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hepatitis b and pregnancy

Demin Cai, Mengjie Yuan, Haoyu Liu, Shifeng Pan, Wenqiang Ma, Jian Hong, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine serves as an animal and human nutrient which has been heavily investigated in glucose and lipid metabolic regulation, yet the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. In this study, feeding sows with betaine-supplemented diets during pregnancy and lactation increased cholesterol content and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) gene expression, but decreasing bile acids content and cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase (CYP7a1) expression in the liver of weaning piglets...
October 18, 2016: Nutrients
B Lozano-Masdemont, L Gómez-Recuero-Muñoz, A Pulido-Pérez, I Molina-López, R Suárez-Fernández
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in pregnant women is very rare in western countries, thus, cutaneous manifestation of HBV infection may be confused with a dermatosis specific of pregnancy. We report a 39-year-old woman who presented in her 20th week of pregnancy with a pruritic rash, which consisted of generalized erythematous plaques, some of them with a purple centre. Serology testing showed acute HBV infection, and a biopsy revealed a superficial and interstitial perivascular inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes and eosinophils...
October 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Zhangmin Tan, Yuzhu Yin, Jin Zhou, Lingling Wu, Chengfang Xu, Hongying Hou
This prospective study evaluated the viability of telbivudine for blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.Pregnant women positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen began telbivudine treatment before 14 weeks of gestation (i.e., early), between 14 and 28 weeks of gestation (late), or not at all (control). In the late-treatment group, 55 women terminated telbivudine therapy within puerperium. All neonates underwent routine hepatitis B immunoglobulin plus vaccination...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Marc D Cohen, Edward Keystone
Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed at the CD20 molecule on the surfaces of some but not all B cells. It depletes almost all peripheral B cells, but other niches of B cells are variably depleted, including synovium. Its mechanism of action in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is only partially understood. Rituximab was efficacious in clinical trials of patients with RA, including those who are methotrexate naïve, those with an incomplete response to methotrexate, and those with an incomplete response to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors...
December 2015: Rheumatol Ther
Noele P Nelson, Philippa J Easterbrook, Brian J McMahon
Integration of hepatitis B vaccination into national immunization programs has resulted in substantial reductions of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission in previously high endemic countries. The key strategy for control of the HBV epidemic is birth dose and infant vaccination. Additional measures include use of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and diagnosis of mothers at high risk of transmitting HBV and use of antiviral agents during pregnancy to decrease maternal DNA concentrations to undetectable concentrations...
November 2016: Clinics in Liver Disease
Hannah B Anastasio, Maureen Grundy, Meredith L Birsner, Karin J Blakemore
BACKGROUND: Gestational alloimmune liver disease, a form of profound liver failure in the newborn, is the main underlying cause of the entity formerly known as neonatal hemochromatosis. Antepartum maternal intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been shown to prevent gestational alloimmune liver disease, which otherwise has a recurrence risk above 90% in subsequent pregnancies. CASE: A 30-year-old woman, gravida 3 para 0120, presented early in gestation. Her previous pregnancy had been complicated by fetal growth restriction, oligohydramnios, and ultimately fatal fulminant neonatal liver failure...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Liming Wang, Jeffrey Wiener, Marc Bulterys, Xiaoyu Wei, Lili Chen, Wei Liu, Shujia Liang, Colin Shepard, Linhong Wang, Ailing Wang, Fujie Zhang, Athena P Kourtis
BACKGROUND:  There is limited information on HBV-antiviral therapy among HIV/HBV co-infected pregnant women. METHODS:  Phase II randomized controlled trial of a regimen containing tenofovir (TDF) /lamivudine (3TC), versus 3TC, in HIV/HBV co-infected pregnant women in China. The HBV virological response was compared in study arms (Clinical Trials registration: #NCT01125696). RESULTS:  Median decline of HBV DNA was 2.60 log10 copies/ml in the TDF-3TC arm; 2...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
L R De Souza, H Berger, R Retnakaran, P A Vlachou, J L Maguire, A B Nathens, P W Connelly, J G Ray
Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity individually reflect insulin resistance, but their combined effect on glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy is unknown. A cohort of 476 pregnant women prospectively underwent sonographic assessment of hepatic fat and visceral (VAT) and total (TAT) adipose tissue at 11-14 weeks' gestation. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation between the presence of maternal hepatic fat and/or the upper quartile (Q) of either VAT or TAT and the odds of developing the composite outcome of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks' gestation, based on a 75 g OGTT...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
Irshad Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis during pregnancy is associated with a high risk of maternal complications. The virus has a high risk of vertical transmission and it has been reported as the leading cause of maternal death. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viral infections among pregnant women in the Peshawar district of Pakistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional study took place between July 2013 and April 2014...
June 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
Huixian Zhang, Geng Qin, Yanhong Zhang, Shuisheng Li, Qiang Lin
Leptin is an essential hormone for the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake in vertebrate animals. To better understand the physiological roles of leptin in nutrient regulation in paternal ovoviviparous fish (family Syngnathidae), the present study cloned the full-length of leptin-a and leptin receptor (lepr) genes in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus). Results showed that there was a 576-bp intron between two exons in leptin-a gene but no leptin-b gene in seahorse. Although the primary amino acid sequence conservation of seahorse leptin-a was very low, the 3-D structure modeling of seahorse leptin-a revealed strong conservation of tertiary structure with other vertebrates...
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
Özgür Can, Ali Murat Gökçe, Mustafa Canbakan, Pınar Ata, Gülizar Manga Şahin, Mesut İzzet Titiz, Süheyla Apaydın
BACKGROUND Sensitization is one of the most important barriers against transplantation. Our aim was to evaluate the sensitization status of our patients awaiting cadaveric transplantation and to identify factors causing sensitization. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 140 patients on the cadaveric waiting list during January 2014 were included in this retrospective cross-sectional study. The parametric t-test and the non-parametric chi-square test were used to detect differences between PRA-positive and -negative patients...
September 13, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Mohammad S Khuroo, Mehnaaz S Khuroo, Naira S Khuroo
Hepatitis E was identified as an epidemic of non-A, non-B hepatitis from Kashmir, India in 1978. Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the etiological agent is the sole member of family Hepeviridae. The virus has marked heterogeneity and infects many animals like bats, camel, chicken, deer, boar, mongoose, pigs, rats, rabbit and cutthroat trout. Hepatitis E is a disease with a major global impact and has two distinct epidemiological patterns. Hepatitis E is an imperative health issue in developing nations, transmitted through sullied water and happens most every now in young adults...
August 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Michael B Yakass, Bryan J Woodward, Mary A Otoo, Edem K Hiadzi
OBJECTIVE: The rate of infertility continues to be on the increase in the developing world. Similarly, the rates of blood-borne viral infections (BBVs) such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are also on this rise. In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) quoted prevalences of 1.5% (HIV), 15% (HBV) 1.3 - 8.4% (HCV) in the Ghanaian general population. It has been reported that BBVs can adversely affect male fertility, specifically sperm count and progressive motility...
2016: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
U Pecks, W Rath, N Kleine-Eggebrecht, N Maass, F Voigt, T W Goecke, M G Mohaupt, G Escher
OBJECTIVE: Lipids and steroid hormones are closely linked. While cholesterol is the substrate for (placental) steroid hormone synthesis, steroid hormones regulate hepatic lipid production. The aim of this study was to quantify circulating steroid hormones and lipid metabolites, and to characterize their interactions in normal and pathological pregnancies with a focus on hepatic and placental pathologies. METHODS: A total of 216 serum samples were analyzed. Group A consisted of 32 patients with uncomplicated pregnancies who were analyzed at three different time-points in pregnancy (from the first through the third trimester) and once post partum...
July 2016: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
Jodie Dionne-Odom, Rahel Mbah, Nicole J Rembert, Samuel Tancho, Gregory E Halle-Ekane, Comfort Enah, Thomas K Welty, Pius M Tih, Alan T N Tita
Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Daniel Melese Desalegn, Serebe Abay, Bineyam Taye
BACKGROUND: Provision of quality laboratory services is an essential aspect of a promoting safe motherhood and better outcomes for newborn. Therefore; this study was intended to assess status of focused antenatal care (FANC) laboratory services at public health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: Institution based, descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2015. The study included 13 randomly selected health facilities and 13 purposively selected laboratory service providers...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Q J Sheng, Y Ding, B J Li, H Bai, C Zhang, C Han, Y X Fan, Y W Li, X G Dou
OBJECTIVE: To observe the success rate of telbivudine (LdT) for the prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the incidence of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation during LdT treatment and after LdT withdrawal in HBV-infected pregnant woman with high viremia in immune-tolerant phase and receiving LdT treatment at the end of pregnancy, and to evaluate the efficacy of LdT in the prevention of perinatal transmission and the safety for pregnant women. METHODS: Pregnant women infected with HBV in immune-tolerant phase who had normal ALT levels (≤40 U/L) and high viremia (HBV DNA ≥6 log10 IU/ml) with positive HBeAg were enrolled as subjects...
April 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Christine Y Chang, Natali Aziz, Mugilan Poongkunran, Asad Javaid, Huy N Trinh, Daryl Lau, Mindie H Nguyen
OBJECTIVES: Alterations in the immune system during pregnancy have been associated with reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) women. However, the effects of pregnancy on CHB remain not well understood. The goal of this study was to examine flares in HBV DNA and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) during pregnancy and postpartum in CHB women untreated prior to pregnancy. METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective study of 113 pregnancies in 101 CHB women who presented during pregnancy at two community gastroenterology clinics and two tertiary medical centers in the United States during 1997-2015...
October 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Malgorzata Pawlowska, Anna Pniewska, Malgorzata Pilarczyk, Dorota Kozielewicz, Krzysztof Domagalski
INTRODUCTION: An appropriate management of HBV infection is the best strategy to finally reduce the total burden of HBV infection. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for more than one third of chronic HBV infections worldwide. Because HBV infection in infancy or early childhood often leads to chronic infection, appropriate prophylaxis and management of HBV in pregnancy is crucial to prevent MTCT. AREAS COVERED: The prevention of HBV vertical transmission is a complex task and includes: universal HBV screening of pregnant women, administration of antivirals in the third trimester of pregnancy in women with high viral load and passive-active HBV immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin in newborns of all HBV infected women...
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Karoline Aebi-Popp, Christian Kahlert, Andri Rauch, Beatrice Mosimann, David Baud, Nicola Low, Daniel Surbek
QUESTION: Detection and treatment of infections during pregnancy are important for both maternal and child health. The objective of this study was to describe testing practices and adherence to current national guidelines in Switzerland. METHODS: We invited all registered practicing obstetricians and gynaecologists in Switzerland to complete an anonymous web-based questionnaire about strategies for testing for 14 infections during pregnancy. We conducted a descriptive analysis according to demographic characteristics...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
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