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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546868/evaluation-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-stabilization-protocols-in-23-french-farrow-to-finish-farms-located-in-a-high-density-swine-area
#1
Pauline Berton, Valérie Normand, Guy-Pierre Martineau, Franck Bouchet, Arnaud Lebret, Agnès Waret-Szkuta
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is responsible for reproductive disorders in sows and respiratory problems in pigs, and has a major economic impact. Controlling PRRSV is therefore a priority for the swine industry. Stabilization of a herd, defined as the production of PRRSV-negative pigs at weaning from seropositive sows, is a common method of control, and different protocols have been described in the literature to achieve this stabilization. CONTEXT AND PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate wether the combination of mass vaccination of sows and their piglets with a Genotype I modified live virus (MLV) vaccine, with temporal closure to the introduction of replacement animals and unidirectional pig and human flow can result in the production of PRRSV-negative pigs at weaning...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538705/uk-pigs-at-the-time-of-slaughter-investigation-into-the-correlation-of-infection-with-prrsv-and-hev
#2
Jean-Pierre Frossard, Sylvia Grierson, Tanya Cheney, Falko Steinbach, Bhudipa Choudhury, Susanna Williamson
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and are both globally prevalent in the pig population. While HEV does not cause clinical disease in pigs, its zoonotic potential has raised concerns in the food safety sector. PRRS has become endemic in the United Kingdom (UK) since its introduction in 1991, and continues to cause considerable economic losses to the swine industry. A better understanding of the current prevalence and diversity of PRRSV and HEV in the UK, and their potential association, is needed to assess risks and target control measures appropriately...
May 24, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532803/secondary-haemophilus-parasuis-infection-enhances-highly-pathogenic-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-hp-prrsv-infection-mediated-inflammatory-responses
#3
Jiangnan Li, Shengnan Wang, Changyao Li, Chunlai Wang, Yonggang Liu, Gang Wang, Xijun He, Liang Hu, Yuanyuan Liu, Mengmeng Cui, Caihong Bi, Zengyu Shao, Xiaojie Wang, Tao Xiong, Xuehui Cai, Li Huang, Changjiang Weng
Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) infection often predisposes pigs to secondary bacterial infection, which induces robust inflammatory responses. However, whether the secondary bacterial infection synergizes HP-PRRSV infection and enhances inflammatory responses is not fully understood. Here, we characterized HP-PRRSV infection-mediated secondary bacterial infection and robust inflammatory responses. HP-PRRSV infection induced higher levels of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6 and TNF-α) in the sera in piglets and bacterial loads of 11 bacterial species in the lung were increased after HP-PRRSV infection, including Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Haemophilus parasuis and Escherichia coli...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532802/oral-fluid-versus-blood-sampling-in-group-housed-sows-and-finishing-pigs-feasibility-and-performance-of-antibody-detection-for-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv
#4
C Fablet, P Renson, F Pol, V Dorenlor, S Mahé, F Eono, E Eveno, M Le Dimna, D Liegard-Vanhecke, S Eudier, N Rose, O Bourry
The feasibility of using individual and pen-based oral fluid samples to detect PRRSV antibodies in growing-finishing pigs and group-housed sows was investigated. The diagnostic performances of a commercial oral fluid ELISA (OF-ELISA) and a serum ELISA (SER-ELISA) performed on individual or pooled samples from 5 or 10 pigs and sows was evaluated. The performance of the OF-ELISA was also assessed for pen-based oral fluids. Eight hundred and thirty-four pigs and 1598 sows from 42 PRRSV-infected and 3 PRRSV-negative herds were oral fluid sampled and bled...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532792/preparation-for-emergence-of-an-eastern-european-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-strain-in-western-europe-immunization-with-modified-live-virus-vaccines-or-a-field-strain-confers-partial-protection
#5
P Renson, C Fablet, M Le Dimna, S Mahé, F Touzain, Y Blanchard, F Paboeuf, N Rose, O Bourry
The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes huge economic losses for the swine industry worldwide. In the past several years, highly pathogenic strains that lead to even greater losses have emerged. For the Western European swine industry, one threat is the possible introduction of Eastern European PRRSV strains (example Lena genotype 1.3) which were shown to be more virulent than common Western resident strains under experimental conditions. To prepare for the possible emergence of this strain in Western Europe, we immunized piglets with a Western European PRRSV field strain (Finistere: Fini, genotype 1...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532789/recombination-in-jxa1-r-vaccine-and-nadc30-like-strain-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-viruses
#6
Jiankui Liu, Xia Zhou, Junqiong Zhai, Chunhua Wei, Ailing Dai, Xiaoyan Yang, Manlin Luo
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is considered one of the most devastating swine diseases worldwide, resulting in immense economic losses. PRRS virus (PRRSV) has undergone rapid evolution since its first recognition in 1990s. In the present study, a PRRSV strain named FJXS15 causing high morbidity and mortality was isolated from piglets and sows from a farm participating in vaccination in China. Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses revealed that FJXS15 was highly similar to the JXA1-R vaccine strain (a live attenuated virus vaccine strain derived from the highly pathogenic PRRSV JXA1) in the ORF1a (nt 901-)-ORF4 (-nt 419) coding regions, as well as to FJZ03 (lineage 1, NADC30-like) in the 5'-UTR, ORF5a-ORF7 coding regions, and 3'-UTR, suggestive of a natural recombination event...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528961/gp5-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-as-a-target-for-homologous-and-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#7
REVIEW
Luca N Popescu, Benjamin R Trible, Nanhua Chen, Raymond R R Rowland
Virus neutralization (VN) responses range from narrowly focused antibodies with only homologous neutralizing activity against the virus used for infection, to antibodies that can neutralize both Type 1 and Type 2 viruses, referred to as broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb). Even though neutralizing epitopes are likely distributed among several structural glycoproteins, this paper focuses on the ectodomain region of GP5 as a model system for investigating the role for neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies in protection and disease...
April 29, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523387/seroprevalence-of-economically-important-viral-pathogens-in-swine-populations-of-trinidad-and-tobago-west-indies
#8
Jamie R V Sookhoo, Arianne Brown-Jordan, Lemar Blake, Ridley B Holder, Sharon M Brookes, Stephen Essen, Christine V F Carrington, Ian H Brown, Christopher A L Oura
The objective of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and identify the strains of swine influenza virus (SwIV), as well as the seroprevalence of porcine parvovirus (PPV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in pigs in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). Blood samples (309) were randomly collected from pigs at farms throughout T&T...
May 18, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512020/molecular-epidemiology-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-in-central-china-since-2014-the-prevalence-of-nadc30-like-prrsvs
#9
Lin-Jian Wang, Weitao Xie, Xin-Xin Chen, Songlin Qiao, Mengmeng Zhao, Yu Gu, Bao-Lei Zhao, Gaiping Zhang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), characterized by respiratory disorders in piglets and reproductive failure in sows, is still the great threat of swine industry. Recently, Emergence of the novel NADC30-like PRRS viruses (PRRSVs) has caused widespread outbreaks of PRRS. To investigate the epidemic characteristics of PRRSVs in Central China since 2014, 6372 clinical serum samples were tested by ELISA, 250 tissue samples were tested by RT-PCR, and among these, 30 ORF5 and 17 Nsp2 genes sequences were analyzed...
May 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511131/genetic-diversity-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-orf5-gene-of-prrsv-from-central-china
#10
Liujun Zhang, Yan Feng, Darren P Martin, Jing Chen, Sixu Ma, Pingan Xia, Gaiping Zhang
To more fully understand the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of prevailing porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in Henan province of China, 112 full-length ORF5 gene sequences, originating from Henan province between 2006 and 2015, were subjected to sequence variation and phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Henan isolates belonged to the Type 2 genotype and could be further divided into three subgroups. Subgroup 1 and 2 viruses predominated in Henan and subgroup 2 overtook subgroup 1 as the most prevalent PRRSV between 2006 and 2015...
May 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509878/antigenic-and-biological-characterization-of-orf2-6-variants-at-early-times-following-prrsv-infection
#11
Alyssa B Evans, Hyelee Loyd, Jenelle R Dunkelberger, Sarah van Tol, Marcus J Bolton, Karin S Dorman, Jack C M Dekkers, Susan Carpenter
Genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) challenges efforts to develop effective and broadly acting vaccines. Although genetic variation in PRRSV has been extensively documented, the effects of this variation on virus phenotype are less well understood. In the present study, PRRSV open reading frame (ORF)2-6 variants predominant during the first six weeks following experimental infection were characterized for antigenic and replication phenotype. There was limited genetic variation during these early times after infection; however, distinct ORF2-6 haplotypes that differed from the NVSL97-7895 inoculum were identified in each of the five pigs examined...
May 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508212/reverse-genetics-for-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#12
Mingyuan Han, Hanzhong Ke, Yijun Du, Qingzhan Zhang, Dongwan Yoo
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a reemerging swine disease, and has become economically the most significant disease in pork production worldwide. The causative agent is PRRS virus (PRRSV), which is a member virus of the family Arteriviridae. The PRRSV genome is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA and is infectious. Two strategies in the PRRSV reverse genetics system have been employed for reconstitution of progeny virus: RNA transfection and DNA transfection. The PRRSV reverse genetics has broadly been used for studies including protein structure-function relationship, foreign gene expression, vaccine development, virulence determinants, and viral pathogenesis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493081/regulation-of-inos-derived-ros-generation-by-hsp90-and-cav-1-in-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infected-swine-lung-injury
#13
Meiping Yan, Make Hou, Jie Liu, Songlin Zhang, Bang Liu, Xiaoxiong Wu, Guoquan Liu
In the lungs, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is usually expressed in endothelial cells and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is mainly expressed in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. Both eNOS and iNOS are involved in lung inflammation. While they play several roles in lung inflammation formation and resolution, their expression and activity are also regulated by inflammatory factors. Their expression relationship in virus infection-induced lung injury is not well addressed. In this report, we analyzed expression of both eNOS and iNOS, the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression of their associated regulatory proteins, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1), in a swine lung injury model induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection...
May 10, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490587/heparanase-upregulation-contributes-to-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-release
#14
Chunhe Guo, Zhenbang Zhu, Yang Guo, Xiaoying Wang, Piao Yu, Shuqi Xiao, Yaosheng Chen, Yongchang Cao, Xiaohong Liu
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to cause substantial economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Heparan sulfate (HS) is used by PRRSV for initial attachment to target cells. However, the role of HS in the late phase of PRRSV infection and the mechanism of virus release from host cells remain largely unknown. In this study, we showed that PRRSV infection caused a decrease of HS expression and upregulated heparanase, the only known enzyme capable to degrade HS. We subsequently demonstrated that the NF-κB signaling pathway and cathepsin L protease were involved in regulation of PRRSV infection-induced heparanase...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474223/the-role-of-orf3-accessory-protein-in-replication-of-cell-adapted-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-pedv
#15
Phonphimon Wongthida, Benjamas Liwnaree, Nanchaya Wanasen, Jaraspim Narkpuk, Anan Jongkaewwattana
The ORF3 accessory protein has been shown to impede reverse genetics of cell-culture-adapted porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Its absence or truncated variants are also associated with viral attenuation in vivo. Here, three ORF3 variants (ORF3NP12, ORF3NP14 and ORF3RB14) and their truncated counterparts were investigated for their regulatory role in recovery of cell-adapted PEDV in vitro. We demonstrate that ORF3NP12, but not the truncated form, can inhibit recovery of reverse-genetics-derived PEDV when expressed in trans...
May 4, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472979/concurrent-infection-with-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-and-haemophilus-parasuis-in-two-types-of-porcine-macrophages-apoptosis-production-of-ros-and-formation-of-multinucleated-giant-cells
#16
Lenka Kavanová, Katarína Matiašková, Lenka Levá, Hana Štěpánová, Kateřina Nedbalcová, Ján Matiašovic, Martin Faldyna, Jiří Salát
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most significant and economically important infectious diseases affecting swine worldwide and can predispose pigs to secondary bacterial infections caused by, e.g. Haemophilus parasuis. The aim of the presented study was to compare susceptibility of two different types of macrophages which could be in contact with both pathogens during infection with PRRS virus (PRRSV) and in co-infection with H. parasuis. Alveolar macrophages (PAMs) as resident cells provide one of the first lines of defence against microbes invading lung tissue...
May 4, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466041/indian-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-bears-discontinuous-deletion-of-30-amino-acids-in-nonstructural-protein-2
#17
T K Rajkhowa, G Jagan Mohanarao, A Gogoi, L Hauhnar
Since its first outbreak in 2013, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has established as an enzootic disease in pig population of Mizoram state, India. Our previous studies based on phylogenetic analysis of ORF5 and ORF7 gene sequences revealed close relationship of Indian PRRSV with the highly pathogenic variant of PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) of Chinese origin. Despite the control measures, second major outbreak of the disease was recorded in Aizawl district of Mizoram in 2015. The objective of the present study was to examine the origin of PRRSV isolates of 2015 outbreak, identification of deleted region in Nsp2 gene and determination of any genetic variation between 2013 and 2015 isolates of PRRSV...
September 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457899/the-integrity-of-prrsv-nucleocapsid-protein-is-necessary-for-up-regulation-of-optimal-interleukin-10-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-p38-mapk-pathways-in-porcine-alveolar-macrophages
#18
Jiang Yu, Yanyan Liu, Yuyu Zhang, Xiwang Zhu, Sufang Ren, Lihui Guo, Xing Liu, Wenbo Sun, Zhi Chen, Xiaoyan Cong, Lei Chen, Jianli Shi, Yijun Du, Jun Li, Jiaqiang Wu, Jinbao Wang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), a highly contagious disease, has been constantly causing huge economic losses all over the world. PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection results in immunosuppression and IL-10 up-regulation. The relationship between them is still in dispute. Previous studies demonstrated the protein of PRRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein is able to up-regulate IL-10, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the expression kinetics of IL-10 up-regulation induced by PRRSV N protein were analyzed in immortalized porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs)...
April 27, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424778/estimation-of-time-dependent-reproduction-numbers-for-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-across-different-regions-and-production-systems-of-the-us
#19
Andréia G Arruda, Moh A Alkhamis, Kimberly VanderWaal, Robert B Morrison, Andres M Perez
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is, arguably, the most impactful disease for the North American swine industry, due to its known considerable economic losses. The Swine Health Monitoring Project (SHMP) monitors and reports weekly new PRRS cases in 766 sow herds across the US. The time-dependent reproduction number (TD-R) is a measure of a pathogen's transmissibility. It may serve to capture and report PRRS virus (PRRSV) spread at the regional and system levels. The primary objective of the study here was to estimate the TD-R values for PRRSV using regional and system-level PRRS data, and to contrast it with commonly used metrics of disease, such as incidence estimates and space-time clusters...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421170/porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection-induces-stress-granule-formation-depending-on-protein-kinase-r-like-endoplasmic-reticulum-kinase-perk-in-marc-145-cells
#20
Yanrong Zhou, Liurong Fang, Dang Wang, Kaimei Cai, Huanchun Chen, Shaobo Xiao
Stress granules (SGs) are sites of mRNA storage that are formed in response to various conditions of stress, including viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an Arterivirus that has been devastating the swine industry worldwide since the late 1980s. In this study, we found that infection of PRRSV strain WUH3 (genotype 2 PRRSV) induced stable formation of robust SGs in MARC-145 cells, as demonstrated by the recruitment of marker proteins of SGs, including TIA1, G3BP1, and eIF3η...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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