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Teerawut Nedumpun, Piya Wongyanin, Chaitawat Sirisereewan, Patcharee Ritprajuk, Tanapat Palaga, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Sanipa Suradhat
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection poorly induces pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α) and type I IFN production during the early phase of infection. Our microarray analysis indicated strong upregulation of the IL1RA gene in type 2 PRRSV infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC). Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is an early inhibitory cytokine, which suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines and T lymphocyte responses. To investigate the induction of IL-1Ra by PRRSV, MoDC were cultured with type 2 PRRSV or other swine viruses...
November 23, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Christopher C Overend, Junru Cui, Marvin J Grubman, Antonio E Garmendia
BACKGROUND: It has been recognized that the expression of type I interferon (IFNα/β) may be suppressed during infection with porcine reproductive, respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). This causes profound negative effects on both the innate and adaptive immunity of the host resulting in persistence of infection. OBJECTIVE: Test the effects of PRRSV infection of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), the main target cell, on the expression of interferon beta (IFNβ) and downstream signaling events...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Research Communications
Carlos Alberto Manuel-Cabrera, Alba Adriana Vallejo-Cardona, Eduardo Padilla-Camberos, Rodolfo Hernández-Gutiérrez, Sara Elisa Herrera-Rodríguez, Abel Gutiérrez-Ortega
BACKGROUND: Assembly of recombinant capsid proteins into virus-like particles (VLPs) still represents an interesting challenge in virus-based nanotechnologies. The structure of VLPs has gained importance for the development and design of new adjuvants and antigen carriers. The potential of Tobacco etch virus capsid protein (TEV CP) as adjuvant has not been evaluated to date. FINDINGS: Two constructs for TEV CP expression in Escherichia coli were generated: a wild-type version (TEV-CP) and a C-terminal hexahistidine (His)-tagged version (His-TEV-CP)...
November 29, 2016: Virology Journal
Kinga Biernacka, Paweł Karbowiak, Paweł Wróbel, Tomasz Charęza, Michał Czopowicz, Gyula Balka, Christa Goodell, Rolf Rauh, Tomasz Stadejek
Recently oral fluid has become a novel sample type for pathogen nucleic acid and antibody detection, as it is easy to obtain with non-invasive procedures. The objective of the study was to analyze porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and influenza A virus (IAV) circulation in growing pigs from three Polish production farms, using Real Time PCR and ELISA testing of oral fluid and serum. Oral fluids were collected every 2weeks, in the same 3-4 pens of pigs aged between 5 and 17weeks. Additionally, blood samples were collected every 4weeks from 4 pigs corresponding to the same pens as oral fluid and tested for the presence of PRRSV nucleic acid (pooled by 4) and antibodies...
September 21, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
P P Wang, J G Dong, L Y Zhang, P S Liang, Y L Liu, L Wang, F H Fan, C X Song
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is highly genetically diverse; however, little is known about the molecular epidemiology of PRRSV in the boar farms of South China. In this study, 367 samples were collected from boar farms in South China in 2015. The Nsp2 hypervariable region and ORF5 gene were PCR amplified from 66 PRRSV-positive samples, followed by sequencing and analysis. The percentage of PRRSV antigen-positive samples was 17.98%; 8.72% were positive for highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV), and 9...
November 25, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Jasmin Fertey, Lea Bayer, Thomas Grunwald, Alexandra Pohl, Jana Beckmann, Gaby Gotzmann, Javier Portillo Casado, Jessy Schönfelder, Frank-Holm Rögner, Christiane Wetzel, Martin Thoma, Susanne M Bailer, Ekkehard Hiller, Steffen Rupp, Sebastian Ulbert
Inactivated vaccines are commonly produced by incubating pathogens with chemicals such as formaldehyde or β-propiolactone. This is a time-consuming process, the inactivation efficiency displays high variability and extensive downstream procedures are often required. Moreover, application of chemicals alters the antigenic components of the viruses or bacteria, resulting in reduced antibody specificity and therefore stimulation of a less effective immune response. An alternative method for inactivation of pathogens is ionizing radiation...
November 23, 2016: Viruses
J W Sparks, L A Karriker, D N Day, L W Wulf, J Zhang, M L Stock, J L Bates, R Gehring, J F Coetzee
The pharmacokinetics of intramuscularly administered ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) were determined in pigs that were clinically healthy (n = 8), vaccinated with a Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome modified live virus (PRRS MLV) (n = 10), challenged with wild-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) VR-2385 (n = 10), or vaccinated with PRRS MLV and later challenged with wild-type PRRSv VR-2385 (n = 10). Animals were given a single dose of CCFA intramuscularly at 5 mg/kg body weight...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Liping Yang, Rong Wang, Zexu Ma, Yueqiang Xiao, Yuchen Nan, Yu Wang, Shaoli Lin, Yan-Jin Zhang
: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a pleiotropic signaling mediator of many cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10. STAT3 is known to play critical roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, immunity and inflammatory responses. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection on the STAT3 signaling since PRRSV induces a weak protective immune response in host animals...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
Hongfang Ma, Longguang Jiang, Songlin Qiao, Yubao Zhi, Xin-Xin Chen, Yanyan Yang, Xiaojing Huang, Mingdong Huang, Rui Li, Gai-Ping Zhang
: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has become an economically critical factor in swine industry since its world-wide spread in the 1990s. The infection of its causative agent, PRRS virus (PRRSV), is proven to be mediated by an indispensable receptor, porcine CD163 (pCD163) and the fifth scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain (SRCR5) is essential for the virus infection. However, the structural details and specific residues of pCD163 SRCR5 involved in infection have not been defined yet...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
Huiyuan Jing, Liurong Fang, Zhen Ding, Dang Wang, Wenqi Hao, Li Gao, Wenting Ke, Huanchun Chen, Shaobo Xiao
: Linear ubiquitination, a newly discovered posttranslational modification, is catalyzed by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), which is composed of three subunits: one catalytic subunit HOIP and two accessory molecules, HOIL-1L and SHARPIN. Accumulating evidence suggests that linear ubiquitination plays a crucial role in innate immune signaling and especially in the activation of the NF-κB pathway by conjugating linear polyubiquitin chains to NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO, also called IKKγ), the regulatory subunit of the IKK complex...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
Jing Chen, Xibao Shi, Xiaozhuan Zhang, Aiping Wang, Li Wang, Yanyan Yang, Ruiguang Deng, Gai-Ping Zhang
: microRNAs (miRNAs) played an important role in the regulation of immune response. Previous studies have indicated that dysregulating the miRNAs may lead to the immunosuppression of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). However, it's not clear about how PRRSV regulated the expression of host miRNA which may make the immune escape or promote the replication of the virus. The present work suggested that PRRSV up-regulated the expression of miR-373 through elevating the expression of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) in MARC-145 cells...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
Eve Fontanella, Zexu Ma, Yanjin Zhang, Alessandra M M G de Castro, Huigang Shen, Patrick G Halbur, Tanja Opriessnig
Achieving consistent protection by vaccinating pigs against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remains difficult. Recently, an interferon-inducing PRRSV vaccine candidate strain A2MC2 was demonstrated to be attenuated and induced neutralizing antibodies. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of passage 90 of A2MC2 (A2P90) to protect pigs against challenge with moderately virulent PRRSV strain VR-2385 (92.3% nucleic acid identity with A2MC2) and highly virulent atypical PRRSV MN184 (84...
November 18, 2016: Vaccine
Julie C F Rappe, Obdulio García-Nicolás, Franziska Flückiger, Barbara Thür, Martin A Hofmann, Artur Summerfield, Nicolas Ruggli
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus responsible for a widespread contagious disease of domestic pigs with high economic impact. Switzerland is one of the rare PRRSV-free countries in Europe, although sporadic outbreaks have occurred in the past. The PRRSV isolate IVI-1173 from the short outbreak in Switzerland in 2012 was entirely sequenced, and a functional full-length cDNA clone was constructed. Genetic and antigenic characterization of IVI-1173 revealed the importance of amino acid 90 of the nucleocapsid protein N as part of a conformational epitope...
November 21, 2016: Veterinary Research
Tatjana Sattler, Jutta Pikalo, Eveline Wodak, Friedrich Schmoll
BACKGROUND: In this study, six enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), intended for routine porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) herd monitoring, are tested for their ability to detect PRRSV specific antibodies in the serum of pigs after vaccination with an inactivated PRRSV type 1 vaccine and subsequent infection with a highly pathogenic (HP) PRRSV field strain. For this reason, ten piglets (group V) from a PRRSV negative herd were vaccinated twice at the age of 2 and 4 weeks with an inactivated PRRSV vaccine...
November 21, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Lawrence S Gazda, James Collins, Archie Lovatt, Robert W Holdcraft, Merribeth J Morin, Daniel Galbraith, Melanie Graham, Melissa A Laramore, Christine Maclean, John Black, Euan W Milne, Douglas G Marthaler, Horatiu V Vinerean, Michelle M Michalak, Deborah Hoffer, Steven Richter, Richard D Hall, Barry H Smith
BACKGROUND: The use of porcine islets to replace insulin-producing islet β-cells, destroyed during the diabetogenic disease process, presents distinct challenges if this option is to become a therapeutic reality for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. These challenges include a thorough evaluation of the microbiological safety of the islets. In this study, we describe a robust porcine islet-screening program that provides a high level of confidence in the microbiological safety of porcine islets suitable for clinical trials...
November 11, 2016: Xenotransplantation
Jian-Kui Liu, Chun-Hua Wei, Ai-Ling Dai, Ke-Wei Fan, Bing-Hui Yang, Chun-Fang Huang, Xiao-Hua Li, Xiao-Yan Yang, Man-Lin Luo
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is considered one of the most devastating swine diseases worldwide, resulting in immense economic losses. PRRS virus (PRRSV) is divided into two major genotypes, European (type 1) and the North American (type 2). Type 1 PRRSV have recently emerged in Fujian province (South China), and this might have a significant impact on the Chinese pig industry. From 2013 to 2014, two type 1 PRRSV strains, named FJEU13 and FJQEU14, were isolated from piglets and sows with respiratory problems and reproductive disorders in Fujian province...
November 17, 2016: Archives of Virology
Hai Quynh Do, Dinh Thau Trinh, Thi Lan Nguyen, Thi Thu Hang Vu, Duc Duong Than, Thi Van Lo, Minjoo Yeom, Daesub Song, SeEun Choe, Dong-Jun An, Van Phan Le
BACKGROUND: Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS) virus is one of the most economically significant pathogens in the Vietnamese swine industry. ORF5, which participates in many functional processes, including virion assembly, entry of the virus into the host cell, and viral adaptation to the host immune response, has been widely used in molecular evolution and phylogeny studies. Knowing of molecular evolution of PRRSV fields strains might contribute to PRRS control in Vietnam...
November 17, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Kevin D Wells, Rachel Bardot, Kristin M Whitworth, Benjamin R Trible, Ying Fang, Alan Mileham, Maureen A Kerrigan, Melissa S Samuel, Randall S Prather, Raymond R R Rowland
: CD163 knockout (KO) pigs are resistant to infection with genotype 2 (Type 2) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Furthermore, the substitution of CD163 scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain 5 with a homolog of human CD163-like (hCD163L1) SRCR 8 domain confers resistance of transfected HEK cells to Type 1 PRRSV. As a means to understand the role of domain 5 in PRRSV infection with both Type 1 and Type 2 viruses, pigs were genetically modified (GM) to possess one of the following genotypes: complete knock out (KO) of CD163, deletions within SRCR domain 5, or replacement (domain swap) of SRCR domain 5 with a synthesized exon encoding a homolog of hCD163L1 SRCR domain 8...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Virology
Nick De Regge, Brigitte Cay
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of an economically important disease in swine. Since it has been shown that PRRSV and PRRSV specific antibodies can be detected in oral fluid, many different aspects have been studied to show that oral fluid could be a worthy alternative diagnostic sample to serum for monitoring and surveillance of this disease. Thorough field evaluations are however missing to convincingly show its usefulness under representative field conditions...
2016: PloS One
Zexu Ma, Ying Yu, Yueqiang Xiao, Tanja Opriessnig, Rong Wang, Liping Yang, Yuchen Nan, Siba K Samal, Patrick G Halbur, Yan-Jin Zhang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain A2MC2 induces type I interferons in cultured cells. The objective of this study was to attenuate this strain by serial passaging in MARC-145 cells and assess its virulence and immunogenicity in pigs. The A2MC2 serially passaged 90 times (A2MC2-P90) retains the feature of interferon induction. The A2MC2-P90 replicates faster with a higher virus yield than wild type A2MC2 virus. Infection of primary pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) also induces interferons...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
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