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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793039/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-context-of-the-syrian-conflict-drivers-before-and-after-the-onset-of-conflict-and-key-recommendations
#1
REVIEW
Aula Abbara, Timothy M Rawson, Nabil Karah, Wael El-Amin, James Hatcher, Bachir Tajaldin, Osman Dar, Omar Dewachi, Ghassan Abu Sitta, Bernt Eric Uhlin, Annie Sparrow
Current evidence describing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the context of the Syrian conflict is of poor quality and sparse in nature. In this paper we explore and report the major drivers of AMR that were present in Syria pre-conflict and those that have emerged since its onset in March 2011. Drivers which existed before the conflict included a lack of enforcement of existing legislation to regulate over the counter antibiotics and notification of communicable diseases. This contributed to a number of drivers of AMR after the onset of conflict which were also compounded by the exodus of trained staff, the increase in overcrowding and unsanitary conditions, the increase in injuries and economic sanctions limiting the availability of required laboratory medical materials and equipment...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785214/etiological-trends-and-patterns-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-respiratory-infections
#2
Salma M Al-Zain Ahmed, Sara S Abdelrahman, Doua M Saad, Isra S Osman, Modasir G Osman, Eltahir A G Khalil
Background: Respiratory infections are one of the commonest causes of morbidity and mortality related to infectious diseases worldwide. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a major global health problem which is well established in developing countries. Good clinical suspicion and correct laboratory identification of respiratory infection causing organisms followed by the appropriate management are needed to compact both community-acquired and nosocomial infection respiratory infections...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784539/revisiting-antithrombin-in-health-and-disease-congenital-deficiencies-and-genetic-variants-and-laboratory-studies-on-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-forms
#3
REVIEW
Jean Amiral, Jerard Seghatchian
Antithrombin [AT] is the main inhibitor for activated plasma coagulation serine esterases, inhibiting thrombin, Factors Xa and IXa, but also Factors XIIa, XIa, VIIa, kallicrein, and plasmin. Its activity is highly enhanced by heparin, through binding to the pentasaccharide sequences, for inhibition of all coagulation proteases, except thrombin, which inhibition requires its additional binding to the heparin polysaccharide chain. However, AT is the major inhibitor of thrombin in the blood circulation. Congenital or acquired deficiencies of AT expose affected patients to an increased risk of developing unprovoked and recurrent thrombo-embolic diseases...
April 19, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778713/concluding-commentary-on-current-trends-to-enhance-the-clinical-safety-of-pediatric-transfusion-focusing-on-prevention-of-untoward-complications-of-hsc-transplantation-newer-strategies-for-improving-the-standards-of-safety-quality-of-stem-cells-expansion-for
#4
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Clinical practice and related diagnostic, development and research [DDR] strategies in pediatric transfusion and transplantation cover a broad range of multidisciplinary studies, performed by many professionals involved in this most challenging clinical field [1]. This commentary on the current position and future perspectives in pediatric transfusion field is aimed to highlight major unresolved transfusion complications in pediatric patients, namely red blood cell and platelet alloimmunisation, and new ones such as nosocomial infection, thrombosis and multi-organ failure...
May 16, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776310/preparation-and-evaluation-of-ribonuclease-resistant-viral-hiv-rna-standards-based-on-armored-rna-technology
#5
Mohammad Gholami, Mehrdad Ravanshad, Kazem Baesi, Siamak M. Samiee, Negin Hosseini Rozbahani, Minoo Mohraz
BAckground: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is an infectious viral agent that gradually extinguishes the immune system, resulting in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The aim of this study was to construct an RNA-positive control based on armored (AR) RNA technology, using HIV-1 RNA as a model. Methods: The MS2 maturase, a coat protein gene (at positions 1765 to 1787) and HIV-1 pol gene were cloned into pET-32a plasmid. The prepared plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL2 (DE3), and the expression of the construct was induced by 1 mM of isopropyl-L-thio-D-galactopyranoside (IPTG) at 37 °C for 16 h to obtain the fabricated AR RNA...
May 19, 2018: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775789/e-coli-encoding-blandm-5-associated-with-community-acquired-uti-cases-with-unusual-mic-creep-like-phenomenon-against-imipenem
#6
Varsha Rani Gajamer, Amitabha Bhattacharjee, Deepjyoti Paul, Chandrayee Deshamukhya, Ashish Kr Singh, Nilu Pradhan, Hare Krishna Tiwari
OBJECTIVES: Carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli are of major clinical concern. The present study aimed to identify NDM-5 producing E.coli associated with community-acquired urinary tract infection, co-harboring ESBL genes and a pattern of imipenem MIC creep. METHODS: A total of 973 urine samples were collected from females of age between 18-49 diagnosed with UTI. Isolates were identified by standard microbiological procedures. Presence of blaNDM and ESBL genes was determined by PCR assay and sequencing...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770052/surveillance-of-laboratory-exposures-to-human-pathogens-and-toxins-canada-2016
#7
A Bienek, M Heisz, M Su
Background: Canada recently enacted legislation to authorize the collection of data on laboratory incidents involving a biological agent. This is done by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) as part of a comprehensive national program that protects Canadians from the health and safety risks posed by human and terrestrial animal pathogens and toxins. Objective: To describe the first year of data on laboratory exposure incidents and/or laboratory-acquired infections in Canada since the Human Pathogens and Toxins Regulations came into effect...
November 2, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754466/temporal-trends-in-paediatric-bacterial-meningitis-in-a-tropical-australian-region-1992-2014
#8
Stephanie White, Hala Katf, Rob Baird, Joshua Francis
AIM: The epidemiology of community-acquired bacterial meningitis has changed following the introduction of routine immunisation against common causative organisms. Indigenous children living in the Northern Territory, Australia, have high rates of bacterial infections. This study describes changes in the epidemiology of childhood bacterial meningitis and the distribution of the burden of disease in the Top End. METHODS: A retrospective review of cases derived from hospital medical records and laboratory data was performed...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743795/prevalence-and-impact-of-bacterial-infections-in-children-with-liver-disease-a-prospective-study
#9
Rishi Bolia, Anshu Srivastava, Rungmei Marak, Surender K Yachha, Ujjal Poddar
Background and aims: Risk of infections is increased in patients with Acute Liver Failure (ALF) and Decompensated Chronic Liver Disease (DCLD). We evaluated the frequency, site, type and risk-factors for bacterial infections in children with ALF and DCLD and its effect on outcome. Methods: ALF or DCLD children were enrolled prospectively. Clinical and laboratory details were recorded. Cultures (blood, urine and ascites) and chest X-ray were done at admission followed by weekly surveillance cultures...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742168/anti-neuraminidase-antibodies-against-pandemic-a-h1n1-influenza-viruses-in-healthy-and-influenza-infected-individuals
#10
Yulia Desheva, Ivan Sychev, Tatiana Smolonogina, Andrey Rekstin, Natalia Ilyushina, Vladimir Lugovtsev, Anastasia Samsonova, Aleksey Go, Anna Lerner
The main objective of the study was to evaluate neuraminidase inhibiting (NI) antibodies against A/H1N1pdm09 influenza viruses in the community as a whole and after infection. We evaluated NI serum antibodies against A/California/07/09(H1N1)pdm and A/South Africa/3626/2013(H1N1)pdm in 134 blood donors of different ages using enzyme-linked lectin assay and in 15 paired sera from convalescents with laboratory confirmed influenza. The neuraminidase (NA) proteins of both A/H1N1pdm09 viruses had minimal genetic divergence, but demonstrated different enzymatic and antigenic properties...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741629/identification-and-immunological-characterization-of-the-ligand-domain-of-plasmodium-vivax-reticulocyte-binding-protein-1a
#11
Francis B Ntumngia, Richard Thomson-Luque, Sandra Galusic, Gabriel Frato, Sarah Frischmann, David S Peabody, Bryce Chackerian, Marcelo U Ferreira, Christopher L King, John H Adams
Background: Erythrocyte invasion by malaria parasites is essential for blood-stage development. Consequently, parasite proteins critically involved in erythrocyte invasion such as the Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte-binding proteins (RBPs) that mediate preferential invasion of reticulocytes are considered potential vaccine targets. Thus, targeting the RBPs could prevent blood-stage infection and disease. The RBPs are large and little is known about their functional domains and whether individuals naturally exposed to P...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737273/treatment-outcomes-of-brazilian-inmates-with-treponema-pallidum-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-a-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Graciela Mendonça Dos Santos Bet, Gleyce Hellen de Almeida de Souza, Júlio Croda, Maísa Estopa Correa, Romário Oliveira de Sales, Ruthe Aline da Silva Santos, Renata Viebrantz Enne Sgarbi, Renata Terumi Shiguematsu Yassuda, Ana Rita Castro Mota Coimbra, Maurício Antônio Pompílio, Simone Simionatto
A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the incidence and treatment outcomes of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in inmates from Central Brazil. In 2013, 3,363 inmates from 12 prisons in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul were recruited, and 1,614 remained incarcerated after 1 year. The inmates were interviewed, and blood samples were collected for serological testing for Treponema pallidum and HIV infections. Inmates infected with T. pallidum or HIV within the first year were assessed for treatment using prison medical record data, based on Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test results, HIV-1 viral load, and CD4 counts...
May 7, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729165/modern-specific-features-and-therapy-of-psoriasis-and-arthropathic-psoriasis-courses
#13
Orysya O Syzon, Marianna O Dashko, Ulyana V Fedorova
OBJECTIVE: Introduction:Psoriasis affects about 2% of population. In 30-40% of occurrences arthropathic psoriasis (AP) is diagnosed and it leads to 11-19% of disability cases development. Recent studies have shown that psoriasis is often synergistically combined with herpesvirus of the 1st and 2nd type, which, according to many scientists, determines the severity, frequency of recurrences, and the course of this dermatosis. Recently, new biomarkers, i.e. a system of small ribonucleic microRNA acids, have been described...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723168/malaria-surveillance-united-states-2015
#14
Kimberly E Mace, Paul M Arguin, Kathrine R Tan
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission...
May 4, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716653/esophageal-pulmonary-fistula-a-rare-complication-of-radiation-therapy-a-case-report
#15
Laetitia Buemi, Salvatore Stefanelli, Philippe Bichard, Mickaël Luscher, Minerva Becker
BACKGROUND: Esophageal respiratory fistulae are abnormal communications between the esophagus and the respiratory system. They are either congenital or acquired. Most acquired esophageal respiratory fistulae are of the esophageal tracheal and esophageal bronchial type and are caused by infections or malignant neoplasms, whereas esophageal pulmonary fistulae are rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 72-year-old Caucasian man with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung presenting with abrupt-onset dyspnea during localized mediastinal radiotherapy...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707660/changes-in-the-incidence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-new-york-hospital-system-2006-2012
#16
B Cohen, J Liu, E Larson
Introduction: National efforts to curtail healthcare-associated infections (HAI) proliferated recently, though data detailing progress over time are limited. This retrospective cohort study aims to describe changes in incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility of HAI in four New York City hospitals over seven years. Methods: Electronic data were collected retrospectively for all patients discharged from 2006 through 2012. Previously validated computerized algorithms based on National Healthcare Safety Network criteria detected bloodstream infections, pneumonia, surgical site infections, and urinary tract infections with Enterococcus spp...
December 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693636/spore-acquisition-and-survival-of-ambrosia-beetles-associated-with-the-laurel-wilt-pathogen-in-avocados-after-exposure-to-entomopathogenic-fungi
#17
Pasco B Avery, Verónica Bojorque, Cecilia Gámez, Rita E Duncan, Daniel Carrillo, Ronald D Cave
Laurel wilt is a disease threatening the avocado industry in Florida. The causative agent of the disease is a fungus vectored by ambrosia beetles that bore into the trees. Until recently, management strategies for the vectors of the laurel wilt fungus relied solely on chemical control and sanitation practices. Beneficial entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are the most common and prevalent natural enemies of pathogen vectors. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that commercial strains of EPF can increase the mortality of the primary vector, Xyleborus glabratus , and potential alternative vectors, Xylosandrus crassiusculus , Xyleborus volvulus and Xyleborus bispinatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)...
April 25, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688597/horizontal-transmission-of-paranosema-locustae-microsporidia-in-grasshopper-populations-via-predatory-natural-enemies
#18
Shi Wang-Peng, Xuan Zheng, Wan-Tong Jia, Ao-Mei Li, Ibrahima Camara, Hong-Xing Chen, Shu-Qian Tan, Yi-Qing Liu, Rong Ji
BACKGROUND: Paranosema locustae Canning, 1953 (Microsporidia) provides effective control of grasshoppers. While horizontal transmission of P. locustae is known to occur, evidence for the mechanisms of such transmission via predatory natural enemies was found. We conducted a three-year laboratory and field study to assess the potential impact of feces both from grasshoppers Locusta migratoria L. and from their natural enemies on the persistence of P. locustae. RESULTS: We found that P...
April 24, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680828/viral-pneumonia-etiologies-and-treatment
#19
Dima Dandachi, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas
Viral pathogens are increasingly recognized as a cause of pneumonia, in immunocompetent patients and more commonly among immunocompromised. Viral pneumonia in adults could present as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), ranging from mild disease to severe disease requiring hospital admission and mechanical ventilation. Moreover, the role of viruses in hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia as causative agents or as co-pathogens and the effect of virus detection on clinical outcome are being investigated...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676360/detection-of-immunoglobulin-m-and-immunoglobulin-g-antibodies-to-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-in-children-with-community-acquired-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#20
Surinder Kumar, Indu Bala Garg, Gulshan Rai Sethi, Sanchit Kumar, Sanjeev R Saigal
Context: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) causes up to 40% of community-acquired pneumonia in children. It is impossible to identify M. pneumoniae infection on the basis of clinical signs, symptoms, and radiological features. Therefore, correct etiological diagnosis strongly depends on laboratory diagnosis. Aims: This study aims to investigate the role of M. pneumonia e in pediatric lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and particle agglutination (PA) test...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
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