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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231264/precision-engineering-for-prrsv-resistance-in-pigs-macrophages-from-genome-edited-pigs-lacking-cd163-srcr5-domain-are-fully-resistant-to-both-prrsv-genotypes-while-maintaining-biological-function
#1
Christine Burkard, Simon G Lillico, Elizabeth Reid, Ben Jackson, Alan J Mileham, Tahar Ait-Ali, C Bruce A Whitelaw, Alan L Archibald
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a panzootic infectious disease of pigs, causing major economic losses to the world-wide pig industry. PRRS manifests differently in pigs of all ages but primarily causes late-term abortions and stillbirths in sows and respiratory disease in piglets. The causative agent of the disease is the positive-strand RNA PRRS virus (PRRSV). PRRSV has a narrow host cell tropism, limited to cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. CD163 has been described as a fusion receptor for PRRSV, whereby the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain 5 (SRCR5) region was shown to be an interaction site for the virus in vitro...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228336/evaluation-of-hydrophobic-chitosan-based-particulate-formulations-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-vaccine-candidate-t-cell-antigens
#2
Helen Mokhtar, Lucia Biffar, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, Jean-Pierre Frossard, Sarah McGowan, Miriam Pedrera, Rebecca Strong, Jane C Edwards, Margarita Garcia-Durán, Maria Jose Rodriguez, Graham R Stewart, Falko Steinbach, Simon P Graham
PRRS control is hampered by the inadequacies of existing vaccines to combat the extreme diversity of circulating viruses. Since immune clearance of PRRSV infection may not be dependent on the development of neutralising antibodies and the identification of broadly-neutralising antibody epitopes have proven elusive, we hypothesised that conserved T cell antigens represent potential candidates for development of a novel PRRS vaccine. Previously we had identified the M and NSP5 proteins as well-conserved targets of polyfunctional CD8 and CD4 T cells...
February 3, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222748/identification-of-host-cellular-proteins-that-interact-with-the-m-protein-of-a-highly-pathogenic-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-vaccine-strain
#3
Qian Wang, Yanwei Li, Hong Dong, Li Wang, Jinmei Peng, Tongqing An, Xufu Yang, Zhijun Tian, Xuehui Cai
BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) continues to pose one of the greatest threats to the swine industry. M protein is the most conserved and important structural protein of PRRSV. However, information about the host cellular proteins that interact with M protein remains limited. METHODS: Host cellular proteins that interact with the M protein of HP-PRRSV were immunoprecipitated from MARC-145 cells infected with PRRSV HuN4-F112 using the M monoclonal antibody (mAb)...
February 22, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215617/genetic-engineering-alveolar-macrophages-for-host-resistance-to-prrsv
#4
REVIEW
Randall S Prather, Kristin M Whitworth, Susan K Schommer, Kevin D Wells
Standard strategies for control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have not been effective, as vaccines have not reduced the prevalence of disease and many producers depopulate after an outbreak. Another method of control would be to prevent the virus from infecting the pig. The virus was thought to infect alveolar macrophages by interaction with a variety of cell surface molecules. One popular model had PRRSV first interacting with heparin sulfate followed by binding to sialoadhesin and then being internalized into an endosome...
February 10, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213086/comparison-of-protocols-for-the-analysis-of-type-1-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-by-rt-pcr-using-oral-fluids
#5
Elisa Gibert, Gerard Martín-Valls, Enric Mateu
The detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in oral fluids (OF) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is gaining increasing popularity. However, the different steps leading to a result have not been extensively evaluated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect on the performance of qRT-PCR with different sampling materials, conditions of storage of the OF, the need for centrifuging OF, as well as to compare RNA extraction methods and PCR mixes...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198455/polymerase-cross-linking-spiral-reaction-pclsr-for-detection-of-african-swine-fever-virus-asfv-in-pigs-and-wild-boars
#6
Grzegorz Woźniakowski, Magdalena Frączyk, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Zygmunt Pejsak
The study reports the development of a polymerase cross-linking spiral reaction (PCLSR) for the detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) DNA in blood collected from infected pigs and wild boars. The method uses 3 specifically designed primers. Two outer-spiral primers comprising of 3' sequences complementary to ASFV p72 gene sequence and 5'end sequences complementary to exogenous gene of black widow alpha-latrotoxin as well as additional ASFV specific cross-linking primer. The method is specific exclusively to ASFV DNA without cross-reactions with cDNA of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome (PRRSV) or porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198110/emergence-of-a-novel-highly-pathogenic-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-in-china
#7
J-K Liu, X Zhou, J-Q Zhai, B Li, C-H Wei, A-L Dai, X-Y Yang, M-L Luo
From 2014 to 2015, four novel highly pathogenic PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV) strains named 14LY01-FJ, 14LY02-FJ 15LY01-FJ, and 15LY02-FJ were isolated from high morbidity (100%) and mortality (40%-80%) in piglets and sows in Fujian Province. To further our knowledge about these novel virus strains, we characterized their complete genomes and determined their pathogenicity in piglets. Full-length genome sequencing analysis showed that these four isolates were closely related to type 2 (North American type, NA-type) isolates, with 88...
February 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177360/genomewide-association-of-piglet-responses-to-infection-with-one-of-two-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-isolates
#8
E H Waide, C K Tuggle, N V L Serão, M Schroyen, A Hess, R R R Rowland, J K Lunney, G Plastow, J C M Dekkers
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a devastating disease in the swine industry. Identification of host genetic factors that enable selection for improved performance during PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection would reduce the impact of this disease on animal welfare and production efficiency. We conducted genomewide association study (GWAS) analyses of data from 13 trials of approximately 200 commercial crossbred nursery-age piglets that were experimentally infected with 1 of 2 type 2 isolates of PRRSV (NVSL 97-7985 [NVSL] and KS2006-72109 [KS06])...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161213/new-perspective-of-host-micrornas-in-the-control-of-prrsv-infection
#9
REVIEW
Fang Liu, Yinping Du, Wen-Hai Feng
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most important diseases in pigs, leading to significant economic losses in swine industry worldwide. PRRS virus (PRRSV) is an enveloped positive single-stranded RNA virus, which mainly infects cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs and have emerged as important regulators of virus-host cell interactions. In the past several years, scientists have been trying to understand the interaction between host miRNAs and PRRSV infection...
January 9, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157199/assessment-of-the-efficacy-of-two-novel-dna-vaccine-formulations-against-highly-pathogenic-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#10
Luping Du, Fengjiao Pang, Zhengyu Yu, Xiangwei Xu, Baochao Fan, Kehe Huang, Kongwang He, Bin Li
Since May 2006, a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) has emerged and prevailed in mainland China, affecting over 2 million pigs. Commercial PRRSV killed and modified live vaccines cannot provide complete protection against HP-PRRSV due to genetic variation. Development of more effective vaccines against the emerging HP-PRRSV is urgently required. In our previous studies, two formulations of DNA vaccines (pcDNA3.1-PoIFN-λ1-SynORF5 and BPEI/PLGA-SynORF5) based on the HP-PRRSV were constructed and shown to induce enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses in mice...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154457/evaluation-of-the-new-commercial-recombinant-chimeric-subunit-vaccine-prrsfree-in-challenge-with-heterologous-types-1-and-2-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#11
Jiwoon Jeong, Changhoon Park, Kyuhyung Choi, Chanhee Chae
The objective of this study was to evaluate a new recombinant chimeric vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The subunit vaccine, PRRSFREE, from Reber Genetics, Taiwan, Republic of China, is based on a plasmid containing a detoxified Pseudomonas exotoxin carrying open reading frame (ORF) 7, 1b, and 5 and 6 chimeric subunits of types 1 and 2 PRRSV. Pigs were injected intramuscularly with 2.0 mL of the vaccine at 21 and 42 d of age, according to the manufacturer's recommendation...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125737/interleukin-21-drives-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-porcine-memory-b-cells-into-antibody-secreting-cells
#12
Michael C Rahe, Michael P Murtaugh
Immunological prevention of infectious disease, especially viral, is based on antigen-specific long-lived memory B cells. To test for cellular proliferation and differentiation factors in swine, an outbred model for humans, CD21+ B cells were activated in vitro with CD40L and stimulated with purported stimulatory cytokines to characterize functional responses. IL-21 induced a 3-fold expansion in total cell numbers with roughly 15% of all B cells differentiating to IgM or IgG antibody secreting cells (ASCs.) However, even with robust proliferation, cellular viability rapidly deteriorated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122203/reverse-transcription-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-assay-for-the-rapid-detection-of-type-2-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#13
Jian-Chang Wang, Wan-Zhe Yuan, Qing-An Han, Jin-Feng Wang, Li-Bing Liu
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important pathogens in pigs, and has tremendous negative economic impact on the swine industry worldwide. PRRSV is classified into the two distinct genotypes: type 1 and type 2, and most of the described PRRSV isolates in China are type 2. Rapid and sensitive detection of PRRSV is of great importance for the disease control and regional eradication programs. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) has emerged as a novel isothermal amplification technology for the molecular diagnosis of infectious diseases...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110785/genetic-diversity-of-orf-4-6-of-type-1-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-in-naturally-infected-pigs
#14
Dong-Uk Lee, Sung J Yoo, Taeyong Kwon, Sang H Je, Jeong Y Shin, Jeong J Byun, Myung H Kim, Young S Lyoo
Genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been highly prevalent throughout Korea since the virus was first detected in 2005. However, genetic analyses of genotype 1 PRRSV in Korea have been limited to ORF5 and/or ORF7. In the present study, we determined 10 representative sequence covering ORF4 to ORF6 and each individual ORFs of genotype 1 PRRSV in Korea, and performed molecular analyses. The most variable gene among the individual ORFs of field strains was ORF4, and this gene exhibited only 74...
February 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074712/high-throughput-whole-genome-sequencing-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-from-cell-culture-materials-and-clinical-specimens-using-next-generation-sequencing-technology
#15
Jianqiang Zhang, Ying Zheng, Xiao-Qin Xia, Qi Chen, Sarah A Bade, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Karen M Harmon, Phillip C Gauger, Rodger G Main, Ganwu Li
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have increasingly played crucial roles in biological and medical research, but are not yet in routine use in veterinary diagnostic laboratories. We developed and applied a procedure for high-throughput RNA sequencing of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from cell culture-derived isolates and clinical specimens. Ten PRRSV isolates with known sequence information, 2 mixtures each with 2 different PRRSV isolates, and 51 clinical specimens (19 sera, 16 lungs, and 16 oral fluids) with various PCR threshold cycle (Ct) values were subjected to nucleic acid extraction, cDNA library preparation (24-plexed), and sequencing...
January 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069291/antagonizing-cytokine-mediated-jak-stat-signaling-by-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#16
REVIEW
Liping Yang, Yan-Jin Zhang
Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is activated by myriad cytokines, which are involved in regulation of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, immunity and inflammatory response. Because of its significance in immune response, JAK-STAT pathway is often targeted by pathogens, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). PRRSV causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages...
December 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063479/positive-immunomodulatory-effects-of-heterologous-dna-vaccine-modified-live-vaccine-prime-boost-immunization-against-the-highly-pathogenic-prrsv-infection
#17
Chaitawat Sirisereewan, Teerawut Nedumpun, Sawang Kesdangsakonwut, Yonlayong Woonwong, Roongtham Kedkovid, Jirapat Arunorat, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Sanipa Suradhat
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is one of the most important swine pathogens, and causes a major economic impact worldwide. Recently, a new variant type 2 PRRSV, highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) has emerged and continued to circulate in Southeast Asia region. Currently, commercially available PRRSV vaccines, modified live PRRS vaccines (MLV) are not able to provide complete protection against HP-PRRSV and been reported to induce negative immunomodulatory effects. Interestingly, a novel DNA vaccine was developed and successfully used to improve PRRSV-specific immune responses following MLV vaccination...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063474/porcine-gpx1-enhances-gp5-based-dna-vaccination-against-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#18
Luping Du, Bin Li, Fengjiao Pang, Zhengyu Yu, Xiangwei Xu, Baochao Fan, Yeping Tan, Kongwang He, Kehe Huang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been causing huge economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Commercial PRRSV vaccines including killed and modified live ones are available. However the protective efficacy of these vaccines is incomplete. Thus, it is in urgent need to develop safer and more effective PRRSV vaccines. In this study, we constructed a recombinant plasmid co-expressing porcine glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) and the envelope glycoprotein (GP5) encoding-gene of PRRSV (pcDNA3...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062126/cross-reactivity-of-immune-responses-to-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection
#19
Ignacio Correas, Fernando A Osorio, David Steffen, Asit K Pattnaik, Hiep L X Vu
Because porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) exhibits extensive genetic variation among field isolates, characterizing the extent of cross reactivity of immune responses, and most importantly cell-mediated immunity (CMI), could help in the development of broadly cross-protective vaccines. We infected 12 PRRSV-naïve pigs with PRRSV strain FL12 and determined the number of interferon (IFN)-γ secreting cells (SC) by ELISpot assay using ten type 2 and one type 1 PRRSV isolates as recall antigens...
February 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057905/development-of-an-immunochromatographic-strip-for-the-detection-of-antibodies-against-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#20
Huawei Li, Jifei Yang, Dengke Bao, Jie Hou, Yubao Zhi, Yanyan Yang, Pengchao Ji, Enmin Zhou, Songlin Qiao, Gaiping Zhang
A simple and rapid immunochromatographic test strip using a colloidal gold-labeled recombinant Nsp7 antigen probe was successfully developed for the detection of anti-PRRSV antibodies in swine. Recombinant Nsp7 protein of PRRSV labeled with colloidal gold was dispensed on a conjugate pad as the detector. Staphylococcal protein A (SPA) and purified porcine anti-Nsp7 antibodies were blotted on a nitrocellulose membrane for the test and control lines, respectively. A comparison between the new assay and standard diagnostic tests enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) was also performed...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
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