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Laboratory acquired infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342165/increased-colon-cancer-risk-after-severe-salmonella-infection
#1
Lapo Mughini-Gras, Michael Schaapveld, Jolanda Kramers, Sofie Mooij, E Andra Neefjes-Borst, Wilfrid van Pelt, Jacques Neefjes
BACKGROUND: Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a nationwide registry-based study to assess colon cancer risk after diagnosed Salmonella infection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340588/antimicrobial-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carriage-and-infection-in-specialized-geriatric-care-wards-linked-to-acquisition-in-the-referring-hospital
#2
Claire L Gorrie, Mirjana Mirceta, Ryan R Wick, Louise M Judd, Kelly L Wyres, Nicholas R Thomson, Richard A Strugnell, Nigel F Pratt, Jill S Garlick, Kerrie M Watson, Peter C Hunter, Steve A McGloughlin, Denis W Spelman, Adam W J Jenney, Kathryn E Holt
Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a leading cause of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing hospital-associated infections, for which elderly patients are at increased risk. Methods: We conducted a 1-year prospective cohort study, in which a third of patients admitted to two geriatric wards in a specialized hospital were recruited and screened for carriage of K. pneumoniae by microbiological culture. Clinical isolates were monitored via the hospital laboratory...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338829/imaging-findings-of-common-opportunistic-infections-and-malignant-tumors-in-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome-patients
#3
Ping Li, Juan Li, Hua Dan Xue, Huan Ling Wang, Tai Sheng Li, Zheng Yu Jin
The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has gradually increased in recent years.HIV mainly destroys the body's immune system,leading to decreased body resistance and thus the development of a variety of opportunistic infections and neoplastic diseases,especially in the digestive system. However,the clinical manifestations,laboratory findings,and physical examination results of these conditions are not specific. Imaging examinations can determine the presence of infection and tumor lesions and the disease scope;furthermore,they are useful tools for biopsy and follow-up evaluation...
December 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313864/trend-of-mdr-microorganisms-isolated-from-the-biological-samples-of-patients-with-hai-and-from-the-surfaces-around-that-patient
#4
Vincenza La Fauci, Gaetano Bruno Costa, Adriana Arena, Elvira Ventura Spagnolo, Cristina Genovese, Maria Angela Palamara, Raffaele Squeri
Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) continue to be a major public health concern. A number of epidemiologically relevant HAI microorganisms are multidrug-resistant (MDR) germs that can spread rapidly and/or carry multiple resistance to antibiotics. They are the cause of high mortality and possible nosocomial epidemics. For this reason, we implemented microbiological surveillance acquiring samples from patients with HAI and environmental samples from the surfaces surrounding those patients. A retrospective study was carried out from January 2014 to December 2016 in two departments of the University Hospital in Messina, Italy: the Microbiology and the Hygiene Laboratories...
January 9, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312659/healthcare-associated-infection-and-its-risk-factors-among-patients-admitted-to-a-tertiary-hospital-in-ethiopia-longitudinal-study
#5
Solomon Ali, Melkamu Birhane, Sisay Bekele, Gebre Kibru, Lule Teshager, Yonas Yilma, Yesuf Ahmed, Netsanet Fentahun, Henok Assefa, Mulatu Gashaw, Esayas Kebede Gudina
Background: Healthcare associated infection (HAI) is alarmingly increasing in low income settings. In Ethiopia, the burden of HAI is still not well described. Methods: Longitudinal study was conducted from May to September, 2016. All wards of Jimma University Medical Centre were included. The incidence, prevalence and risk factors of healthcare associated infection were determined. A total of 1015 admitted patients were followed throughout their hospital stay. Biological specimens were collected from all patients suspected to have hospital aquired infection...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300532/measles-outbreak-prevention-and-control-among-adults-lessons-from-an-importation-outbreak-in-yunnan-province-china-2015
#6
Zhixian Zhao, Rongrong Zhou, Wen Yu, Liqun Li, Qiongfen Li, Pei Hu
BACKGROUND: The incidence of measles in Yunnan Province among vaccine target-age children has decreased markedly after attaining and sustaining high 2-dose coverage of measles containing vaccine (MCV) through routine immunization services and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Most cases of measles now occur among adults. In 2015, we investigated a measles outbreak among adults to determine transmission patterns and the potential role of nosocomial transmission. METHODS: We enhanced measles surveillance using retrospective active case search...
January 4, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298323/implementation-of-global-antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-system-glass-in-patients-with-bacteremia
#7
Rujipas Sirijatuphat, Kantarida Sripanidkulchai, Adhiratha Boonyasiri, Pinyo Rattanaumpawan, Orawan Supapueng, Pattarachai Kiratisin, Visanu Thamlikitkul
The global antimicrobial resistance surveillance system (GLASS) was launched by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015. GLASS is a surveillance system for clinical specimens that are sent to microbiology laboratory for clinical purposes. The unique feature of GLASS is that clinical data is combined with microbiological data, and deduplication of the microbiological results is performed. The objective of the study was to determine feasibility and benefit of GLASS for surveillance of blood culture specimens...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288876/epidemiologic-patterns-of-influenza-outbreaks-in-institutional-settings
#8
M Šubelj
OBJECTIVES: Congregate environments facilitate spread of influenza viruses and could result in serious outcomes among residents. METHODS: We reviewed the epidemiology and identified factors that affect outbreak outcomes, using descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equations (GEE) regression. Outbreak duration, attack rate, hospitalization rate, case fatality rate, and the proportion of laboratory tests performed among infected residents were calculated by viral etiology, time to notification, and facility type and size...
December 26, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242836/vaccination-with-a-recombinant-h7-hemagglutinin-based-influenza-virus-vaccine-induces-broadly-reactive-antibodies-in-humans
#9
Daniel Stadlbauer, Arvind Rajabhathor, Fatima Amanat, Daniel Kaplan, Abusaleh Masud, John J Treanor, Ruvim Izikson, Manon M Cox, Raffael Nachbagauer, Florian Krammer
Human influenza virus infections with avian subtype H7N9 viruses are a major public health concern and have encouraged the development of effective H7 prepandemic vaccines. In this study, baseline and postvaccination serum samples of individuals aged 18 years and older who received a recombinant H7 hemagglutinin vaccine with and without an oil-in-water emulsion (SE) adjuvant were analyzed using a panel of serological assays. While only a small proportion of individuals seroconverted to H7N9 as measured by the conventional hemagglutination inhibition assay, our data show strong induction of anti-H7 hemagglutinin antibodies as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228218/nonhuman-primate-models-and-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-infection-and-aids
#10
Ronald S Veazey, Andrew A Lackner
Research using nonhuman primates (NHPs) as models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has resulted in tremendous achievements not only in the prevention and treatment of HIV, but also in biomedical research more broadly. Once considered a death sentence, HIV infection is now fairly well controlled with combination antiretroviral treatments, almost all of which were first tested for efficacy and safety in nonhuman primates or other laboratory animals...
December 8, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224881/early-lactation-extended-pirlimycin-therapy-against-naturally-acquired-staphylococcus-aureus-intramammary-infections-in-heifers-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
S Skoulikas, S Dufour, D Haine, J-Y Perreault, J-P Roy
The primary objective of the current study was to evaluate cure rate following an early-lactation extended intramammary pirlimycin treatment on heifers naturally infected by Staphylococcus aureus. The secondary objective was to assess Petrifilm Staph Express (3M Microbiology, St. Paul, MN) count plate characteristics when used in a protocol for early-lactation detection of infected quarters in heifers. Milk samples were collected from heifers (n = 946) in the first few days following calving (mean = 5 d). Heifers with laboratory-confirmed S...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213999/genetic-and-phenotypic-study-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-among-patients-and-health-care-workers-in-mansoura-university-hospital-egypt
#12
Walaa Othman Elshabrawy, Maysaa Elsayed Zaki, Mohamed Farag Kamel
Background and Objectives: Staphylococcus aureus is common pathogen that is associated with many hospital acquired infections. The virulence of S. aureus is identified with resistance to antibiotics especially to methicillin. Therefore the aims of the present study were to detect the carrier rates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) among health care Workers (HCWs) and patients and to compare use of specific chromogenic agar for MRSA culture with PCR for detection of MRSA genes...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213187/the-role-of-the-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci-gennadius-and-farmer-practices-in-the-spread-of-cassava-brown-streak-ipomoviruses
#13
Midatharahally N Maruthi, Simon C Jeremiah, Ibrahim U Mohammed, James P Legg
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is arguably the most dangerous current threat to cassava, which is Africa's most important food security crop. CBSD is caused by two RNA viruses: Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). The roles of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and farmer practices in the spread of CBSD were investigated in a set of field and laboratory experiments. The virus was acquired and transmitted by B. tabaci within a short time (5-10 min each for virus acquisition and inoculation), and was retained for up to 48 hr...
December 2017: Journal of Phytopathology (1986)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210355/neuroangiostrongyliasis-the-subarachnoid-phase-and-its-implications-for-anthelminthic-therapy
#14
Paul Prociv, Megan Turner
Infection with the Rat Lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the leading cause of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis worldwide. From its origins in southeastern Asia, the parasite was spread extensively throughout the twentieth century and is now established in many of the world's warmer regions. Its clinical effects range from mild and transient symptoms, usually headache with peripheral nerve dysfunction, to severe and permanent central nervous system (CNS) damage, occasionally fatal. The severity and prognosis of disease are determined by the larval dose, acquired by ingesting infected intermediate hosts (slugs and snails) or, less often, paratenic hosts, such as crabs, shrimps, frogs, and monitor lizards...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209590/risk-factors-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-adults-in-kenya-a-case-control-study
#15
Esther Muthumbi, Brett S Lowe, Cyprian Muyodi, Esther Getambu, Fergus Gleeson, J Anthony G Scott
Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adults worldwide; however, the risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in Africa are not well characterized. Methods: The authors recruited 281 cases of community-acquired pneumonia and 1202 hospital controls among patients aged ≥15 years who attended Kilifi District Hospital/Coast Provincial General Hospital in Kenya between 1994 and 6. Cases were admissions with an acute illness with ≥2 respiratory signs and evidence of consolidation on a chest radiograph...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207958/bloodstream-infections-at-a-tertiary-level-paediatric-hospital-in-south-africa
#16
Harsha Lochan, Vashini Pillay, Colleen Bamford, James Nuttall, Brian Eley
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infection (BSI) in children causes significant morbidity and mortality. There are few studies describing the epidemiology of BSI in South African children. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive cohort study was conducted at a paediatric referral hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) microbiology database was accessed to identify positive blood culture specimens during the period 2011-2012. Demographic and clinical details, antimicrobial management and patient outcome information were extracted from medical and laboratory records...
December 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205138/virulence-genes-in-isolates-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-the-uk-during-2016-including-among-carbapenemase-gene-positive-hypervirulent-k1-st23-and-non-hypervirulent-types-st147-st15-and-st383
#17
Jane F Turton, Zoë Payne, Amy Coward, Katie L Hopkins, Jack A Turton, Michel Doumith, Neil Woodford
PURPOSE: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a concern because of its multidrug resistance and the ability of hypervirulent types, especially capsular type K1-clonal complex 23 (K1-CC23), to cause community-acquired, life-threatening infections. Hypervirulent types carry an array of virulence genes including rmpA/rmpA2, coding for capsule up-regulation. We sought to identify isolates carrying these elements among submissions to the UK national reference laboratory during 2016. METHODOLOGY: Virulence elements and carbapenemase genes were sought by PCR or from whole genome sequences...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200184/structural-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychologic-signatures-of-vertically-acquired-hiv
#18
Robert Paul, Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Neda Jahanashad, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Paul Thompson, Linda Aurpibul, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Pope Kosalaraksa, Suparat Kanjanavanit, Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul, Wicharn Luesomboon, Sukalaya Lerdlum, Mantana Pothisri, Pannee Visrutaratna, Victor Valcour, Talia M Nir, Arvin Saremi, Stephen Kerr, Jintanat Ananworanich
BACKGROUND: Children with vertically acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exhibit persistent cognitive impairments, yet the corresponding neuroimaging signature of vertical infection remains unclear. METHODS: Fifty healthy control children and 51 vertically infected children were included in the study. The HIV-infected group consisted of survivors who had not received antiretroviral therapy (ART) at birth. The HIV-infected group averaged 11.4 (2.5) years of age, with a median CD4 count of 683 cells/mm...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183758/evaluation-of-intrinsic-and-acquired-immune-cells-infiltration-in-kidney-and-spleen-of-the-mice-infected-with-systemic-candidiasis-and-treated-with-chloroform-fraction-of-zataria-multiflora-boiss
#19
Mansour Bayat, Niloofar Hassannejad, Hadi Ghazanfari
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite the use of antifungal drugs, the visceral candidiasis is associated with a high mortality rate. The aims of this study were an evaluation of intrinsic and acquired immune cells infiltration in kidney and spleen of the mice infected with systemic candidiasis and treated with chloroform fraction of Zataria Multiflora Boiss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Candida albicans (C. albicans) ATCC10231 clinical standard strain was isolated. C. albicans LD50 was determined...
November 25, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182222/hiv-and-aids-in-poland-in-2015
#20
Katarzyna Szmulik, Karolina Zakrzewska, Marta Niedźwiedzka-Stadnik, Magdalena Rosińska
AIM: AIM. The aim was to describe the epidemiological situation of newly diagnosed HIV infections and AIDS cases in Poland in 2015 in comparison to the previous years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Descriptive analysis of newly detected HIV cases and AIDS cases was performed based on routine notifications by clinicians and laboratories. Data on the number of HIV tests from annual survey among laboratories were also used. RESULTS: In 2015 there were 1,281 HIV cases newly diagnosed in Poland (diagnosis rate 3...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
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