DDGS (0...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898721/hepatitis-b-virus-infections-and-associated-factors-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-care-clinic-at-deder-hospital-eastern-ethiopia
#14
Abdi Umare, Berhanu Seyoum, Tesfaye Gobena, Tamirat Haile Mariyam
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem worldwide. Reports have shown that 68,600 people die of HBV infection and more than 300,000 deaths due to liver cancer secondary to hepatitis B every year globally. Women who are infected with HBV can vertically transmit the infection to their infants. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and associated factors among pregnant women. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinic (ANC) for routine pregnancy check-up between 18 March 2015 and 15 May 2015...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879486/prospective-interventional-study-of-tenofovir-in-pregnancy-to-prevent-vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-in-highly-viremic-women
#15
Pierre O Sellier, Sarah Maylin, Béatrice Berçot, Dorothée Chopin, Amanda Lopes, Guy Simoneau, John Evans, Véronique Delcey, Jean-Louis Bénifla, François Simon, Jean-François Bergmann
BACKGROUND: The risk of vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) increases as maternal HBV DNA increase, despite serovaccination to newborns. METHODS: From 1 July 2012 to 1 January 2016, all pregnant women in Lariboisiere Hospital, Paris, France, with HBV DNA of 5 log10 IU/ml and above were administered tenofovir from week 28 of pregnancy until delivery. HBV DNA was measured at months 1, 2 of tenofovir and at delivery. The newborns were serovaccinated, tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb)±HBV DNA, and hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) when aged 9 months, and then 24 months...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875320/association-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-with-preterm-birth-our-experience-and-meta-analysis
#16
Ai-Min Cui, Jian-Guo Shao, Hai-Bo Li, Yi Shen, Zhi-Xian Chen, Sheng Zhang, Zhao-Lian Bian, Gang Qin, Xiao-Yan Cheng
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with preterm birth (PTB). METHODS: A cohort of 20,498 pregnant women (497 HBV carriers with 20,001 non-HBV controls) with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels was selected from the Obstetrics & Gynecology Hospital of Nantong University. The clinical parameters and PTB incidence were compared between HBV carriers and non-HBV subjects. For the meta-analysis, we searched the PubMed, Ovid and Cochrane Library databases for studies comparing PTB incidence between individuals with chronic HBV infection and non-HBV subjects...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873053/relationship-between-the-mechanism-of-hepatitis-b-virus-father-infant-transmission-and-pregnancy-outcome
#17
Ying Kong, Yi Liu, Xiaojing Liu, Na Li, Zirong Zhu, Aiyun Zhang, Jianxue Liu, Feng Ye, Shumei Lin
PURPOSE: This study examined the relationship between the mechanism of hepatitis B virus (HBV) father-infant transmission via reproductive cells and pregnancy outcome. METHODS: Abandoned in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos of fathers with chronic HBV infection were taken as study objects. HBV mRNA in embryos was detected, and successfully transplanted embryos were followed up to determine the relationship between HBV-infected embryos and pregnancy outcome. RESULTS: HBV mRNA signals were detected in one embryo in the group with HBV-positive fathers; the positive rate was 1/18 (5...
November 21, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866601/assessment-of-state-perinatal-hepatitis-b-prevention-laws
#18
Lindsay A Culp, Lisa Caucci, Nancy E Fenlon, Megan C Lindley, Noele P Nelson, Trudy V Murphy
INTRODUCTION: Identifying pregnant women with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for post-exposure prophylaxis of their infants is critical to preventing mother-to-child transmission of HBV infection. HBV infection in infancy results in premature death from chronic liver disease or cancer in 25% of affected infants. Universal screening of pregnant women for HBV infection is the standard of care, and in many states is supported by laws for screening and reporting these infections to public health...
December 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852658/indications-for-antiviral-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-pregnant-mothers
#19
Eric Raeyoon Yoo, Ryan Babu Perumpail, George Cholankeril, Aijaz Ahmed
The use of antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the setting of pregnancy needs to be individualised based on limited data. We report a case of a 34-year-old Korean-American woman with a history of pregnancy with emergent caesarean section due to prolonged labour in the setting of HBV e-antigen (HBeAg) positive chronic HBV with a pretreatment baseline HBV DNA level of 110000 000 million copies per mL. Her first delivery was complicated by mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV infection to her daughter despite standard active and passive immunoprophylaxis...
November 15, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805270/national-trends-of-hepatitis-b-and-c-during-pregnancy-across-sociodemographic-behavioral-and-clinical-factors-united-states-1998-2011
#20
Jason L Salemi, Kiara K Spooner, Maria C Mejia de Grubb, Anjali Aggarwal, Jennifer L Matas, Hamisu M Salihu
Currently, data examining nationally representative prevalence and trends of HBV or HCV among specific subgroups of pregnant women in the US are unavailable. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of hospitalizations for liveborn singleton deliveries from 1998 to 2011 using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. After identifying deliveries with HBV, HCV, and HIV infection during pregnancy, survey logistic regression was used to identify risk factors. Temporal trends were analyzed using joinpoint regression...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
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