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Xiangju Wu, Jing Qi, Xiaoyan Cong, Lei Chen, Yue Hu, Dongwan Yoo, Guisheng Wang, Fulin Tian, Feng Li, Wenbo Sun, Zhi Chen, Lihui Guo, Jiaqiang Wu, Jun Li, Jinbao Wang, Xiaomin Zhao, Yijun Du
Isolation and identification of diverse porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs) play a fundamental role in PRRSV research and disease management. However, PRRSV has a restricted cell tropism for infection. MARC-145 cells are routinely used for North American genotype PRRSV isolation and vaccine production. But MARC-145 cells have some limitations such as low virus yield. CD163 is a cellular receptor that mediates productive infection of PRRSV in various nonpermissive cell lines. In this study, we established a high and stable porcine CD163- (pCD163-) expressing MARC-145 cell line toward increasing its susceptibility to PRRSV infection...
2018: BioMed Research International
Gerard E Martín-Valls, Mireia Hidalgo, Esmeralda Cano, Enric Mateu
The objective of this study was to test the suitability of umbilical cord (UC) sampling and ear vein swabbing (EVS) as alternatives to jugular vein bleeding (JVB) for the assessment of vertical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Twelve farms suspected to be PRRSV-positive unstable were selected and the three types of samples were obtained from 21 batches of newborn piglets (n=387). The proportions of positive results, viral loads and time spent to collect the samples were compared...
April 2018: Veterinary Journal
Tatjana Sattler, Jutta Pikalo, Eveline Wodak, Sandra Revilla-Fernández, Adi Steinrigl, Zoltán Bagó, Ferdinand Entenfellner, Jean-Baptiste Claude, Floriane Pez, Maela Francillette, Friedrich Schmoll
BACKGROUND: Effective vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), especially against highly pathogenic (HP) PRRSV are still missing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective efficacy of an experimental live attenuated PRRSV 2 vaccine, composed of two strains, against heterologous challenge with a Vietnamese HP PRRSV 2 field strain. For this reason, 20 PRRSV negative piglets were divided into two groups. The pigs of group 1 were vaccinated with the experimental vaccine, group 2 remained unvaccinated...
April 19, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Qian M Cao, Yan-Yan Ni, Dianjun Cao, Debin Tian, Danielle M Yugo, C Lynn Heffron, Christopher Overend, Sakthivel Subramaniam, Adam J Rogers, Nicholas Catanzaro, Tanya LeRoith, Paul C Roberts, Xiang-Jin Meng
Cytokines are often used as adjuvants to improve vaccine immunogenicity, since they are important in initiating and shaping the immune response. The available commercial modified live-attenuated vaccines (MLVs) against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are unable to mount sufficient heterologous protection, as they typically induce weak innate and inadequate T cell responses. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy of recombinant PRRSV MLVs incorporated with porcine cytokine IL-15 or IL-18 gene fusing to a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) modification signal that can anchor the cytokines to cell membrane...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
Sha Xie, Xin-Xin Chen, Songlin Qiao, Rui Li, Yangang Sun, Shuangfei Xia, Lin-Jian Wang, Xuegang Luo, Ruiguang Deng, En-Min Zhou, Gai-Ping Zhang
Once infected by viruses, cells can detect pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on viral nucleic acid by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to initiate the antiviral response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), characterized by reproductive failure in sows and respiratory diseases in pigs of different ages. To date, the sensing mechanism of PRRSV has not been elucidated. Here, we reported that the pseudoknot region residing in the 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of PRRSV genome, which has been proposed to regulate RNA synthesis and virus replication, was sensed as non-self by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and Toll like receptor (TLR3) and strongly induced type I IFNs and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
Junying Sun, Gali Bingga, Zhicheng Liu, Chunhong Zhang, Haiyan Shen, Pengju Guo, Jianfeng Zhang
Differentiation of classical strains and highly pathogenic strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is crucial for effective vaccination programs and epidemiological studies. We used nested PCR and high resolution melting curve analysis with unlabeled probe to distinguish between the classical and the highly pathogenic strains of this virus. Two sets of primers and a 20 bp unlabeled probe were designed from the NSP3 gene. The unlabeled probe included two mutations specific for the classical and highly pathogenic strains of the virus...
March 30, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Hewei Zhang, Mingqi Xia, Wei Wang, Decai Ju, Long Cao, Bai Wu, Xin Wang, Ying Wu, Ni Song, Jiaxin Hu, Changxiao Tian, Shucheng Zhang, Hua Wu
A novel PRRSV strain was isolated in China that was genetically similar to the NADC30 strain which is reported to have spread throughout China. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cross-protective efficacy of the live vaccine TJM-F92 in young pigs against challenge with a NADC30-like strain, HN201605. Twenty-five PRRSV- and antibody-free pigs were randomly divided into the following five groups: Vac/ChA, Unvac/ChA, Vac/ChB, Unvac/ChB and the mock. The pigs in groups Vac/ChA and Vac/ChB were inoculated intramuscularly with 1 mL TJM-F92 (105...
March 29, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Long Zhou, Runmin Kang, Bo Xie, Yiming Tian, Xuan Wu, Xuebin Lv, Xin Yang, Hongning Wang
Since the emergence of NADC30-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in China in 2013, PRRSVs have undergone rapid evolution. In this study, a novel variant of PRRSV strain (designated SCcd17) was successfully isolated from piglets with clinical signs in Sichuan Province in China in 2017, and the complete genomic sequence was determined. The genome of this new isolate was 15,015 nucleotides (nt) long, and comparative analysis revealed that SCcd17 exhibited 90.2%, 85.2%, 84.9%, and 84...
March 27, 2018: Viruses
Lingyun Zhu, Junlong Bi, Longlong Zheng, Qian Zhao, Xianghua Shu, Gang Guo, Jia Liu, Guishu Yang, Jianping Liu, Gefen Yin
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is currently insufficiently controlled. From a previous small-scale screen we identified an effective DNA-based short antisense oligonucleotide (AS-ON) targeting viral NSP9, which could inhibit PRRSV replication in both Marc-145 cells and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). The objective of this study was to explore the strategy of incorporating locked nucleic acids (LNAs) to achieve better inhibition of PRRSV replication in vitro...
March 26, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Julie A Hicks, Dongwan Yoo, Hsiao-Ching Liu
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is characterized by abortions in pregnant sows and respiratory disease, particularly in young pigs. The causative agent is porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a member of the arterivirus family. GP5 and M are the major envelope proteins encoded by PRRSV. To further characterize these two viral proteins, a yeast two-hybrid approach was utilized to identify interacting partners of PRRSV GP5 and M proteins...
March 22, 2018: Virus Research
Predrag Novakovic, Susan E Detmer, Muhammad Suleman, Carol M Malgarin, Daniel J MacPhee, John C S Harding
The placenta is a vital organ providing the developing fetus with nutrient and gas exchange, thermoregulation, and waste elimination necessary for fetal development, as well as producing hormones to maintain pregnancy. It is hypothesized that fetal pig death in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome may be attributed to pathology of the maternal-fetal interface leading to premature placental separation. This study was designed to evaluate the chronologic progression of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-induced lesions at the maternal-fetal interface, with particular focus on placental separation in experimentally challenged third-trimester gilts...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Hong Dong, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Xin Guo, Jun Han, Hanchun Yang
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important pathogen that causes economically huge losses to the pig industry worldwide. Current control of PRRSV infection remains inadequate although various means have been implemented. Thus, novel antiviral therapeutics combating PRRSV infection is essential to be considered. In the present study, the antiviral effect in vitro of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC) against PRRSV was investigated. METHODS: Cell viability assay was performed to examine the impact of 25HC on the cell viability...
March 21, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
H Nathues, P Alarcon, J Rushton, R Jolie, K Fiebig, M Jimenez, V Geurts, C Nathues
PRRS is among the diseases with the highest economic impact in pig production worldwide. Different strategies have been developed and applied to combat PRRS at farm level. The broad variety of available intervention strategies makes it difficult to decide on the most cost-efficient strategy for a given farm situation, as it depends on many farm-individual factors like disease severity, prices or farm structure. Aim of this study was to create a simulation tool to estimate the cost-efficiency of different control strategies at individual farm level...
April 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Scott A Dee, Fernando V Bauermann, Megan C Niederwerder, Aaron Singrey, Travis Clement, Marcelo de Lima, Craig Long, Gilbert Patterson, Maureen A Sheahan, Ana M M Stoian, Vlad Petrovan, Cassandra K Jones, Jon De Jong, Ju Ji, Gordon D Spronk, Luke Minion, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Jeff J Zimmerman, Raymond R R Rowland, Eric Nelson, Paul Sundberg, Diego G Diel
The goal of this study was to evaluate survival of important viral pathogens of livestock in animal feed ingredients imported daily into the United States under simulated transboundary conditions. Eleven viruses were selected based on global significance and impact to the livestock industry, including Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV), Influenza A Virus of Swine (IAV-S), Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Nipah Virus (NiV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus (VESV)...
2018: PloS One
Cindy Wenke, Janina Pospiech, Tobias Reutter, Bettina Altmann, Uwe Truyen, Stephanie Speck
Biosecurity is defined as the implementation of measures that reduce the risk of disease agents being introduced and/or spread. For pig production, several of these measures are routinely implemented (e.g. cleaning, disinfection, segregation). However, air as a potential vector of pathogens has long been disregarded. Filters for incoming and recirculating air were installed into an already existing ventilation plant at a fattening piggery (3,840 pigs at maximum) in Saxony, Germany. Over a period of three consecutive fattening periods, we evaluated various parameters including air quality indices, environmental and operating parameters, and pig performance...
2018: PloS One
Tong-Yun Wang, Yong-Gang Liu, Liang Li, Gang Wang, Hai-Ming Wang, Hong-Liang Zhang, Shi-Fei Zhao, Jia-Cong Gao, Tong-Qing An, Zhi-Jun Tian, Yan-Dong Tang, Xue-Hui Cai
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a problematic virus that is difficult to control. The principal target cells for PRRSV infection are porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). Increasing evidence has demonstrated that CD163 is the determinant receptor for PRRSV infection. However, the relationship between CD163 abundance and PRRSV infection is unclear. In this study, we first generated primary immortalized PAMs (iPAMs) using SV40 large T antigen and demonstrated that CD163 expression is suppressed by the alternative splicing of mRNA in iPAMs...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Lei Zhang, Jie Ren, Peidian Shi, Dong Lu, Chengxue Zhao, Yanxin Su, Lilin Zhang, Jinhai Huang
B4GALT5, also known as β-1, 4 galactosyltransferase V, is one of the members of β-1, 4 galactosyltransferase gene (B4GALT) family, which was concerned with embryonic development, tumor generation, other malignant diseases. In this study, we firstly cloned porcine B4GALT (pB4GALT5) from porcine alveolar macrophages, and predicted the structural domain and function of seven porcine β-1, 4 galactosyltransferase (I-VII) based on transcriptome analysis of PRRSV infected cells. Additionally, the upregulated porcine B4GALT5 expression was detected from PRRSV infected porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jiwoon Jeong, Seeun Kim, Changhoon Park, Ikjae Kang, Kee Hwan Park, Hee Jin Ham, Chanhee Chae
The objective of this field study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of sows after vaccination with a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) subunit vaccine (PRRSFREE PRRS subunit vaccine, Reber Genetics, Taiwan, Republic of China) under field conditions. The study was performed in three farms with endemic infections with both PRRS virus (PRRSV)-1 and PRRSV-2, a situation representative of most Korean farms. Pregnant sows were immunised intramuscularly with 2.0 ml of the PRRS subunit vaccine at 58 and 79 days of gestation (eight and five weeks antepartum) according to the manufacturer's recommendation...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Record
Jie Tong, Ying Yu, Linlin Zheng, Chong Zhang, Yabin Tu, Yonggang Liu, Jianan Wu, Hai Li, Shujie Wang, Chenggang Jiang, En-Min Zhou, Gang Wang, Xuehui Cai
BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) has been responsible for several viral attacks in the Asian porcine industry, since the first outbreak in China in 2006. During the early stages of the HP-PRRSV infection, high levels of proinflammatory cytokines are noted in the host peripheral blood, which are accompanied by severe lesions in the lungs and immune system organs; these are considered as the greatest contributors to the overall disease burden...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Adrienne M Antonson, Bindu Balakrishnan, Emily C Radlowski, Geraldine Petr, Rodney W Johnson
Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk of neurobehavioral problems in offspring. Evidence from rodent models indicates that the maternal immune response to infection can alter fetal brain development, particularly in the hippocampus. However, information on the effects of maternal viral infection on fetal brain development in gyrencephalic species is limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess several effects of maternal viral infection in the last one-third of gestation on hippocampal gene expression and development in fetal piglets...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
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