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Laboratory acquired infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918869/paramedic-initiated-cms-sepsis-core-measure-bundle-prior-to-hospital-arrival-a-stepwise-approach
#1
Jason G Walchok, Ronald G Pirrallo, Douglas Furmanek, Martin Lutz, Colt Shope, Brandi Giles, Greta Gue, Aaron Dix
BACKGROUND: To improve patient outcomes, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented core measures that outline the initial treatment of the septic patient. These measures include initial blood culture collection prior to antibiotics, adequate intravenous fluid resuscitation, and early administration of broad spectrum antibiotics. We sought to determine if Paramedics can initiate the CMS sepsis core measure bundle in the prehospital field reliably. METHODS: This is a retrospective, case series from a 3rd service EMS system model in Greenville, South Carolina between November 17, 2014 and February 20, 2016...
December 5, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916571/impact-and-seasonality-of-human-rhinovirus-infection-in-hospitalized-patients-for-two-consecutive-years
#2
Jaqueline Leotte, Hygor Trombetta, Heloisa Z Faggion, Bernardo M Almeida, Meri B Nogueira, Luine R Vidal, Sonia M Raboni
OBJECTIVES: To report epidemiological features, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of human rhinovirus (HRV) infections in comparison with other community acquired respiratory virus (CRV) infections in patients hospitalized for two consecutive years. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. Clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory data of patients hospitalized with acute respiratory syndrome in a tertiary care hospital from 2012 to 2013 were reviewed. RESULTS: HRV was the most common CRV observed (36%, 162/444) and was present in the majority of viral co-detections (69%, 88/128), mainly in association with human enterovirus (45%)...
December 1, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916211/a-32-year-study-of-the-effect-of-pneumococcal-vaccines-on-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-disease
#3
Ronald J Stanek, Nancy B Norton, Maurice A Mufson
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, Streptococcus pneumoniae commonly causes community-acquired pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia and otitis media. Invasive pneumococcal infection (IPD) represents the most serious presentation, occurs in approximately 1 in 4 cases and engenders case fatality rates (CFR) in pneumonia of 20-25% and meningitis of 35-40%. We investigated IPD for 32 years in an American city to assess the effect of differing pneumococcal vaccines on serotype occurrence and CFR among children and adults...
December 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916049/-a-retrospective-clinical-study-of-sixty-three-cases-with-persistent-inflammation-immunosuppression-and-catabolism-syndrome
#4
R Y Ding, J N Qiu, B Y Liu, X X Li, Y N Sun, Y J Liang, D M Zhao, R Zhu, Z D Zhang, X C Ma
Objective: To study the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with persistent inflammation immunosuppression and catabolism syndrome (PICS) in ICU. Methods: A total of 126 patients admitted to ICU (ICU stay of more than 10 days, age≥18 years) between January 2014 to December 2014 were retrospectively studied.Data were collected from electronic medical records including demographics, underlying disease, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation Ⅱ (APACHEⅡ) score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, laboratory parameters, ICU acquired infections and clinical outcome...
December 1, 2016: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906087/legionella-pneumonia-in-the-niagara-region-ontario-canada-a-case-series
#5
Stephanie Cargnelli, Jeff Powis, Jennifer L Y Tsang
BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, a major cause of Legionnaires' disease, accounts for 2-15 % of all community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization and up to 30 % of community-acquired pneumonia requiring intensive care unit admission. Early initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is a crucial step in the prevention of morbidity and mortality. However, recognition of Legionnaires' disease continues to be challenging because of its nonspecific clinical features. We sought to describe hospitalized community-acquired Legionnaires' disease to increase awareness of this important and potentially lethal disease...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904842/the-challenges-of-cardiothoracic-surgery-practice-in-nigeria-a-12-years-institutional-experience
#6
Bode Falase, Michael Sanusi, Adeola Animasahun, Ogadinma Mgbajah, Adetinuwe Majekodunmi, Onyekwelu Nzewi, Jonathan Nwiloh, David Oke
BACKGROUND: Although the specialty of cardiothoracic surgery has been practiced in Nigeria for many years, open heart surgery (OHS) has only in the last decade become relatively more frequent, mainly through visiting foreign cardiac surgical teams. At this early phase of development it is faced with multiple challenges, especially financing and local skilled manpower for which solutions have to be identified in order to ensure sustainability and future growth. This study is aimed at highlighting these obstacles to growth of cardiothoracic surgery based on our own institutional experience at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH) and the current status of OHS activity in other cardiothoracic centers in Nigeria...
October 2016: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890724/clinical-characteristics-and-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-of-anaerobic-bacteremia-in-an-acute-care-hospital
#7
Thean Yen Tan, Lily Siew Yong Ng, Lee Ling Kwang, Suma Rao, Li Ching Eng
: This study investigated the clinical features of anaerobic bacteraemia in an acute-care hospital, and evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates to commonly available antibiotics. MATERIALS & METHODS: Microbiological and epidemiological data from 2009-2011were extracted from the laboratory information system and electronic medical records. One hundred and eleven unique patient episodes consisting of 116 anaerobic isolates were selected for clinical review and antibiotic susceptibility testing...
November 24, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886039/use-of-personal-digital-assistants-to-detect-healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-egypt
#8
Elham Am El-Feky, Doa'a A Saleh, Jehan El-Kholy, Ahmed Mahmoud Sayed, Yasmeen Mansi, Mohamed Hashem
INTRODUCTION: Personal digital assistants (PDAs) used in electronic laboratory-based surveillance are a promising alternative to conventional surveillance to detect healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The aim of the study was to monitor, detect, and analyze HAIs using PDAs in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODOLOGY: In this descriptive study, 1,053 neonates admitted to the NICU in the obstetrics and gynecology ward at the Cairo University hospital were included and evaluated for HAIs by collecting data using PDAs programmed by Naval Medical Research Unit 3, Cairo, with the definitions for HAIs provided by the National Healthcare Safety Network of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885285/emergence-of-aminoglycoside-resistance-due-to-arma-methylase-in-multi-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-in-a-university-hospital-in-nepal
#9
S Shrestha, T Tada, B Shrestha, T Kirikae, H Ohara, B P Rijal, B M Pokhrel, J B Sherchand
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii associated with hospital-acquired infections has been increasingly reported worldwide. 16S rRNA methylase producing Gram-negative bacteria are highly resistant to all clinically important aminoglycosides. We analyzed A. baumannii clinical isolates resistant to aminoglycosides from hospitalized patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the emergence of armA in A.baumannii species associated with nosocomial infection in a university hospital in Nepal...
May 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870538/foodborne-infections-and-intoxications-in-poland-in-2014
#10
Piotr Polański, Sylwia Kamińska, Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys
AIM: The purpose of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of food poisonings and infections in Poland in 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The evaluation was based on the analysis of information sent to Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH through ROE (Pol. Rejestr Ognisk Epidemicznych)- an electronic system created for uploading, transfer and analysis of data acquired during the outbreak investigations). Additional sources for the analysis were NIZP-PZH annual bulletins (Czarkowski MP et al...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863513/epidemiology-of-rubella-virus-cases-in-the-pre-vaccination-era-of-ethiopia-2009-2015
#11
Mekonen Getahun, Berhane Beyene, Kathleen Gallagher, Ayesheshem Ademe, Birke Teshome, Mesfin Tefera, Anjelo Asha, Aklog Afework, Esete Assefa, Yoseph HaileMariam, Yonas HaileGiorgis, Hiwot Ketema, Dejenie Shiferaw, Ayenachew Bekele, Daddi Jima, Amha Kebede
BACKGROUND: Rubella is a common mild rash illness caused by rubella virus. The majority of infections occur in children and young adults. The infection is the cause of a serious birth defect known as Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) when a woman acquires infection early in pregnancy. Ethiopia has not yet established rubella virus surveillance and has not yet introduced rubella vaccine into the routine immunization program. We characterize the epidemiology of laboratory confirmed rubella virus cases collected through measles surveillance from 2009 to 2015 to better understand the burden of the disease in the country...
November 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842876/thailand-antimicrobial-resistance-containment-and-prevention-program
#12
Visanu Thamlikitkul, Pinyo Rattanaumpawan, Adhiratha Boonyasiri, Varaporn Pumsuwan, Tepnimitr Judaeng, Surapee Tiengrim, Wantana Paveenkittiporn, Suvichai Rojanasthien, Sasi Jaroenpoj, Saisiri Issaracharnvanich
The Thailand Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Containment and Prevention Program was founded to develop, co-ordinate and implement AMR Containment and Prevention (AMRCP) operational actions in Thailand following the 'One Health' approach. This article summarises the ten AMRCP operational actions initiated during the initial phase of the programme from 2012 to 2016: estimating the national AMR burden; establishing the dynamics of AMR chains to understand how AMR in Thailand develops and spreads; developing a national AMRCP infrastructure; developing laboratory and information technology systems for surveillance of AMR, antibiotic use and hospital-acquired infections; regulating the use and distribution of antibiotics in humans and food animals; generating local evidence for promoting responsible use of antibiotics and efficient practices for infection prevention and control; designing AMRCP campaigns; creating an AMRCP package; implementing the AMRCP package in selected pilot communities; and conducting research and development on diagnostics, therapy and prevention of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial infections...
December 2015: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834066/fecal-calprotectin-level-reflects-the-severity-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#13
Jieun Kim, Heejung Kim, Hyun Ju Oh, Hyung Sun Kim, Youn Jee Hwang, Dongeun Yong, Seok Hoon Jeong, Kyungwon Lee
Clostridium difficile is a significant nosocomial and community-acquired pathogen, and is the leading cause of antibiotic-induced diarrhea associated with high morbidity and mortality. Given that the treatment outcome depends on the severity of C. difficile infection (CDI), we aimed to establish an efficient method of assessing severity, and focused on the stool biomarker fecal calprotectin (FC). FC directly reflects the intestinal inflammation status of a patient, and can aid in interpreting the current guidelines, which requires the integration of indirect laboratory parameters...
January 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833967/diagnosing-hiv-associated-cerebral-diseases-the-importance-of-neuropathology-in-understanding-hiv
#14
Ioan Alexandru Diaconu, LaurenŢiu MihăiŢă Stratan, Luciana Nichita, Victoria Aramă, Valentina Ruxandra Moroti Constantinescu, Alexandra Ioana Diaconu, Daniela Adriana Ion
The study aims to compare two aspects concerning the diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated central nervous system (CNS) pathology (neuroAIDS): clinical diagnoses issued ante mortem with pathology results issued post mortem. The group of 39 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients was created over 23 years and is limited by marked heterogeneity. The enrolled cases were treated at the "Prof. Dr. Matei Bals" National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Bucharest, Romania, deceased due to AIDS-related complications and underwent brain necropsies performed in the Pathology Laboratory at the "Colentina" Clinical Hospital, Bucharest...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832390/monitoring-of-the-hiv-epidemic-using-routinely-collected-data-the-case-of-the-united-kingdom
#15
Brian D Rice, Zheng Yin, Alison E Brown, Sara Croxford, Stefano Conti, Daniela De Angelis, Valerie C Delpech
We report on measures used to monitor the response to the UK HIV epidemic. We present analyses of routine data on HIV testing, diagnosis and care, and of CD4 back-calculation models to estimate country of HIV acquisition and incidence. Over the past decade, HIV and AIDS diagnoses and deaths declined while HIV testing coverage increased. Linkage into care, retention in care, and viral suppression was high with few socio-demographic differences. However, in 2013, incidence among MSM, and undiagnosed infection, also remained high, and more than half of heterosexuals newly diagnosed with HIV (the majority of whom were born-abroad) probably acquired HIV in the UK and were diagnosed late...
November 10, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822949/hiv-and-aids-in-poland-in-2014
#16
Marta Niedźwiedzka-Stadnik, Magdalena Pielacha, Magdalena Rosińska
AIM: The aim was to analyze the epidemiological situation of newly diagnosed HIV infections and AIDS cases in Poland in 2014 and years earlier. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Descriptive analysis of newly detected HIV cases and AIDS cases was performed based on routine notifications by clinicians and laboratories. Data on the number of HIV tests from annual survey among laboratories were also used. RESULTS: In 2014 there were 1,157 HIV cases diagnosed in Poland (incidence rate 3...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818966/sexually-transmitted-infections-among-hospitalized-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-hiv-aids-in-zahedan-southeastern-iran
#17
Seyed Mohammad Hashemi-Shahri, Batool Sharifi-Mood, Hamid-Reza Kouhpayeh, Javad Moazen, Mohsen Farrokhian, Masoud Salehi
BACKGROUND: Studies show that nearly 40 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) around the world and since the beginning of the epidemic, about 35 million have died from AIDS. Heterosexual intercourse is the most common route for transmission of HIV infection (85%). People with a sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as syphilis, genital herpes, chancroid, or bacterial vaginosis, are more likely to obtain HIV infection during sex...
September 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812197/a-comparative-study-of-clinical-presentation-and-risk-factors-for-adverse-outcome-in-patients-hospitalised-with-acute-respiratory-disease-due-to-mers-coronavirus-or-other-causes
#18
Musa A Garbati, Shamsudeen F Fagbo, Vicky J Fang, Leila Skakni, Mercy Joseph, Tariq A Wani, Benjamin J Cowling, Malik Peiris, Ahmed Hakawi
Middle East Respiratory syndrome (MERS) first emerged in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and remains a global health concern. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical features and risk factors for adverse outcome in patients with RT-PCR confirmed MERS and in those with acute respiratory disease who were MERS-CoV negative, presenting to the King Fahad Medical City (KFMC) in Riyadh between October 2012 and May 2014. The demographics, clinical and laboratory characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with RT-PCR confirmed MERS-CoV infection was compared with those testing negative MERS-CoV PCR...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811319/phase-2-study-of-the-safety-and-tolerability-of-maraviroc-containing-regimens-to-prevent-hiv-infection-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm-hptn-069-actg-a5305
#19
Roy M Gulick, Timothy J Wilkin, Ying Q Chen, Raphael J Landovitz, K Rivet Amico, Alicia M Young, Paul Richardson, Mark A Marzinke, Craig W Hendrix, Susan H Eshleman, Ian McGowan, Leslie M Cottle, Adriana Andrade, Cheryl Marcus, Karin L Klingman, Wairimu Chege, Alex R Rinehart, James F Rooney, Philip Andrew, Robert A Salata, Manya Magnus, Jason E Farley, Albert Liu, Ian Frank, Ken Ho, Jorge Santana, Joanne D Stekler, Marybeth McCauley, Kenneth H Mayer
BACKGROUND:  Maraviroc (MVC) is a candidate for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). METHODS:  Phase 2 48-week safety/tolerability study of four regimens: MVC alone, MVC+emtricitabine (FTC), MVC+tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and TDF+FTC. Eligible participants were HIV-uninfected men and transgender women reporting condomless anal intercourse with >1 HIV-infected or unknown-serostatus man within 90 days. At each visit, assessments, laboratory testing, and counseling were done...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810262/epidemiology-of-candida-isolates-from-intensive-care-units-in-colombia-from-2010-to-2013
#20
Gabriel Motoa, Juan Sebastián Muñoz, José Oñate, Christian José Pallares, Cristhian Hernández, María Virginia Villegas
BACKGROUND: The frequency of Candida isolates as a cause of hospital infections has risen in recent years, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality. The knowledge of the epidemiology of those hospital acquired fungal infections is essential to implement an adequate antifungal therapy. AIMS: To describe the epidemiology of Candida infections in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) from a surveillance network in Colombia. METHODS: Information was collected from the microbiology laboratories of 20 tertiary healthcare institutions from 10 Colombian cities using the Whonet® software version 5...
October 31, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
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