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Laboratory acquired infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934185/hiv-care-outcomes-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-with-diagnosed-hiv-infection-united-states-2015
#1
Sonia Singh, Andrew Mitsch, Baohua Wu
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (collectively referred to as MSM) represent approximately 2% of the U.S. population (1), yet in 2015, MSM accounted for 70% of all diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, including 3% who also were persons who inject drugs (2). During 2008-2014, incidence of HIV infection decreased for groups in all transmission categories except MSM (3). Testing, linkage to and retention in care, and viral suppression are important in reducing HIV transmission...
September 22, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929960/-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-and-molecular-characterization-of-toxin-positive-clostridium-difficile-isolates-the-first-report-on-the-presence-of-hypervirulent-strains-from-turkey
#2
Emrah Salman, Belkıs Levent, Zeynep Ceren Karahan
Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most important hospital-acquired infections. Infections caused by hypervirulent C.difficile strains which produce toxins at high levels, have higher morbidity and mortality rates, more complications and relapses. They are characterized by higher sporulation ratios and resistance rates for fluoroquinolones. In order to prevent serious morbidities, mortalities and remarkable increase in health costs, highly pathogenic C.difficile strains must be identified before causing severe outbreaks...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929957/-serotype-distribution-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-the-adult-patients-in-a-turkish-%C3%A3-niversity-hospital
#3
Lütfiye Öksüz, Nezahat Gürler
Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. S.pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, especially in adults. Invasive pneumococcal disease can usually occur in the elderly, children and immunocompromised individuals. Usage of the vaccines for the protection against S.pneumoniae infections, is an effective method to reduce the burden of disease in both children and adults. Serotypes frequently isolated from purified capsular polysaccharides of S...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924472/the-effect-of-antibiotic-use-on-prevalence-of-nosocomial-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-an-ecologic-study
#4
Cornelius Remschmidt, Michael Behnke, Axel Kola, Luis A Peña Diaz, Anna M Rohde, Petra Gastmeier, Frank Schwab
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are among the most common antimicrobial-resistant pathogens causing nosocomial infections. Although antibiotic use has been identified as a risk factor for VRE, it remains unclear which antimicrobial agents particularly facilitate VRE selection. Here, we assessed whether use of specific antimicrobial agents is independently associated with healthcare-associated (HA) VRE rates in a university hospital setting in Berlin, Germany. METHODS: We conducted the study between January 2014 and December 2015 at the Charité-university hospital of Berlin, Germany...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919016/metarhizium-brunneum-an-enzootic-wireworm-disease-and-evidence-for-its-suppression-by-bacterial-symbionts
#5
Todd Kabaluk, Erica Li-Leger, Sean Nam
Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are serious agricultural pests, with soil-dwelling larvae attacking subterranean tissues of crop plants and their fruit when in contact with the soil surface. Researchers collect wireworms for laboratory experiments to study their behaviour and test pest control agents but frequently lose them to Metarhizium Petch (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) infection. We found latent M. brunneum infection in 13-100% of live, asymptomatic Agriotes obscurus and A. lineatus wireworms acquired from agricultural fields and in wireworms maintained indoors, indicating its enzootic presence...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904920/antimicrobial-susceptibility-pattern-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases-producing-organisms-isolated-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-bangladesh
#6
Mohammad Jobayer, Zeenat Afroz, Sultana Shazeda Nahar, Ayesha Begum, Shahin Ara Begum, S M Shamsuzzaman
CONTEXT: Infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) producing organism is a major problem regarding antibiotic resistance. AIMS: The aim of this study was to find out the antibiogram of ESBL producing organisms isolated from various samples. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology of a Tertiary Care Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January to June 2014. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One Hundred and seventy-nine ESBL producing Gram-negative organisms detected phenotypically by double-disc synergy test were enrolled in this study...
July 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890784/first-record-of-locally-acquired-human-babesiosis-in-canada-caused-by-babesia-duncani-a-case-report
#7
John D Scott
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this clinical assessment was to ascertain whether a 70-year-old Canadian patient, who had no history of out-of-country travel, had contracted a Babesia infection. METHODS: The adult human male developed constitutional symptoms, which included sweats, chills, and immobilizing fatigue, and was screened for human babesiosis. Subsequent testing included a complete Babesia panel that consisted of B. microti immunoflourescent antibody IgM and IgG, B...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879824/under-reporting-giardiasis-time-to-consider-the-public-health-implications
#8
S L Currie, N Stephenson, A S Palmer, B L Jones, C L Alexander
Giardiasis is a treatable disease, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite, Giardia duodenalis (G. duodenalis). It is one of the most common enteric parasites found globally to cause gastrointestinal disturbances, and infections may result in long-term irritable bowel syndrome-like symptoms. It is a common misconception that giardiasis is associated with foreign travel, which results in locally acquired cases in the UK being underdiagnosed. This report highlights the findings from one large Scottish Health Board, arising from a change in testing methodology, which resulted in the screening of all stools submitted for enteric investigations for G...
September 7, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874476/mechanisms-of-resistance-to-folate-pathway-inhibitors-in-burkholderia-pseudomallei-deviation-from-the-norm
#9
Nicole L Podnecky, Katherine A Rhodes, Takehiko Mima, Heather R Drew, Sunisa Chirakul, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, James M Schupp, Derek S Sarovich, Bart J Currie, Paul Keim, Herbert P Schweizer
The trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole combination, co-trimoxazole, plays a vital role in the treatment of Burkholderia pseudomallei infections. Previous studies demonstrated that the B. pseudomallei BpeEF-OprC efflux pump confers widespread trimethoprim resistance in clinical and environmental isolates, but this is not accompanied by significant resistance to co-trimoxazole. Using the excluded select-agent strain B. pseudomallei Bp82, we now show that in vitro acquired trimethoprim versus co-trimoxazole resistance is mainly mediated by constitutive BpeEF-OprC expression due to bpeT mutations or by BpeEF-OprC overexpression due to bpeS mutations...
September 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861143/artificial-urine-for-teaching-urinalysis-concepts-and-diagnosis-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-the-medical-microbiology-laboratory
#10
Latifa B Khan, Hannah M Read, Stephen R Ritchie, Thomas Proft
Dipstick urinalysis is an informative, quick, cost-effective and non-invasive diagnostic tool that is useful in clinical practice for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTIs), kidney diseases, and diabetes. We used dipstick urinalysis as a hands-on microbiology laboratory exercise to reinforce student learning about UTIs with a particular focus on cystitis, which is a common bacterial infection. To avoid exposure to potentially contaminated human urine samples, we prepared artificial urine using easily acquired and affordable ingredients, which allowed less-experienced students to perform urinalysis without the risk of exposure to pathogenic organisms and ensured reliable availability of the urine samples...
2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856633/automated-bedside-flow-cytometer-for-mhla-dr-expression-measurement-a-comparison-study-with-reference-protocol
#11
Mehdi Zouiouich, Morgane Gossez, Fabienne Venet, Thomas Rimmelé, Guillaume Monneret
BACKGROUND: In various ICU conditions, measurement of diminished expression of human leukocyte antigen-DR on circulating monocytes (mHLA-DR) by flow cytometry appears to be a reliable marker of acquired immunosuppression. Low mHLA-DR is associated with an increased risk of nosocomial infections and mortality. Nevertheless, its use remains somewhat limited and has not been adopted in common medical practice. The main drawback of mHLA-DR measurement is likely related to the use of flow cytometry that is not accessible everywhere on a 24/7 basis...
August 30, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851787/a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-social-and-environmental-context-of-recently-acquired-hiv-infection-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-south-east-england
#12
Annabelle Gourlay, Julie Fox, Mitzy Gafos, Sarah Fidler, Nneka Nwokolo, Amanda Clarke, Richard Gilson, Chloe Orkin, Simon Collins, Kholoud Porter, Graham Hart
OBJECTIVES: A key UK public health priority is to reduce HIV incidence among gay and other men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aimed to explore the social and environmental context in which new HIV infections occurred among MSM in London and Brighton in 2015. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive study, comprising in-depth interviews, was carried out as a substudy to the UK Register of HIV Seroconverters cohort: an observational cohort of individuals whose date of HIV seroconversion was well estimated...
August 28, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838666/neuropathology-of-human-prion-diseases
#13
Diane L Ritchie, James W Ironside
The human prion diseases comprise sporadic, genetic, and acquired disorders. These are rare conditions with a heterogeneous clinicopathologic phenotype, which can make diagnosis challenging. A combined clinical, genetic, neuropathologic and biochemical approach to diagnosis is therefore essential. Since prion infectivity is the highest in tissues from the central nervous system, special laboratory precautions are required for the safe handling of these tissues. Neuropathologic assessment is generally performed following autopsy, when the fixed brain should be adequately sampled and studied by conventional stains and immunohistochemistry for the abnormal form of the prion protein...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834798/estimated-coverage-to-address-financial-barriers-to-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-among-persons-with-indications-for-its-use-united-states-2015
#14
Dawn K Smith, Michelle Van Handel, Rebecca Huggins
BACKGROUND: An estimated 1.2 million American adults engage in sexual and drug use behaviors that place them at significant risk of acquiring HIV infection. Engagement in health care for the provision of daily oral antiretroviral medication as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), when clinically indicated, could substantially reduce the number of new HIV infections in these persons. However, resources to cover the financial cost of PrEP care is an anticipated barrier for many of the populations with high numbers of new HIV infections...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825766/trends-in-continuity-of-pregnancy-in-women-with-positive-cytomegalovirus-igm-during-the-first-trimester-2008-2009
#15
Ron Beloosesky, Ilana Feldblum, Alon Shrim, Jenny Kertes, Jacob Segal, Rachel Bachar, Yefet Youval
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy is the most common cause of intrauterine infection, and is a common cause of sensorineural hearing loss and mental retardation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate trends in amniocentesis and pregnancy outcome in women with suspected cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during the first trimester. METHODS: All blood tests for CMV immunoglobulin M (IgM) done between 2008 and 2009 on pregnant women who were enrolled in the Maccabi Healthcare Services were retrieved from laboratory database...
August 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818101/a-new-method-for-sequencing-the-hypervariable-plasmodium-falciparum-gene-var2csa-from-clinical-samples
#16
Antoine Dara, Mark A Travassos, Matthew Adams, Sarah Schaffer DeRoo, Elliott F Drábek, Sonia Agrawal, Miriam K Laufer, Christopher V Plowe, Joana C Silva
BACKGROUND: VAR2CSA, a member of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family, mediates the binding of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes to chondroitin sulfate A, a surface-associated molecule expressed in placental cells, and plays a central role in the pathogenesis of placental malaria. VAR2CSA is a target of naturally acquired immunity and, as such, is a leading vaccine candidate against placental malaria. This protein is very polymorphic and technically challenging to sequence...
August 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805176/estimating-the-risk-of-invasive-group-a-streptococcus-infection-in-care-home-residents-in-england-2009-2010
#17
M Saavedra-Campos, B Simone, S Balasegaram, A Wright, M Usdin, T Lamagni
Invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) infections cause severe disease and death, especially in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). In order to inform iGAS prevention, we compared the risk of iGAS in LTCF residents and community residents. We identified LTCF residents among cases of iGAS from national surveillance (2009-2010) using postcode matching, and cases of hospital-acquired infections via hospital admission records. We used Poisson regression to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and logistic regression to explore factors associated with case fatality rate (CFR)...
August 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800363/the-viability-of-lytic-bacteriophage-%C3%AE-d5-in-potato-associated-environments-and-its-effect-on-dickeya-solani-in-potato-solanum-tuberosum-l-plants
#18
Robert Czajkowski, Anna Smolarska, Zofia Ozymko
Dickeya solani is one of the most important pectinolytic phytopathogens responsible for high losses in potato, especially in seed potato production in Europe. Lytic bacteriophages can affect the structure of the host population and may influence spread, survival and virulence of the pathogen and in consequence, infection of the plant. In this study, we aimed to acquire information on the viability of the broad host lytic bacteriophage ΦD5 on potato, as well as to apprehend the specific effect of this bacteriophage on its host D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793861/viral-and-bacterial-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-in-hospital-health-care-workers-over-time-and-association-with-symptoms
#19
C Raina MacIntyre, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Yi Zhang, Holly Seale, Peng Yang, Joshua Chen, Yang Pan, Daitao Zhang, Quanyi Wang
BACKGROUND: Bacterial colonisation of the respiratory tract is commonly described and usually thought to be of no clinical significance. The aim of this study was to examine the presence and significance of bacteria and viruses in the upper respiratory tract of healthcare workers (HCWs), and association with respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in China and 223 HCWs were recruited from fever clinics and respiratory, paediatric, emergency/Intensive medication wards...
August 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748673/neurological-complications-during-treatment-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome
#20
Jee Eun Kim, Jae Hyeok Heo, Hye Ok Kim, Sook Hee Song, Sang Soon Park, Tai Hwan Park, Jin Young Ahn, Min Ky Kim, Jae Phil Choi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) has a high mortality rate and pandemic potential. However, the neurological manifestations of MERS have rarely been reported since it first emerged in 2012. METHODS: We evaluated four patients with laboratory-confirmed MERS coronavirus (CoV) infections who showed neurological complications during MERS treatment. These 4 patients were from a cohort of 23 patients who were treated at a single designated hospital during the 2015 outbreak in the Republic of Korea...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
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