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Laboratory acquired infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327796/keeping-track-of-hidden-dangers-the-short-history-of-the-sabi%C3%A3-virus
#1
Joel Henrique Ellwanger, José Artur Bogo Chies
Emerging infectious diseases are a global threat. In countries like Brazil, where biodiversity is high and public health conditions in terms of infrastructure and medical care are often precarious, emerging diseases are particularly worrisome. The lack of monitoring strategies to identify pathogens with the potential to cause outbreaks or epidemics is another problem in Brazil and other developing countries. In this article, we present the history of the Sabiá virus (SABV), a pathogen that was described in the 1990s in Brazil...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301425/dolutegravir-with-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-as-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-in-gay-and-bisexual-men
#2
John Mcallister, Janet M Towns, Anna Mcnulty, Anna B Pierce, Rosalind Foster, Robyn Richardson, Andrew Carr
OBJECTIVES: Completion rates for HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) are often low. We investigated the adherence and safety of dolutegravir (DTG 50 mg daily) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg/emtricitabine 200 mg (TDF-FTC) as 3-drug PEP in gay and bisexual men (GBM). DESIGN: Open-label, single-arm study at 3 sexual health clinics and 2 emergency departments in Australia. METHODS: One hundred HIV-uninfected GBM requiring PEP received DTG plus TDF-FTC for 28 days...
March 15, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300599/acquired-resistance-to-a-nucleopolyhedrovirus-in-the-smaller-tea-tortrix-adoxophyes-honmai-lepidoptera-tortricidae-after-selection-by-serial-viral-administration
#3
Madoka Nakai, Kazuhiro Takahashi, Kento Iwata, Kaoru Tanaka, Junko Koyanagi, Akemi Ookuma, Jun Takatsuka, Shohei Okuno, Yasuhisa Kunimi
A laboratory colony of Adoxophyes honmai was selected for resistance over 156 generations by feeding neonate larvae of every generation with the LC60 or LC70 of its nucleopolyhedrovirus, Adoxophyes honmai nucleopolyhedrovirus (AdhoNPV). A significant difference in LC50 values between the selected (R-strain) and unselected (S1- and S2-strain) strains was first observed after three generations of selection, and the resistance level then increased continuously. The highest degree of acquired resistance, based on the ratio of the LC50 values of R- and S1-strains, was more than 400,000-fold...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300495/hospital-acquired-infections-in-paediatric-medical-wards-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#4
Kevin B Spicer, Jennifer Green, Barnesh Dhada
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) impact care and costs in hospitals across the globe. There are minimal data on HAIs in sub-Saharan Africa and data specific to paediatrics are especially limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of HAIs in the paediatric medical units at Grey's Hospital, a tertiary government hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS: The Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) team collects data on all laboratory-confirmed infections, including from paediatric patients in two medical units (52 beds), the paediatric intensive/high-care unit (PICU, 8 beds) and the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, 23 beds)...
March 16, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291628/invitro-activity-of-imipenem-relebactam-against-gram-negative-bacilli-isolated-from-patients-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-united-states-in-2015-results-from-the-smart-global-surveillance-program
#5
Sibylle H Lob, Meredith A Hackel, Krystyna M Kazmierczak, Daryl J Hoban, Katherine Young, Mary R Motyl, James A Karlowsky, Daniel F Sahm
The β-lactamase inhibitor relebactam inactivates class A β-lactamases, including KPC-type carbapenemases, and class C β-lactamases. Relebactam combined with imipenem is in clinical development for several indications, including hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Employing CLSI-defined broth microdilution methodology, we evaluated the activities of imipenem-relebactam (using imipenem MIC breakpoints) and comparators against non-Proteeae Enterobacteriaceae (n=853) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=598) isolated from lower respiratory tract infection samples in 20 hospital laboratories in the United States participating in the 2015 SMART (Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends) global surveillance program...
March 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283007/-mortality-related-factors-in-patients-requiring-hospitalization-for-influenza-like-illness
#6
Lale Özışık, Mine Durusu Tanrıöver, Meral Çıblak Akçay, Kübra Yuntçu, Serhat Ünal, Selim Badur, Banu Çakır
The knowledge about the viral etiologies causing respiratory disease in adults is limited. Viral respiratory diseases may lead deterioration in certain patient populations. The aim of this study was to determine the viral etiologies of influenza-like illness among patients requiring hospitalization and to document the risk factors for mortality. This prospective study was performed in one of the 7 centers in Turkey in the context of influenza surveillance by the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network...
January 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274291/an-audit-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-detection-in-scottish-national-health-service-diagnostic-microbiology-laboratories
#7
C L Alexander, S Currie, K Pollock, A Smith-Palmer, B L Jones
Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species are protozoan parasites capable of causing gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals through the ingestion of infective faeces. Whereas Cryptosporidium species can be acquired locally or through foreign travel, there is the mis-conception that giardiasis is considered to be largely travel-associated, which results in differences in laboratory testing algorithms. In order to determine the level of variation in testing criteria and detection methods between diagnostic laboratories for both pathogens across Scotland, an audit was performed...
March 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270104/clinical-features-of-community-acquired-adenovirus-pneumonia-during-the-2011-community-outbreak-in-southern-taiwan-role-of-host-immune-response
#8
Ching-Fen Shen, Shih-Min Wang, Tzong-Shiann Ho, Ching-Chuan Liu
BACKGROUND: Human adenovirus 7 (HAdV-7) was responsible for a significant number of fatalities during the 2011 community outbreak in Taiwan. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of severe adenovirus infections in non-immunocompromised individuals remain unclear. Adenovirus pneumonia was associated with pleural effusion in a number of patients from the 2011 outbreak suggesting that similar to bacterial pneumonia, patients diagnosed with adenovirus pneumonia who have pleural effusion are more severely and systemically infected, and may have a more protracted disease course...
March 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253838/predictors-and-incidence-of-sexually-transmitted-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#9
Nicholas A Medland, Eric P F Chow, Catriona S Bradshaw, Timothy H R Read, Joseph J Sasadeusz, Christopher K Fairley
BACKGROUND: Sexual transmission of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in men who have sex with men (MSM) and its interaction with HIV status, sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviour is poorly understood. We assessed the incidence and predictors of HCV infection in HIV positive MSM. METHODS: The electronic medical record and laboratory results from HIV positive MSM in care at a large urban public specialist HIV clinic embedded in a sexual health centre in Melbourne Australia were collected...
March 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250986/severe-tuberculosis-requiring-intensive-care-a-descriptive-analysis
#10
Raquel Pacheco Duro, Paulo Figueiredo Dias, Alcina Azevedo Ferreira, Sandra Margarida Xerinda, Carlos Lima Alves, António Carlos Sarmento, Lurdes Campos Dos Santos
Background. This study aims to describe the characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) patients requiring intensive care and to determine the in-hospital mortality and the associated predictive factors. Methods. Retrospective cohort study of all TB patients admitted to the ICU of the Infectious Diseases Department of Centro Hospitalar de São João (Porto, Portugal) between January 2007 and July 2014. Comorbid diagnoses, clinical features, radiological and laboratory investigations, and outcomes were reviewed. Univariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors for death...
2017: Critical Care Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247771/poems-syndrome-and-idiopathic-portal-hypertension-a-possible-association
#11
Sara Campos, Cláudia Agostinho, Maria Augusta Cipriano
A 48-year old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopy showed large esophageal varices that were treated with band ligation. She had been treated with cyclophosphamide, melphalan, lenalidomide and corticosteroids for POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy or edema, M protein, skin changes). She had no other risk factors for chronic liver disease. Laboratory and radiological examinations could not confirm the etiology of portal hypertension...
March 1, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223386/surveillance-of-omadacycline-activity-tested-against-clinical-isolates-from-a-global-north-america-europe-latin-america-and-asia-western-pacific-collection-2010-2011
#12
Michael A Pfaller, Michael D Huband, Paul R Rhomberg, Robert K Flamm
Omadacycline is a broad spectrum aminomethylcycline in late-stage clinical development for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired pneumonia as both an oral and intravenous, once-daily formulation. In this report omadacycline and comparators were tested against 69,246 non-duplicate bacterial isolates collected prospectively during 2010 and 2011 from medical centers in Asia-Pacific (11,397 isolates), Europe (23,490 isolates), Latin America (8,038 isolates) and North America (26,321 isolates)...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216244/safety-and-efficacy-of-pfspz-vaccine-against-plasmodium-falciparum-via-direct-venous-inoculation-in-healthy-malaria-exposed-adults-in-mali-a-randomised-double-blind-phase-1-trial
#13
Mahamadou S Sissoko, Sara A Healy, Abdoulaye Katile, Freda Omaswa, Irfan Zaidi, Erin E Gabriel, Bourama Kamate, Yacouba Samake, Merepen A Guindo, Amagana Dolo, Amadou Niangaly, Karamoko Niaré, Amatigue Zeguime, Kourane Sissoko, Hama Diallo, Ismaila Thera, Kelly Ding, Michael P Fay, Elise M O'Connell, Thomas B Nutman, Sharon Wong-Madden, Tooba Murshedkar, Adam J Ruben, Minglin Li, Yonas Abebe, Anita Manoj, Anusha Gunasekera, Sumana Chakravarty, B Kim Lee Sim, Peter F Billingsley, Eric R James, Michael Walther, Thomas L Richie, Stephen L Hoffman, Ogobara Doumbo, Patrick E Duffy
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum sporozite (PfSPZ) Vaccine is a metabolically active, non-replicating, whole malaria sporozoite vaccine that has been reported to be safe and protective against P falciparum controlled human malaria infection in malaria-naive individuals. We aimed to assess the safety and protective efficacy of PfSPZ Vaccine against naturally acquired P falciparum in malaria-experienced adults in Mali. METHODS: After an open-label dose-escalation study in a pilot safety cohort, we did a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial based in Donéguébougou and surrounding villages in Mali...
February 16, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214160/laboratory-based-surveillance-of-hospital-acquired-respiratory-virus-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#14
Hye-Suk Choi, Mi-Na Kim, Heungsup Sung, Jeong-Young Lee, Hee-Youn Park, Sun-Hee Kwak, Young-Ju Lim, Min-Jee Hong, Sun-Kyung Kim, So-Yeon Park, Hyeon-Jeong Kim, Kyu-Ri Kim, Hye-Ran Choi, Jae Sim Jeong, Sang-Ho Choi
Of 7,772 laboratory-confirmed cases of respiratory viral infection among hospitalized patients, 22.8% were categorized as having hospital-acquired infection. The overall incidence of hospital-acquired respiratory viral infection was 3.9 (95% confidence interval, 3.7-4.1) cases per 1,000 admitted patients. Rhinovirus was the most common virus (30.3%), followed by influenza virus (17.6%) and parainfluenza virus (15.6%).
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210531/the-daniel-k-inouye-college-of-pharmacy-scripts-updates-on-clostridium-difficile-infection-advances-in-laboratory-testing-to-aid-diagnosis-and-treatment
#15
Louis Lteif
Clostridium difficile remains a major source of nosocomial infections and associated diarrhea. More recently, community-acquired cases are on the rise creating a concern for a serious public health threat. Appropriate infection control precautions as well as prevention and optimal management may help to avoid detrimental outbreaks. A key step is utilizing laboratory testing for quick and accurate diagnosis of potential cases. This overview article describes Clostridium difficile infection control and prevention methods and updates the most recent management strategies including a focus on the utilization and interpretation of laboratory diagnostic testing and appropriate treatment...
February 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191331/development-of-dual-taqman-based-one-step-rrt-pcr-assay-panel-for-rapid-and-accurate-diagnostic-test-of-mers-cov-a-novel-human-coronavirus-ahead-of-hajj-pilgrimage
#16
Mohammad Sadegh Hashemzadeh, Rahimeh Rasouli, Bentolhoda Zahraei, Morteza Izadi, Mahdi Tat, Seyed Hassan Saadat, Mohammad Najarasl, Behzad Khansari Nejad, Ruhollah Dorostkar
BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses (CoVs) are large ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses causing primarily respiratory disease in humans. A novel human coronavirus, subsequently named middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was first reported in Saudi Arabia in September of 2012. With increasing numbers of infections and deaths from MERS-CoV, development of a rapid and reliable kit was crucial to prevent further spread of MERS-CoV. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we present two real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays for in-house rapid and sensitive diagnostic testing of MERS-CoV, detecting the regions upstream of the envelope gene (upE) and open reading frame (ORF) 1b, respectively, for initial screening and final confirmation of MERS-CoV infection, as recommended by the world health organization (WHO)...
November 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190501/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-mers-coronavirus-and-dromedaries
#17
REVIEW
Ulrich Wernery, Susanna K P Lau, Patrick C Y Woo
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a zoonotic viral disease that can be transmitted from dromedaries to human beings. More than 1500 cases of MERS have been reported in human beings to date. Although MERS has been associated with 30% case fatality in human beings, MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in dromedaries is usually asymptomatic. In rare cases, dromedaries may develop mild respiratory signs. No MERS-CoV or antibodies against the virus have been detected in camelids other than dromedaries...
February 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182358/aetiology-and-significance-of-hospital-acquired-infections-in-mexico
#18
REVIEW
Nayelli M Alonso-Aguilar, Sara R Juarez-Enriquez, Graciela Castro-Escarpulli, Gildardo Rivera, Virgilio Bocanegra-Garcia, Xianwu Guo, Julieta Luna-Herrera, M G Aguilera-Arreola
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are infections that develop in the hospital environment and can be acquired by a patient or hospital staff. They are complications that combine diverse risk factors that make an individual susceptible and are frequently caused by endogenous and exogenous bacterial agents. The most commonly studied etiological agents are bacteria and fungi, with the former representing the most common etiological agents reported to the Hospital Epidemiological Surveillance Network (RHOVE) between 2007 and 2012...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182338/evaluation-of-nested-polymerase-chain-reaction-and-immunoassay-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-in-children-with-community-acquired-diarrhea
#19
Ahmed Elewa, Maysaa El Sayed-Zaki
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a known pathogen associated with diarrhea especially in hospital acquired diarrhea. Yet, it is being recognized as a probable etiology for community acquired diarrhea. The aim of the present study was to detect the presence of C. difficile as a pathogen causing community acquired diarrhea in children and to verify the value of different laboratory methods for diagnosis, namely specific culture, immunoassay for toxin detection, and nested polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR)...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178369/burden-of-human-metapneumovirus-infections-in-patients-with-cancer-risk-factors-and-outcomes
#20
Firas El Chaer, Dimpy P Shah, Joumana Kmeid, Ella J Ariza-Heredia, Chitra M Hosing, Victor E Mulanovich, Roy F Chemaly
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections (URIs and LRIs, respectively) in healthy and immunocompromised patients; however, its clinical burden in patients with cancer remains unknown. METHODS: In a retrospective study of all laboratory-confirmed hMPV infections treated at the authors' institution between April 2012 and May 2015, clinical characteristics, risk factors for progression to an LRI, treatment, and outcomes in patients with cancer were determined...
February 8, 2017: Cancer
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