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Laboratory acquired infection

Heloise Buys, Rudzani Muloiwa, Colleen Bamford, Brian Eley
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is a significant paediatric bloodstream pathogen in children. There is little data from Africa. In this study we describe the epidemiology of multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection (KPBSI) at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of KPBSI from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2011 using conventional descriptive and inferential statistical methods...
October 17, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Nicole Lukovsky-Akhsanov, M Kelly Keating, Pamela Spivey, George W Lathrop, Nathaniel Powell, Michael L Levin
Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen...
2016: PloS One
Kathrin I Mohr
For thousands of years people were delivered helplessly to various kinds of infections, which often reached epidemic proportions and have cost the lives of millions of people. This is precisely the age since mankind has been thinking of infectious diseases and the question of their causes. However, due to a lack of knowledge, the search for strategies to fight, heal, and prevent the spread of communicable diseases was unsuccessful for a long time. It was not until the discovery of the healing effects of (antibiotic producing) molds, the first microscopic observations of microorganisms in the seventeenth century, the refutation of the abiogenesis theory, and the dissolution of the question "What is the nature of infectious diseases?" that the first milestones within the history of antibiotics research were set...
October 15, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
J M Prins, T van der Poll
Better use of current antibiotics is warranted to curb increasing antimicrobial resistance rates. Procalcitonin guidance can safely reduce antibiotic usage when used to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in adult patients with a respiratory tract infection. However, the claimed reductions in antibiotic usage are mainly achieved in patients with acute bronchitis and exacerbations of COPD, conditions for which guidelines already discourage antibiotic treatment. Sequential procalcitonin measurements can also reduce the treatment duration of community-acquired pneumonia from 10-12 to 5-7 days, which is, however, already the recommended treatment duration for in- and outpatients under the current Dutch guidelines...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Alasdair Bamford, Emma C Manno, Maria Jose Mellado, Vana Spoulou, Laura Marques, Henriette J Scherpbier, Tim Niehues, Agnieszka Oldakowska, Paolo Rossi, Paolo Palma
BACKGROUND: Current national immunisation schedules differ between countries in terms of vaccine formulation, timing of vaccinations and immunisation programme funding and co-ordination. As a result, some HIV infected paediatric population may be left susceptible to vaccine preventable infections. Vaccines used in healthy population should be subjected to high quality ethical research and be explicitly validated for use in children with special vaccination needs such as those infected with HIV...
October 7, 2016: Vaccine
Richard L Hodinka
Acute upper and lower respiratory infections are a major public health problem and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. At greatest risk are young children, the elderly, the chronically ill, and those with suppressed or compromised immune systems. Viruses are the predominant cause of respiratory tract illnesses and include RNA viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, and coronavirus. Laboratory testing is required for a reliable diagnosis of viral respiratory infections, as a clinical diagnosis can be difficult since signs and symptoms are often overlapping and not specific for any one virus...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Ryanne W Lieshout-Krikke, Dragoslav Domanovic, Wim De Kort, Wolfgang Mayr, Giancarlo M Liumbruno, Simonetta Pupella, Johann Kurz, Folke Knutson, Sheila Maclennan, Gilles Folléa
BACKGROUND: Two selection strategies for newly-registered blood donors are available: a single-visit selection called the standard selection procedure (SSP), and a two-stage selection named pre-donation and donation screening (PDS). This study reviews the selection strategies for newly-registered donors currently applied in European countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We collected data on donor selection procedures, blood donation, laboratory screening and HIV, HCV and HBV positive donors/donations from 2010 to 2013 in 30 European countries by using questionnaires...
September 27, 2016: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
Junlan Chuan, Yuan Zhang, Xia He, Yuxuan Zhu, Lei Zhong, Dongke Yu, Hongtao Xiao
Objective: Telavancin is approved to treat complicated skin and skin structure infections, hospital-acquired, and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus. A previous meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials suggested that it might be an alternative to vancomycin in cases of difficult-to-treat meticillin-resistant S. aureus infections. We did a meta-analysis including one new trial to access the efficacy and safety of telavancin. Methods: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE and ClinicalTrials...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
A Dramowski, A Whitelaw, M F Cotton
BACKGROUND: In most African countries the prevalence and effects of paediatric healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are unknown. AIM: To investigate the burden, spectrum, risk factors, and impact of paediatric HCAI by prospective clinical surveillance at a South African referral hospital. METHODS: Continuous prospective clinical and laboratory HCAI surveillance using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definitions was conducted at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, South Africa, from May 1(st) to October 31(st) in 2014 and 2015...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
A Frazer-Abel, L Sepiashvili, M M Mbughuni, M A V Willrich
Historically, complement disorders have been attributed to immunodeficiency associated with severe or frequent infection. More recently, however, complement has been recognized for its role in inflammation, autoimmune disorders, and vision loss. This paradigm shift requires a fundamental change in how complement testing is performed and interpreted. Here, we provide an overview of the complement pathways and summarize recent literature related to hereditary and acquired angioedema, infectious diseases, autoimmunity, and age-related macular degeneration...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
L Gayani Tillekeratne, Dhammika Vidanagama, Rashmi Tippalagama, Rashmi Lewkebandara, Maria Joyce, Bradly P Nicholson, Ajith Nagahawatte, Champica K Bodinayake, Aruna Dharshan De Silva, Christopher W Woods
BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) are increasingly reported as pathogens in urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, in Sri Lanka, the clinical and molecular epidemiology of ESBL-PE implicated in UTIs has not been well described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted prospective, laboratory-based surveillance from October to December 2013 at a tertiary care hospital in southern Sri Lanka and enrolled patients ≥1 year of age with clinically relevant UTIs due to ESBL-PE...
September 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
Lee M Hampton, Laurel Garrison, Jessica Kattan, Ellen Brown, Natalia A Kozak-Muiznieks, Claressa Lucas, Barry Fields, Nicole Fitzpatrick, Luis Sapian, Teresa Martin-Escobar, Stephen Waterman, Lauri A Hicks, Celia Alpuche-Aranda, Hugo Lopez-Gatell
Background.  A Legionnaires' disease (LD) outbreak at a resort on Cozumel Island in Mexico was investigated by a joint Mexico-United States team in 2010. This is the first reported LD outbreak in Mexico, where LD is not a reportable disease. Methods.  Reports of LD among travelers were solicited from US health departments and the European Working Group for Legionella Infections. Records from the resort and Cozumel Island health facilities were searched for possible LD cases. In April 2010, the resort was searched for possible Legionella exposure sources...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Rasmus Hare Jensen
Antifungal drug resistance is a multifaceted clinical challenge, and when present, a primary cause of treatment failure in patients with severe fungal infections. Changing epidemiology, increasing resistance rates and a narrow antifungal armamentarium may further underline the required attention on resistance particularly within the most prevalent invasive fungal infections caused by Candida yeasts and Aspergillus moulds. In Denmark, the resistance epidemiology remains to be fully elucidated. This thesis sought to address this demand as well as provide insight into the landscape of underlying molecular resistance mechanisms...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Ingrid Vasconcellos Faber, Joana Rosa Marques Prota, Alberto Rolim Muro Martinez, Anamarli Nucci, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Marcondes Cavalcante França Júnior
INTRODUCTION: Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder (gene CHS1/LYST) characterized by partial albinism, recurrent infections, and easy bruising. Survivors develop a constellation of slowly progressive neurological manifestations. METHODS: We describe clinical, laboratory, electrophysiological, and genetic findings of a patient who developed an immune-mediated demyelinating neuropathy as the main clinical feature of CHS. RESULTS: The patient presented with subacute flaccid paraparesis, absent reflexes, and reduced vibration sense...
September 26, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Xin Ling Wang, Juan Song, Qin Qin Song, Jie Yu, Xiao Nuan Luo, Gui Zhen Wu, Jun Han
To understand the potential causes of laboratory-acquired infections and to provide possible solutions that would protect laboratory personnel, samples from a viral laboratory were screened to determine the main sources of contamination with six subtypes of Rhinovirus. Rhinovirus contamination was found in the gloves, cuffs of protective wear, inner surface of biological safety cabinet (BSC) windows, and trash handles. Remarkably, high contamination was found on the inner walls of the centrifuge and the inner surface of centrifuge tube casing in the rotor...
August 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
P J Wu, D Jeyaratnam, O Tosas, B S Cooper, G L French
BACKGROUND: Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is frequently endemic in healthcare settings and may be transmitted by person-to-person spread. Asymptomatic MRSA carriers are potential, unsuspected sources for transmission and some of them may be identified by admission screening. AIM: To assess whether rapid point-of-care screening (POCS) for MRSA at hospital admission may be associated with a reduction in MRSA acquisition rates when compared with slower laboratory-based methods...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Shamima Akhter, Tahmeed Ahmed, Shafiqul Alam Sarker, Monira Sarmin, Abu S M S B Shahid, K M Shahunja, Shoeb Bin Islam, Lubaba Shahrin, Tahmina Alam, Nur Haque Alam, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti
Although Klebsiella bacteremia in children is perceived to be associated with fatal consequences, data are scarce on those children presenting with diarrhea. We evaluated the factors associated with Klebsiella bacteremia in such children. In this retrospective chart analysis, data of all diarrheal children was retrieved from electronic medical record system (named as SHEBA) of Dhaka Hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2012, who had their blood culture done...
2016: International Journal of Pediatrics
Luciana Galetto, Dimitrios E Miliordos, Mattia Pegoraro, Dario Sacco, Flavio Veratti, Cristina Marzachì, Domenico Bosco
Flavescence dorée (FD) is a threat for wine production in the vineyard landscape of Piemonte, Langhe-Roero and Monferrato, Italy. Spread of the disease is dependent on complex interactions between insect, plant and phytoplasma. In the Piemonte region, wine production is based on local cultivars. The role of six local grapevine varieties as a source of inoculum for the vector Scaphoideus titanus was investigated. FD phytoplasma (FDP) load was compared among red and white varieties with different susceptibility to FD...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
William L Walker, Nicole P Lindsey, Jennifer A Lehman, Elisabeth R Krow-Lucal, Ingrid B Rabe, Susan L Hills, Stacey W Martin, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus primarily transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1). Zika virus infections have also been documented through intrauterine transmission resulting in congenital infection; intrapartum transmission from a viremic mother to her newborn; sexual transmission; blood transfusion; and laboratory exposure (1-5). Most Zika virus infections are asymptomatic (1,6). Clinical illness, when it occurs, is generally mild and characterized by acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or nonpurulent conjunctivitis...
September 16, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Natasha Ghosh, Farida A Malik, Roshni G Daver, Jakapat Vanichanan, Pablo C Okhuysen
BACKGROUND: Viral associated diarrhea (VAD) due to Norovirus (NV), Rotavirus (RV) and Adenovirus (AV) is common in immunocompromised and cancer patients. We sought to determine if the clinical characteristics, morbidity and seasonality of infection differed according to the type of enteric virus identified. METHODS: Cases of NV, RV and AV were identified in stool specimens submitted to the clinical microbiology laboratory between November 2005 and February 2015...
September 13, 2016: Infectious Diseases
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