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Laboratory acquired infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549522/pathobiology-of-human-papillomaviruses-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-persons
#1
REVIEW
Uma Krishnamurti, Elizabeth R Unger
There is a complex interrelationship between human papillomaviruses (HPV) and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) that has been recognized from the start of the HIV epidemic. Cervical cancer was used as a surveillance indicator for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) before definitive identification of the viral etiology of either condition were known. Careful epidemiologic studies combined with clinical and laboratory measures of HPV, HPV-associated disease, and HIV have helped us understand many aspects of the relationship between these two virus groups; however, questions remain...
April 6, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546090/safety-and-tolerability-of-long-acting-cabotegravir-injections-in-hiv-uninfected-men-eclair-a-multicentre-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-phase-2a-trial
#2
Martin Markowitz, Ian Frank, Robert M Grant, Kenneth H Mayer, Richard Elion, Deborah Goldstein, Chester Fisher, Magdalena E Sobieszczyk, Joel E Gallant, Hong Van Tieu, Winkler Weinberg, David A Margolis, Krischan J Hudson, Britt S Stancil, Susan L Ford, Parul Patel, Elizabeth Gould, Alex R Rinehart, Kimberly Y Smith, William R Spreen
BACKGROUND: Cabotegravir (GSK1265744) is an HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor with potent antiviral activity and a long half-life when administered by injection that prevented simian-HIV infection upon repeat intrarectal challenge in male macaques. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of long-acting cabotegravir injections in healthy men not at high risk of HIV-1 infection. METHODS: We did this multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2a trial at ten sites in the USA...
May 22, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545520/the-abundance-of-the-lyme-disease-pathogen-borrelia-afzelii-declines-over-time-in-the-tick-vector-ixodes-ricinus
#3
Maxime Jacquet, Dolores Genné, Alessandro Belli, Elodie Maluenda, Anouk Sarr, Maarten J Voordouw
BACKGROUND: The population dynamics of vector-borne pathogens inside the arthropod vector can have important consequences for vector-to-host transmission. Tick-borne spirochete bacteria of the Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) species complex cause Lyme borreliosis in humans and spend long periods of time (>12 months) in their Ixodes tick vectors. To date, few studies have investigated the dynamics of Borrelia spirochete populations in unfed Ixodes nymphal ticks. METHODS: Larval ticks from our laboratory colony of I...
May 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542123/malaria-surveillance-united-states-2014
#4
Kimberly E Mace, Paul M Arguin
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission...
May 26, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539340/evaluating-and-improving-vitek-ms%C3%A2-for-identification-of-clinically-relevant-species-of-trichosporon-and-the-close-related-genera-cutaneotrichosporon-and-apiotrichum
#5
João N de Almeida, Viviane M Favero Gimenes, Elaine C Francisco, Lumena P Machado Siqueira, Renato K Gonçalves de Almeida, Juliette Guitard, Christophe Hennequin, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo, Gil Benard, Flavia Rossi
Trichosporon species are relevant etiologic agents of hospital-acquired infections. High mortality rates are attributed to Trichosporon deep-seated infections in immunocompromised individuals, being fast and accurate species identification relevant for hasting the best-targeted therapy. Recently, Trichosporon taxonomy has been re-assessed and three genera have been proposed for the pathogenic species: Trichosporon, Cutaneotrichosporon and Apiotrichum Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has replaced old phenotypic methods for microorganism's identification in clinical laboratories, but spectral profile databases have to be evaluated and improved for optimal species identification performance...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538901/sexually-transmitted-infections-and-pro-lives-based-on-a-clinical-report
#6
Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira Velho
Physicians are also responsible for the increase in sexually transmitted infections. We report a case of patient inadequately monitored, that shows the importance of physicians to take basic measures with any individual at risk of acquiring such infections. We propose the following mnemonic acrostic: PRO-LIVES (Protection: usual and proper codom use, Responsibility, Other orientations, Laboratory tests -HIV infection, syphilis and B and C hepatitis-, Immunization: B hepatitis vaccination, Various: at least two patients, Ensure: case history and physical examination, Single dose treatment: whenever possible)...
March 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537778/antibacterial-susceptibilities-of-escherichia-coli-from-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infections-in-the-faroe-islands-associations-with-antibacterial-sales-and-comparison-with-iceland-and-denmark
#7
Marita Debess Magnussen, Hannes Gislason, Shahin Gaini, Karl G Kristinsson
Currently, data on Escherichia coli antibacterial susceptibilities in the Faroe Islands are lacking. The aim was to investigate the antibacterial susceptibilities of E. coli from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections in the Faroe Islands, correlate with antibacterial sales, and compare with Iceland and Denmark. From 2009 to 2010 and in 2012, 12 general practitioners from the Faroe Islands were recruited to provide urine samples from patients. Antibacterial susceptibilities were determined by disc diffusion testing according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods and criteria...
May 24, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535868/helicobacter-infection-significantly-alters-pregnancy-success-in-laboratory-mice
#8
Tara C Bracken, Caitlin A Cooper, Zil Ali, Ha Truong, Julie M Moore
Helicobacter spp. are gram-negative, helically shaped bacteria that cause gastric and enterohepatic infections in mammalian species. Although Helicobacter infection frequently is implicated to interfere with reproductive success, few experimental data support these claims. We therefore retrospectively investigated the effect of Helicobacter infection on murine pregnancy outcome after the identification of endemic Helicobacter infection in an animal research facility. Multiplex conventional PCR analysis was used to characterize Helicobacter infection status in one inbred and 2 transgenic strains of mice in 2 self-contained rooms assigned to the same investigator...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533400/the-pentameric-complex-drives-immunologically-covert-cell-cell-transmission-of-wild-type-human-cytomegalovirus
#9
Isa Murrell, Carmen Bedford, Kristin Ladell, Kelly L Miners, David A Price, Peter Tomasec, Gavin W G Wilkinson, Richard J Stanton
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strains that have been passaged in vitro rapidly acquire mutations that impact viral growth. These laboratory-adapted strains of HCMV generally exhibit restricted tropism, produce high levels of cell-free virus, and develop susceptibility to natural killer cells. To permit experimentation with a virus that retained a clinically relevant phenotype, we reconstructed a wild-type (WT) HCMV genome using bacterial artificial chromosome technology. Like clinical virus, this genome proved to be unstable in cell culture; however, propagation of intact virus was achieved by placing the RL13 and UL128 genes under conditional expression...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526799/acquired-resistance-to-macrolides-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-from-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#10
Muhammad-Hariri Mustafa, Shaunak Khandekar, Michael M Tunney, J Stuart Elborn, Barbara C Kahl, Olivier Denis, Patrick Plésiat, Hamidou Traore, Paul M Tulkens, Francis Vanderbist, Françoise Van Bambeke
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients receive chronic treatment with macrolides for their antivirulence and anti-inflammatory properties. We, however, previously showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, considered as naturally resistant to macrolides, becomes susceptible when tested in a eukaryotic medium rather than a conventional broth.We therefore looked for specific macrolide resistance determinants in 333 CF isolates from four European CF centres in comparison with 48 isolates from patients suffering from hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512588/severe-aplastic-anemia-following-parvovirus-b19-associated-acute-hepatitis
#11
Masanori Furukawa, Kosuke Kaji, Hiroyuki Masuda, Kuniaki Ozaki, Shohei Asada, Aritoshi Koizumi, Takuya Kubo, Norihisa Nishimura, Yasuhiko Sawada, Kosuke Takeda, Tsuyoshi Mashitani, Masayuki Kubo, Itsuto Amano, Tomoyuki Ootani, Chiho Ohbayashi, Koji Murata, Tatsuichi Ann, Akira Mitoro, Hitoshi Yoshiji
Human parvovirus (HPV) B19 is linked to a variety of clinical manifestations, such as erythema infectiosum, nonimmune hydrops fetalis, and transient aplastic anemia. Although a few cases have shown HPVB19 infection as a possible causative agent for hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAAA) in immunocompetent patients, most reported cases of HAAA following transient hepatitis did not have delayed remission. Here we report a rare case of severe aplastic anemia following acute hepatitis with prolonged jaundice due to HPVB19 infection in a previously healthy young male...
2017: Case Reports in Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503342/phenotypic-detection-and-antibiogram-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-proteus-species-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-india
#12
N Pal, S Hooja, R Sharma, R K Maheshwari
BACKGROUND: Proteus species cause a variety of community- and hospital-acquired illnesses. Synthesis of β-lactamases is the predominant mechanism for resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Among the β-lactamases, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC β-lactamases are the most common. AIM: The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of ESBL and AmpC β-lactamases in Proteus species among various clinical isolates at a tertiary care hospital, India...
September 2016: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503128/a-confounding-case-of-inherited-factor-v-deficiency-complicated-by-inhibitors-at-first-presentation
#13
Hema Subramanian, Rakhee Kar, Deepak Charles, Hitha Babu, Pagadalu Ambika, Tarun Kumar Dutta
INTRODUCTION: Inherited factor V deficiency / Owren's disease has varied clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic laboratory abnormalities to massive hemorrhage. The acquired form due to inhibitors following antibiotic therapy, infection, or surgery is less common, and spontaneous development of inhibitors is not known. CASE REPORT: An 18-year-old boy presented with bleeding axillary and groin ulcers. At the age of 15, due to recurrent epistaxis and gum bleed, he was diagnosed with acquired factor V deficiency with positive inhibitor screen and treated with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion and temporary azathioprine...
April 2017: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491878/a-case-of-severe-neutropenia-from-short-term-exposure-to-moxifloxacin
#14
Weihan Chen, Peter Noel Van Buren
Moxifloxacin is commonly prescribed in the inpatient and outpatient management of community-acquired pneumonia and other common infections. We report a case of a 76-year-old man who developed severe neutropenia after several days of treatment for community-acquired pneumonia. The patient had a history of alcohol abuse; however, there were no other offending medications prescribed, and a thorough laboratory workup for other possible causes of neutropenia was negative. The patient's neutrophils and white blood count responded quickly to cessation of fluoroquinolones...
January 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483717/surveillance-of-the-activity-of-solithromycin-cem-101-against-bacteria-from-respiratory-tract-infections
#15
Stephen Hawser, Ian Morrissey, Barbara Lemos, Kara Keedy, Prabhavathi Fernandes
The activity of solithromycin, a fourth-generation macrolide and novel fluoroketolide, was evaluated by determining its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (via Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution) against 2797 contemporary clinical respiratory tract isolates collected from North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and other regions of the world in 2012-13. Solithromycin was very active against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes, with MIC90 of 0.25 and 0.12 µg/mL, respectively...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455888/helicobacter-infection-significantly-alters-pregnancy-success-in-laboratory-mice
#16
Tara C Bracken, Caitlin A Cooper, Zil Ali, Ha Truong, Julie M Moore
Helicobacter spp. are gram-negative, helically shaped bacteria that cause gastric and enterohepatic infections in mammalianspecies. Although Helicobacter infection frequently is implicated to interfere with reproductive success, few experimentaldata support these claims. We therefore retrospectively investigated the effect of Helicobacter infection on murine pregnancy outcome after the identification of endemic Helicobacter infection in an animal research facility. Multiplex conventional PCR analysis was used to characterize Helicobacter infection status in one inbred and 2 transgenic strains of mice in 2 self-contained rooms assigned to the same investigator...
April 28, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447317/neuroimaging-findings-of-postnatally-acquired-zika-virus-infection-a-pictorial-essay
#17
Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Guillaume Carteaux, Andrea Poretti, Morteza Sanei Taheri, Sonia Bermudez, Heron Werner, Luiz Celso Hygino da Cruz
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family, first discovered in 1947. There has been no report of severe complications caused by this virus in humans until recently. However, it is confirmed now that prenatally acquired ZIKV infection may cause severe congenital brain abnormalities in the infected fetuses. In addition, there has been an increasing number of reports during recent years about the causal relationship between postnatally acquired ZIKV infection and severe neurologic complications (mostly immune-mediated ones)...
April 26, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437431/factors-associated-with-acquired-anti-ifn-%C3%AE-autoantibody-in-patients-with-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infection
#18
Pakpoom Phoompoung, Nasikarn Ankasekwinai, Manop Pithukpakorn, Suporn Foongladda, Pinklow Umrod, Bhoom Suktitipat, Surakameth Mahasirimongkol, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Yupin Suputtamongkol
BACKGROUND: The clinical syndrome of disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection in patients who were previously healthy is now well recognized to be associated with an acquired autoantibody to Interferon gamma (Anti IFN- γ autoantibody). However, the risk factors of this syndrome remain unknown. METHOD: We performed an unmatched case control study among patients with NTM diseases who were diagnosed and treated at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436815/moyamoya-in-a-patient-with-fires-a-first-case-report
#19
Taylor Kaufman, Andrew White
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a form of epileptic encephalopathy with severe refractory epilepsy that presents in previously healthy, school-aged children after significant febrile illness with concomitant rise in body temperature. Suspected causes include genetic or acquired channelopathies, as well as mitochondrial disturbances. In FIRES, the EEG shows diffuse slowing, generalized, and/or multifocal discharges. Seizures are present and resistant to treatment. Moyamoya angiopathy (MMA) is characterized by progressive stenosis of cerebral arteries and subsequent development of a network of collateral circulation that is prone to rupture...
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433728/vector-competence-of-amblyomma-americanum-acari-ixodidae-for-rickettsia-rickettsii
#20
Michael L Levin, Galina E Zemtsova, Lindsay F Killmaster, Alyssa Snellgrove, Lauren B M Schumacher
Rickettsia rickettsii - the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) - is widely spread across the Americas. In the US, Dermacentor spp. ticks are identified as primary vectors of R. rickettsii and Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. has been implicated in transmission of this pathogen in several locations in the Southwest. Conversely, ticks of the genus Amblyomma are recognized vectors of RMSF in Central and South America, but not in the US. A. americanum is one of the most aggressive human-biting ticks in the US, whose geographical range overlaps with that of reported RMSF cases...
April 12, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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