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hepatitis b and pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732085/point-of-care-screening-for-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women-at-an-antenatal-clinic-a-south-african-experience
#1
Nafiisah Chotun, Wolfgang Preiser, Christoffel Johannes van Rensburg, Pedro Fernandez, Gerhard Barnard Theron, Dieter Glebe, Monique Ingrid Andersson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Elimination of HIV and syphilis mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has received much attention but little consideration has been given to the possibility of elimination of HBV MTCT. In sub-Saharan Africa, HBV vertical transmission continues to be reported and it remains an important public health problem. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of screening pregnant women for HBV using a point-of-care (POC) test and implementing interventions to prevent HBV MTCT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723858/maternal-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-pregnancy-outcomes-a-hospital-based-case-control-study-in-wuhan-china
#2
Zhihua Wan, Aifen Zhou, Huiping Zhu, Xiaofang Lin, Dan Hu, Songxu Peng, Bin Zhang, Yukai Du
GOALS: To examine the impact of maternal hepatitis B virus infection on pregnancy outcomes. BACKGROUND: Studies regarding hepatitis B virus infection and pregnancy outcomes are limited with inconsistent results, and none of them have evaluated the effect of maternal viral load in pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes. STUDY: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. In total, 1728 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive women who delivered consecutively at Wuhan Women and Children Medical and Healthcare Center, Wuhan, China, from June 2008 to May 2015, were compared with 1497 HBsAg-negative women giving birth in the same hospital during the same period who were randomly identified and selected from the computerized medical record database in parallel...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723855/four-year-outcomes-after-cessation-of-tenofovir-in-immune-tolerant-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#3
Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Aric J Hui, Grace Lai-Hung Wong, Rosita Suk-Yi Chan, Angel Mei-Ling Chim, Angeline Oi-Shan Lo, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan
GOALS: To study the long-term outcome after cessation of antiviral therapy in immune-tolerant patients. BACKGROUND: Experience in the treatment of immune-tolerant chronic hepatitis B is scanty. Some immune-tolerant patients may receive temporary antiviral therapy, such as for prevention of vertical transmission at pregnancy or prophylaxis for chemotherapy. STUDY: This was a follow-up study of a phase 2 trial at 2 centers. Immune-tolerant patients received tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and/or emtricitabine for 4 years and were followed for another 4 years after treatment cessation...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677866/increased-incidence-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-male-rat-offspring-exposed-to-fluoxetine-during-fetal-and-neonatal-life-involves-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-augmented-de-novo-hepatic-lipogenesis
#4
Nicole E De Long, Daniel B Hardy, Noelle Ma, Alison C Holloway
Up to 10% of women take selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) during pregnancy. Children exposed to SSRIs in utero have an increased risk of being overweight suggesting that fetal exposure to SSRIs can cause permanent metabolic changes. We have previously shown in rats that fetal and neonatal exposure to the SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine results in metabolic perturbations including increased hepatic triglyceride content; a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the mechanism(s) underlying the fluoxetine-induced increase in intrahepatic triglyceride content...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660149/mechanisms-and-prevention-of-vertical-transmission-in-chronic-viral-hepatitis
#5
REVIEW
Marianna G Mavilia, George Y Wu
Vertical transmission (VT) is the primary route of transmission of viral hepatitis in children. The rate of VT ranges from 1-28% with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 3-15% with hepatitis C virus (HCV). VT for both viruses can occur during the intrauterine or peripartum period. VT of HBV primarily occurs by intrauterine transmission (IUT). Hepatitis B surface antigen is unable to cross the placenta and, therefore, relies on processes like transplacental leakage, placental infection, cellular transmission by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and germline transmission...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654554/baseline-hepatitis-b-virus-titer-predicts-initial-postpartum-hepatic-flare-a-multicenter-prospective-study
#6
Jinfeng Liu, Jing Wang, Caijing Qi, Furong Cao, Zhen Tian, Dandan Guo, Taotao Yan, Qian Li, Shujuan Yang, JianJun Fu, Xianmei Tang, Xiaoni Kou, Na Liu, Zicheng Jiang, Yingren Zhao, Tianyan Chen
BACKGROUND AND GOALS: A series of changes in the immune system occur during pregnancy and puerperium. Currently, we aim to characterize both the natural changes in liver inflammation and its association with hepatitis B viremia during this special period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) gravidas were recruited and followed up to 52 weeks postpartum. Virological and biochemical parameters were assessed throughout the period. RESULTS: A total of 1097 CHB mothers had finished the entire follow-up including 451 accepting telbivudine, 178 accepting tenofovir, and 468 without antiviral therapy...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653441/prior-pregnancy-and-antenatal-rubella-sero-negativity-evidence-of-persistent-maternal-immunologic-alteration
#7
Terence T Lao, Annie S Y Hui, Daljit S Sahota
PROBLEM: It is unclear if the immunologic alterations induced by pregnancy could persist. METHOD OF STUDY: Antenatal rubella sero-negativity was correlated with gravidity, abortions and parity in 112 083 gravidae managed during 1997-2015, with further analysis stratified for factors known to influence rubella serology. RESULTS: The 10.2% sero-negative gravidae had different characteristics, and the incidence showed significant difference and positive trend (P<...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646142/efficacy-and-safety-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-in-preventing-vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-in-pregnancies-with-high-viral-load
#8
Jun-Ze Chen, Zuo-Wei Liao, Fei-Long Huang, Ru-Kui Su, Wen-Bo Wang, Xue-Yuan Cheng, Jie-Qing Chen, Jia-Qi Liu, Zhong Huang
This study was a meta-analysis of the literature on the efficacy and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in preventing vertical transmission of hepatitis B in pregnancies with high viral load. Four observational studies and one randomized controlled trial involving 585 pregnant women and 595 newborns were included in the meta-analysis. TDF was more effective than the placebo in reducing vertical transmission in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) pregnancies with high serum HBV-DNA levels (OR = 0...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636651/yield-of-yearly-routine-physical-examination-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-is-limited-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-the-netherlands
#9
Marleen A van Amsterdam, Sander van Assen, Herman G Sprenger, Kasper R Wilting, Ymkje Stienstra, Wouter F W Bierman
BACKGROUND: Routine physical examinations might be of value in HIV-infected patients, but the yield is unknown. We determined the diagnoses that would have been missed without performing annual routine physical examinations in HIV-infected patients with stable disease. METHODS: Data were collected from the medical records of 299 HIV-1-infected patients with CD4 count >350 cells/mm3 if not using combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), or CD4 count >100 cells/mm3 and undetectable viral load if using cART...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617973/hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-preconception-period-among-women-of-reproductive-age-in-rural-china-a-nationwide-study
#10
Qiongjie Zhou, Xiaotian Li, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yiping Zhang, Shikun Zhang, Ganesh Acharya
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during pregnancy is associated with perinatal complications and poor maternal and fetal outcomes. There is a lack of reports on HBV infection screening, prophylaxis, and/or treatment in preconception period among women planning a pregnancy. This study is to investigate the prevalence and demographic characteristics of HBV infection among rural women of reproductive age planning pregnancy within 6 months, in different geographical regions of China...
June 15, 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583150/prevalence-of-pregnancy-relevant-infections-in-a-rural-setting-of-ghana
#11
Fabian Völker, Paul Cooper, Oliver Bader, Angela Uy, Ortrud Zimmermann, Raimond Lugert, Uwe Groß
BACKGROUND: Although infectious diseases still account for a high burden of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, simultaneous investigations on multiple infections affecting maternal and child health are missing. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, single-centre pilot study in a rural area of Ghana to assess the infectiological profile during pregnancy. Screening of 180 expectant mothers was done by vaginal swabs and serology to detect the most common pregnancy-relevant infections...
June 6, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571500/safety-of-oral-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-based-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-use-in-lactating-hiv-uninfected-women
#12
REVIEW
Kenneth K Mugwanya, Grace John-Stewart, Jared Baeten
In settings where HIV is prevalent in heterosexual populations, pregnancy and postpartum breastfeeding periods can be associated with substantial HIV acquisition risk. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine is an attractive HIV prevention option for women who are lactating but data are limited on its safety during the lactation period. Areas covered: We provide a concise synthesis and summary of current evidence on the safety of TDF-based PrEP during breastfeeding...
July 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551372/clinical-course-and-perinatal-transmission-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-during-pregnancy-a-real-world-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Zhi-Xian Chen, Gui-Fang Gu, Zhao-Lian Bian, Wei-Hua Cai, Yi Shen, Yan-Li Hao, Sheng Zhang, Jian-Guo Shao, Gang Qin
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical course and perinatal transmission of chronic hepatitis B during pregnancy in a real life setting. METHODS: A total of 221 singleton pregnant women with detectable HBV-DNA levels (≥10(3) copies/mL) were enrolled during January 2011 to June 2015. Forty-three high viraemic patients (≥10(6) copies/mL) received telbivudine in the 2(nd) or 3(rd) trimester according to their intention, while 89 high viraemic and 79 low viraemic (≥10(3) and <10(6) copies/mL) patients were the control cohorts...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550648/pregnancy-outcome-in-more-than-5000-births-to-women-with-viral-hepatitis-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-sweden
#14
Knut Stokkeland, Jonas Filip Ludvigsson, Rolf Hultcrantz, Anders Ekbom, Jonas Höijer, Matteo Bottai, Olof Stephansson
Previous studies have shown inconsistent results with respect to hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate pregnancy outcome in women with HBV or HCV. In a nationwide cohort of births between 2001 and 2011 we investigated the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in 2990 births to women with HBV and 2056 births to women with HCV using data from Swedish healthcare registries. Births to women without HBV (n = 1090 979), and births without HCV (n = 1091 913) served as population controls...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544232/peripartum-cytokine-flares-in-a-multiethnic-cohort-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-carriers-does-not-correlate-with-hepatitis-b-virus-suppression-or-increased-risk-of-liver-disease
#15
Shivali S Joshi, Daniel Wong, Eliana Castillo, Mark G Swain, Carla S Coffin
PROBLEM: In chronic hepatitis B (CHB) carriers, alanine transaminase (ALT) flares are common in the peripartum period. There are limited data on immunological changes of pregnancy in CHB. We hypothesize that in pregnant CHB carriers, the Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio is altered resulting in changes in biochemical/virological and liver fibrosis markers. STUDY METHODS: Serum from 38 pregnant/post-partum CHB carriers (median age 32 years, 53% Asian, 8 HBeAg(+) ) was tested for HBV DNA, quantitative HBV surface antigen, ALT and liver fibrosis by transient elastography (TE)...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540262/inactive-hepatitis-b-carrier-and-pregnancy-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Afsaneh Keramat, Masud Younesian, Mohammad Gholami Fesharaki, Maryam Hasani, Samaneh Mirzaei, Elham Ebrahimi, Seyed Moaed Alavian, Fatemeh Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore whether maternal asymptomatic hepatitis B (HB) infection effects on pre-term rupture of membranous (PROM), stillbirth, preeclampsia, eclampsia, gestational hypertension, or antepartum hemorrhage. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Scopus, and ISI web of science from 1990 to Feb 2015. In addition, electronic literature searches supplemented by searching the gray literature (e.g., conference abstracts thesis and the result of technical reports) and scanning the reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539842/a-review-of-antiviral-use-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women
#17
Ariel Jaffe, Robert S Brown
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains high even with the proper use of active-passive immunoprophylaxis in newborns. Mothers with significant viremia are at a much higher risk of MTCT; therefore, treatments aimed at lowering HBV DNA levels during pregnancy may ultimately decrease global disease burden. The exact threshold for treatment remains controversial; however, most studies have accepted levels greater than 2 × 5 log10 IU/mL as significant viremia. We reviewed the most recent literature on antiviral efficacy, maternal and fetal safety, and viral resistance patterns when used for short-duration therapy in pregnancy...
March 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522204/peg-interferon-plus-nucleotide-analogue-treatment-versus-no-treatment-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-with-a-low-viral-load-a-randomised-controlled-open-label-trial
#18
Annikki de Niet, Louis Jansen, Femke Stelma, Sophie B Willemse, Sjoerd D Kuiken, Sebastiaan Weijer, Carin M J van Nieuwkerk, Hans L Zaaijer, Richard Molenkamp, R Bart Takkenberg, Maarten Koot, Joanne Verheij, Ulrich Beuers, Hendrik W Reesink
BACKGROUND: Antiviral treatment is currently not recommended for patients with chronic hepatitis B with a low viral load. However, they might benefit from acquiring a functional cure (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] loss with or without formation of antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen [anti-HBs]). We assessed HBsAg loss during peg-interferon-alfa-2a (peg-IFN) and nucleotide analogue combination therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B with a low viral load. METHODS: In this randomised controlled, open-label trial, patients were enrolled from the Academic Medical Center (AMC), Amsterdam, Netherlands...
May 15, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495266/maternal-pre-pregnancy-infection-with-hepatitis-b-virus-and-the-risk-of-preterm-birth-a-population-based-cohort-study
#19
Jue Liu, Shikun Zhang, Min Liu, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yiping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the leading cause of child death in children younger than 5 years. Large cohort studies in developed countries have shown that maternal hepatitis B virus infection is associated with preterm birth, but there is little reliable evidence from China and other developing countries, where hepatitis B virus prevalence is intermediate or high. Hence, we designed this study to investigate the association between pre-pregnancy hepatitis B virus infection and risk of preterm and early preterm birth...
June 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493860/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-women-giving-birth-tennessee-and-united-states-2009-2014
#20
Stephen W Patrick, Audrey M Bauer, Michael D Warren, Timothy F Jones, Carolyn Wester
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects an estimated 3.5 million persons in the United States (1), making it the most common bloodborne infection in the country. Recent surveillance data showed increased rates of HCV infection among adolescents and adults who are predominantly white, live in nonurban areas, and have a history of injection drug use.* U.S. birth certificate data were used to analyze trends and geographic variations in rates of HCV infection among women giving birth during 2009-2014. Birth certificates from Tennessee were used to examine individual characteristics and outcomes associated with HCV infection, using a multivariable model to calculate adjusted odds of HCV-related diagnosis in pregnancy among women with live births...
May 12, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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