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Martí Cortey, Gaston Arocena, Tahar Ait-Ali, Anna Vidal, Yanli Li, Gerard Martín-Valls, Alison D Wilson, Allan L Archibald, Enric Mateu, Laila Darwich
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) infection alters the host's cellular and humoral immune response. Immunity against PRRSv is multigenic and vary between individuals. The aim of the present study was to compare several genes that encode for molecules involved in the immune response between two groups of vaccinated pigs that experienced short or long viremic periods after PRRSv challenge. These analyses include the sequencing of four SLA Class I, two Class II allele groups, and CD163, plus the analysis by quantitative realtime qRT-PCR of the constitutive expression of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 mRNA and other molecules in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Research
Junlong Bi, Qian Zhao, Lingyun Zhu, Xidan Li, Guishu Yang, Jianping Liu, Gefen Yin
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is currently insufficiently controlled. RACK1 (receptor of activated protein C kinase 1) was first identified as a receptor for protein kinase C, with increasing evidence showing that the functionally conserved RACK1 plays important roles in cancer development, NF-κB activation and various virus infections. However, the roles of RACK1 during PRRSV infection in Marc-145 cells have not been described yet...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yanxin Su, Peidian Shi, Lilin Zhang, Dong Lu, Chengxue Zhao, Ruiqiao Li, Lei Zhang, Jinhai Huang
Linear ubiquitination plays an important role in the regulation of the immune response by regulating the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). The linear ubiquitin-specific deubiquitinase OTULIN can control immune signaling transduction pathway by restricting Met1-linked ubiquitination process. In our study, the porcine OTLLIN gene was cloned and deubiquitin functions were detected in PRRSV-infected cell model. PRRSV infection promotes the expression of OTULIN gene, in turn, overexpression of OTULIN contributes to PRRSV proliferation...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Liping Yang, Rong Wang, Shixing Yang, Zexu Ma, Shaoli Lin, Yuchen Nan, Qisheng Li, Qiyi Tang, Yan-Jin Zhang
Movement of macromolecules between the cytoplasm and the nucleus occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Karyopherins comprise a family of soluble transport factors facilitating nucleocytoplasmic translocation of proteins through the NPC. In this study, we discovered that karyopherin alpha6 (KPNA6, also known as importin alpha7) was required for the optimal replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), which are positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses replicating in the cytoplasm...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Wei He, Ying Wei, Jing Yao, Xin Xie, Jiabin Huang, Siyuan Lin, Kang Ouyang, Ying Chen, Weijian Huang, Zuzhang Wei
Previously, a spontaneous 88-amino-acid (aa) deletion in nsp2 was associated with cell-adaptation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain JXM100, which arose during passaging of the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain JX143 in MARC-145 cells. Here, to elucidate the biological role of this deletion, we specifically deleted the region of a cDNA clone of HP-PRRSV strain JX143 (pJX143) corresponding to these 88 amino acids. The effect of the deletion on virus replication in cultured cells and transcriptional activation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) was examined...
February 13, 2018: Archives of Virology
Long Zhou, Runmin Kang, Bo Xie, Yiming Tian, Xin Yang, Jifeng Yu, Hongning Wang
The NADC30-like strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are characterized by a 131-amino-acid deletion in nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2). Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a recombinant NADC30-like PRRSV strain, SCnj16, that exhibits the molecular marker of the Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) in NSP2.
February 8, 2018: Genome Announcements
Mathieu Andraud, Christelle Fablet, Patricia Renson, Florent Eono, Sophie Mahé, Olivier Bourry, Nicolas Rose
The outputs of epidemiological models are strongly related to the structure of the model and input parameters. The latter are defined by fitting theoretical concepts to actual data derived from field or experimental studies. However, some parameters may remain difficult to estimate and are subject to uncertainty or sensitivity analyses to determine their variation range and their global impact on model outcomes. As such, the evaluation of immunity duration is often a puzzling issue requiring long-term follow-up data that are, most of time, not available...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Damarius S Fleming, Laura C Miller
It has been established that reduced susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a genetic component. This genetic component may take the form of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA), which are molecules that function as regulators of gene expression. Various sncRNAs have emerged as having an important role in the immune system in humans. The study uses transcriptomic read counts to profile the type and quantity of both well and lesser characterized sncRNAs, such as microRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs to identify and quantify the classes of sncRNA expressed in whole blood between healthy and highly pathogenic PRRSV-infected pigs...
February 8, 2018: Virology
Luping Du, Zhengyu Yu, Fengjiao Pang, Xiangwei Xu, Aihua Mao, Wanzhe Yuan, Kongwang He, Bin Li
Efficient delivery of antigens through oral immunization is a first and critical step for successful induction of mucosal immunity, which can provide protection against pathogens invading the mucosa. Membranous/microfold cells (M cells) within the mucosa can transcytose internalized antigen without degradation and thus play an important role in initiating antigen-specific mucosal immune responses through inducing secretory IgA production. In this research, we modified poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA-1) and successfully prepared an oral vaccine delivery system, UEA-1/PLGA NPs...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Hai-Ming Wang, Tian-Xin Liu, Tong-Yun Wang, Gang Wang, Yong-Gang Liu, Si-Guo Liu, Yan-Dong Tang, Xue-Hui Cai
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a pathogen of great economic significance that impacts the swine industry globally. Since the first report of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) outbreak, tremendous efforts to control this disease, including various national policies and plans incorporating the use of multiple modified live-virus vaccines, have been made. However, PRRSV is still a significant threat to the swine industry, and new variants continually emerge as a result of PRRSV evolution...
February 6, 2018: Archives of Virology
Ting Yang, Fengxia Zhang, Liwei Zhai, Weiyong He, Zhen Tan, Yangyang Sun, Yuan Wang, Lei Liu, Chao Ning, Weiliang Zhou, Hong Ao, Chuduan Wang, Ying Yu
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a virus susceptible to antibody dependent enhancement, causing reproductive failures in sows and preweaning mortality of piglets. Modified-live virus (MLV) vaccines are used to control PRRS in swine herds. However, immunized sows and piglets often generate variable antibody levels. This study aimed to detect significant genes and pathways involved in antibody responsiveness of pregnant sows and their offspring post-PRRSV vaccination. RNA sequencing was conducted on peripheral blood-mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which were isolated from pregnant sows and their piglets with high (HA), median (MA), and low (LA) PRRS antibody levels following vaccination...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sally R Robinson, Michael C Rahe, Diem K Gray, Kyra V Martins, Michael P Murtaugh
Vaccine control and prevention of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), the most important disease of swine, is difficult to achieve. However, the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibody activity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) under typical field conditions opens the door to new immunologic approaches for robust protection. We show here that passive administration of purified immunoglobulins with neutralizing antibodies reduced PRRSV2 infection by up to 96%, and PRRSV1 infection by up to 87%, whereas immune immunoglobulins lacking neutralizing activity had no effect on viral infection...
February 3, 2018: Virus Research
Marisa L Rotolo, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Ju Ji, Ronaldo Magtoto, Yuly A Henao-Díaz, Chong Wang, David H Baum, Karen M Harmon, Rodger G Main, Jeffrey J Zimmerman
The ontogeny of PRRSV antibody in oral fluids has been described using isotype-specific ELISAs. Mirroring the serum response, IgM appears in oral fluid by 7days post inoculation (DPI), IgA after 7 DPI, and IgG by 9 to 10 DPI. Commercial PRRSV ELISAs target the detection of IgG because the higher concentration of IgG relative to other isotypes provides the best diagnostic discrimination. Oral fluids are increasingly used for PRRSV surveillance in commercial herds, but in younger pigs, a positive ELISA result may be due either to maternal antibody or to antibody produced by the pigs in response to infection...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Jiwoon Jeong, Seeun Kim, Kee Hwan Park, Ikjae Kang, Su-Jin Park, Siyeon Yang, Taehwan Oh, Chanhee Chae
A porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified live-virus (MLV) vaccine was evaluated under field conditions for registration as recommended by the Republic of Korea's Animal, Plant & Fisheries Quarantine & Inspection Agency. A single dose of the vaccine was administered to 1-day-old piglets and their growth performance was monitored under field conditions. Three separate farms were selected based on their history of PRRSV-associated respiratory diseases. On each farm, 40 pigs were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups: (i) vaccinated (n = 20) and (ii) unvaccinated (n = 20) pigs at 1 day of age...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Hanzhong Ke, Mingyuan Han, Qingzhan Zhang, Raymond Rowland, Maureen Kerrigan, Dongwan Yoo
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has the ability to suppress the type I interferons (IFNs-α/β) induction to facilitate its survival during infection, and the nsp1 protein of PRRSV has been identified as the potent IFN antagonist. The nsp1β subunit of nsp1 has also been shown to block the host mRNA nuclear export as one of the mechanisms to suppress host antiviral protein production. The SAP motif in nsp1β is the functional motif for both IFN suppression and host mRNA nuclear retention, and using infectious clones, two mutant viruses vL126A and vL135A have been generated...
February 2, 2018: Virology
Lei Xu, Lei Zhou, Weifeng Sun, Pingping Zhang, Xinna Ge, Xin Guo, Jun Han, Hanchun Yang
The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) has caused huge economic losses to the swine industry in China. Understanding the molecular basis in relation to the virulence of HP-PRRSV is essential for effectively controlling clinical infection and disease. In the current study, we constructed and rescued a serial of mutant viruses in nsp9 and nsp10 based on the differential amino acid sites between HP-PRRSV JXwn06 and LP-PRRSV HB-1/3.9. The replication efficiency in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and the pathogenicity of the mutant viruses for piglets were analyzed...
January 31, 2018: Virology
Emily H Waide, Christopher K Tuggle, Nick V L Serão, Martine Schroyen, Andrew Hess, Raymond R R Rowland, Joan K Lunney, Graham Plastow, Jack C M Dekkers
BACKGROUND: Genomic prediction of the pig's response to the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) would be a useful tool in the swine industry. This study investigated the accuracy of genomic prediction based on porcine SNP60 Beadchip data using training and validation datasets from populations with different genetic backgrounds that were challenged with different PRRSV isolates. RESULTS: Genomic prediction accuracy averaged 0.34 for viral load (VL) and 0...
February 1, 2018: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Lilin Wang, Lei Zhou, Dongmei Hu, Xinna Ge, Xin Guo, Hanchun Yang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been recognized to inhibit the response of type I interferon (IFN) both in vivo and in vitro. However, the post-transcriptional mechanism by which PRRSV suppresses type I IFN induction in virus-infected host cells remains unclear. The present study first demonstrated that PRRSV inhibited post-transcriptionally the protein induction of IFN-β in primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) during early infection, and the inhibition effect mediated by the Chinese highly pathogenic (HP)-PRRSV was stronger...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jiwoon Jeong, Ikjae Kang, Seeun Kim, Kee Hwan Park, Changhoon Park, Chanhee Chae
The objective of this study was to compare clinical, microbiologic, immunologic, and pathologic parameters in pigs each concurrently administered porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine from 1 of 2 commercial sources at 21 days of age and challenged with field strains of each of the 3 pathogens. Pigs were challenged with PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae at 42 days of age (-14 days post-challenge, dpc) followed by a challenge with PCV2 at 56 days of age (0 dpc)...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
Jia Guo, Mengjiao Zhou, Xin Liu, Yunzhi Pan, Runjun Yang, Zhihui Zhao, Boxing Sun
Interferon-gamma-inducible protein 30 (IFI30) is an IFN-γ-inducible protein that is involved in MHC class II-restricted antigen processing and MHC class I-restricted cross-presentation pathways of adaptive immunity. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of porcine IFI30 expression on PRRSV proliferation in host cells. MARC-145 cells and pig Sertoli (ST) cells were infected with PRRSV after transfection with porcine IFI30 expression vectors and an empty vector. PRRSV copy numbers were analyzed by absolute real-time quantitative PCR, and the results showed that porcine IFI30 expression could significantly inhibit PRRSV transcription...
January 20, 2018: Gene
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