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Laboratory acquired infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100279/severe-community-acquired-adenovirus-pneumonia-treated-with-oral-ribavirin-a-case-report
#1
Byung Woo Yoon, Yong Geon Song, Seung Hyeun Lee
BACKGROUND: Adenovirus is a common pathogen of acute upper respiratory infection in children and is generally self-limiting. Severe adenovirus infections have been reported in immunocompromised hosts especially bone marrow transplantation recipients due to hematologic malignancy. Severe adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent hosts has rarely been reported and optimal treatment has not been established. We report a case of community-acquired severe adenovirus pneumonia which was successfully treated with early administration of oral ribavirin...
January 18, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095869/macrophage-activation-syndrome-different-mechanisms-leading-to-a-one-clinical-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Claudia Bracaglia, Giusi Prencipe, Fabrizio De Benedetti
BACKGROUND: Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a severe complication of rheumatic disease in childhood, particularly in systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (sJIA). It is characterize by an uncontrolled activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes and macrophages. MAIN CONTENT: MAS is currently classified among the secondary or acquired forms of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). The reason is that MAS shares clinical and laboratory features with primary genetic HLH (pHLH)...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093208/selective-reporting-of-antibiotic-susceptibility-test-results-in-european-countries-an-escmid-cross-sectional-survey
#3
Céline Pulcini, Gianpiero Tebano, Nico T Mutters, Evelina Tacconelli, Emmanuelle Cambau, Gunnar Kahlmeter, Vincent Jarlier
Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088183/incidence-aetiology-and-outcome-of-community-acquired-acute-kidney-injury-in-medical-admissions-in-malawi
#4
Rhys D R Evans, Ulla Hemmilä, Alison Craik, Mwayi Mtekateka, Fergus Hamilton, Zuze Kawale, Christopher J Kirwan, Hamish Dobbie, Gavin Dreyer
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data on Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) from low-income countries is sparse. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence, severity, aetiology, and outcomes of community-acquired AKI in Malawi. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of general medical admissions to a tertiary hospital in Blantyre between 27(th) April and 17(th) July 2015. All patients were screened on admission with a serum creatinine; those with creatinine above laboratory reference range were managed by the nephrology team...
January 14, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075419/surveillance-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-results-from-a-six-year-retrospective-study-in-nine-hospitals-of-a-north-italian-local-health-authority
#5
Greta Roncarati, Laura Dallolio, Erica Leoni, Manuela Panico, Angela Zanni, Patrizia Farruggia
Clostridium difficile is an emerging cause of healthcare associated infections. In nine hospitals of an Italian Local Health Authority the episodes of C. difficile infection (CDI) were identified using the data registered by the centralized Laboratory Information System, from 2010 to 2015. CDI incidence (positive patients for A and/or B toxins per patients-days) was analysed per year, hospital, and ward. A number of cases approximately equivalent to the mean of identified cases per year were studied retrospectively to highlight the risk factors associated to CDI and their severity...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056833/molecular-epidemiology-of-panton-valentine-leukocidin-positive-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-in-pastoral-communities-of-rural-south-western-uganda
#6
Benon B Asiimwe, Rossella Baldan, Alberto Trovato, Daniela M Cirillo
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, including methicillin resistant (MRSA), is a global concern. Treatment of bacterial infections in Uganda's health care settings is largely empirical, rarely accompanied by laboratory confirmation. Here we show the burden, characteristics of MRSA and epidemiology of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) positive strains in asymptomatic carriers in pastoral households of south-west Uganda. METHODS: Nasal swabs from 253 participants were cultured following standard methodology...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056831/nasal-carriage-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-among-health-care-workers-at-al-shifa-hospital-in-gaza-strip
#7
Nabil Abdullah El Aila, Nahed Ali Al Laham, Basim Mohammad Ayesh
BACKGROUND: Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among hospital personnel is a common cause of hospital acquired infections. Emergence of drug resistant strains especially methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a serious problem in hospital environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus and MRSA among Health Care Workers (HCWs) at Al Shifa Hospital, the major hospital in Gaza Strip. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted on 200 HCWs...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050072/klebsiella-oxytoca-an-emerging-pathogen
#8
Lavan Singh, M P Cariappa, Mandeep Kaur
Klebsiella oxytoca is emerging as an important bacterial isolate causing hospital-acquired infection in adults and having multiple drug resistance to commonly used antibiotics. We analysed our data to observe the current pattern of drug resistance among K. oxytoca isolated from various samples during the period from January 2012 to March 2014 at a tertiary care hospital. A total of 17,335 samples were processed at the hospital laboratory during this period. Klebsiella was isolated from 654 of these clinical samples...
December 2016: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043592/next-generation-sequencing-based-user-friendly-platforms-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-diagnosis-a-promise-for-the-near-future
#9
David L Dolinger, Rebecca E Colman, David M Engelthaler, Timothy C Rodwell
Since 2002, there has been a gradual worldwide 1.3% annual decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB). This is an encouraging statistic; however, it will not achieve the World Health Organization's goal of eliminating TB by 2050, and it is being compounded by the persistent global incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) acquired by transmission and by treatment pressure. One key to effectively control tuberculosis and the spread of multiresistant strains is accurate information pertaining to drug resistance and susceptibility...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041669/viral-respiratory-infections-in-preterm-infants-during-and-after-hospitalization
#10
Mary T Caserta, Hongmei Yang, Steven R Gill, Jeanne Holden-Wiltse, Gloria Pryhuber
OBJECTIVE: To determine the burden of viral respiratory infections in preterm infants both during and subsequent to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization and to compare this with term infants living in the community. STUDY DESIGN: From March 2013 through March 2015, we enrolled 189 newborns (96 term and 93 preterm) into a prospective, longitudinal study obtaining nose/throat swabs within 7 days of birth, weekly while hospitalized and then monthly to 4 months after hospital discharge...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032485/clinical-and-therapeutic-implications-of-aeromonas-bacteremia-14-years-nation-wide-experiences-in-korea
#11
Ji Young Rhee, Dong Sik Jung, Kyong Ran Peck
BACKGROUND: To elucidate the clinical presentation, antimicrobial susceptibility, and prognostic factors of monomicrobial Aeromonas bacteremia in order to determine the most effective optimal therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of Aeromonas bacteremia patients for the period January 2000 to December 2013 in a retrospective multi-center study. RESULTS: A total of 336 patient records were reviewed, with 242 having community-acquired bacteremia...
December 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018678/risk-factors-for-postoperative-urinary-tract-infections-in-patients-undergoing-total-joint-arthroplasty
#12
Andrew P Alvarez, Alysen L Demzik, Hasham M Alvi, Kevin D Hardt, David W Manning
Background. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common minor complication following total joint arthroplasty (TJA) with incidence as high as 3.26%. Bladder catheterization is routinely used during TJA and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has recently identified hospital-acquired catheter associated UTI as a target for quality improvement. This investigation seeks to identify specific risk factors for UTI in TJA patients. Methods. We retrospectively studied patients undergoing TJA for osteoarthritis between 2006 and 2013 in the American College of Surgeon's National Surgical Improvement Program Database (ACS-NSQIP)...
2016: Advances in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005910/melioidosis-in-malaysia-a-review-of-case-reports
#13
Paul Vijay Kingsley, Mark Leader, Nandika Suranjith Nagodawithana, Meghan Tipre, Nalini Sathiakumar
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is a tropical infectious disease associated with significant mortality due to early onset of sepsis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to review case reports of melioidosis from Malaysia. METHODS: We conducted a computerized search of literature resources including PubMed, OVID, Scopus, MEDLINE and the COCHRANE database to identify published case reports from 1975 to 2015. We abstracted information on clinical characteristics, exposure history, comorbid conditions, management and outcome...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005691/clinical-and-bacterial-risk-factors-for-mortality-in-children-with-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-bloodstream-infections-in-india
#14
Laura E B Nabarro, Chaitra Shankar, Akila Prakasam, Georgekutty Mathew, Visali Jeyaseelan, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Valsan P Verghese
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are an increasing cause of nosocomial infection in hospitalized children worldwide. Few studies have investigated risk factors for mortality in children with CRE bloodstream infection (BSI). Data are particularly scarce in areas where NDM and OXA carbapenemases predominate. Here, we investigate mortality rates, clinical and microbiologic risk factors for mortality in 50 pediatric patients with CRBSI in India. METHOD: Children younger than 17 years old with meropenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae or Escherichia coli isolated from blood culture in 2014 and 2015 were identified from laboratory records...
December 21, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002852/q-fever-pneumonia-in-southwest-germany-radiographic%C3%A2-and-clinical-findings
#15
Andrea Biecker, Michael Bitzer, Erwin Biecker
Purpose Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis that causes clinical symptoms ranging from mild flu-like symptoms to severe pneumonia and/or hepatitis. This retrospective study was conducted to describe the radiographic and clinical signs in patients with acute Q fever pneumonia in Southwest Germany. Patients and Methods 40 patients with IgM-positive Q fever-related pneumonia who were treated in the years 2006 to 2016 in our hospital were retrospectively identified. Clinical and laboratory data were analyzed. Chest radiographs were reviewed by two radiologists and interpreted using a standardized protocol...
December 21, 2016: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999068/linezolid-a-promising-option-in-the-treatment-of-gram-positives
#16
Abed Zahedi Bialvaei, Mohammad Rahbar, Mehdi Yousefi, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Linezolid, an oxazolidinone antimicrobial agent that acts by inhibiting protein synthesis in a unique fashion, is used in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, skin and soft-tissue infections and other infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria including VRE and methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Currently, linezolid resistance among these pathogens remains low, commonly <1.0%, although the prevalence of antibiotic resistance is increasing in many countries. Therefore, the development of resistance by clinical isolates should prompt increased attention of clinical laboratories to routinely perform linezolid susceptibility testing for this important agent and should be taken into account when considering its therapeutic use...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997940/australia-s-response-to-ebola-virus-disease-in-west-africa-2014-15
#17
Gwendolyn L Gilbert
In March 2016, the World Health Organization declared the 2014-15 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak officially over. With around 29 000 cases and 11 000 deaths in 27 months, this EVD outbreak was more than 60 times larger than any before, and unique in its cross-border spread and involvement of urban centres. Local and international responses were slow and initially inadequate, but establishment of the United Nations Mission for Ebola Emergency Response, 9 months after the outbreak began, allowed a coordinated effort that slowed and eventually controlled the spread of disease...
December 14, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994425/oral-manifestations-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome-and-their-correlation-to-cluster-of-differentiation-lymphocyte-count-in-population-of-north-east-india-in-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-era
#18
Sarat Kumar Nayak, Bijay Kumar Das, Surya Narayan Das, Namita Mohapatra, Suryakanti Nayak, Lipsa Bhuyan
BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection which manifests as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease involving the defects of the T-lymphocyte arm of the immune system. Certain laboratory parameters such as the cluster of differentiation (CD4) count and clinical parameters have long been used as markers of disease progression. In industrialized countries, many studies show a highly correlation between the incidence of oral lesions and immunosuppression and hence, can be used as a marker of immunosuppression...
October 2016: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973608/microbial-community-composition-impacts-pathogen-iron-availability-during-polymicrobial-infection
#19
Apollo Stacy, Nader Abraham, Peter Jorth, Marvin Whiteley
Iron is an essential nutrient for bacterial pathogenesis, but in the host, iron is tightly sequestered, limiting its availability for bacterial growth. Although this is an important arm of host immunity, most studies examine how bacteria respond to iron restriction in laboratory rather than host settings, where the microbiome can potentially alter pathogen strategies for acquiring iron. One of the most important transcriptional regulators controlling bacterial iron homeostasis is Fur. Here we used a combination of RNA-seq and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-seq to characterize the iron-restricted and Fur regulons of the biofilm-forming opportunistic pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960209/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-sub-saharan-africa
#20
Stephen J Aston, Jamie Rylance
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in sub-Saharan Africa is a common cause of adult hospitalization and is associated with significant mortality. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in the region leads to differences in CAP epidemiology compared with most high-income settings: patients are younger, and coinfection with tuberculosis and opportunistic infections is common and difficult to diagnose. Resource limitations affect the availability of medical expertise as well as radiological and laboratory diagnostic services...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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