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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292547/pathogenesis-and-control-of-the-chinese-highly-pathogenic-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#1
REVIEW
Jun Han, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Xin Guo, Hanchun Yang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has remained a major threat to the worldwide swine industry ever since its first discovery in the early 1990s. Under the selective pressures in the field, this positive-stranded RNA virus undergoes rapid genetic evolution that eventually leads to emergence in 2006 of the devastating Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV). The atypical nature of HP-PRRSV has caused colossal economic losses to the swine producers in China and the surrounding countries...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292546/novel-insights-into-host-responses-and-reproductive-pathophysiology-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-caused-by-prrsv-2
#2
REVIEW
John C S Harding, Andrea Ladinig, Predrag Novakovic, Susan E Detmer, Jamie M Wilkinson, Tianfu Yang, Joan K Lunney, Graham S Plastow
A large challenge experiment using North American porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV-2) provided new insights into the pathophysiology of reproductive PRRS. Deep phenotyping of dams and fetuses identified maternal and fetal predictors of PRRS severity and resilience. PRRSV infection resulted in dramatic decreases in all leukocyte subsets by 2days post inoculation. Apoptosis in the interface region was positively related to endometrial vasculitis, viral load in endometrium and fetal thymus, and odds of meconium staining...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284615/pyrithione-inhibits-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-replication-through-interfering-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-heparanase
#3
Chunhe Guo, Zhenbang Zhu, Xiaoying Wang, Yaosheng Chen, Xiaohong Liu
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a continuous threat to the pig industry, causing high economic losses worldwide. Current vaccination strategies provide only limited protection against PRRSV infection. Consequently, there is a need to develop new antiviral strategies. Pyrithione (PT), a zinc ionophore, is used as an antibacterial and antifungal agent, and evidence has shown that PT inhibits the replication of various RNA viruses. However, there is no data regarding its effects against PRRSV infection until now...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284607/transmission-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-1-to-and-from-vaccinated-pigs-in-a-one-to-one-model
#4
E Pileri, E Gibert, G E Martín-Valls, M Nofrarias, S López-Soria, M Martín, I Díaz, L Darwich, E Mateu
The present study examined transmission by contact of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) 1 in a one-to-one model to vaccinated and unvaccinated pigs and from vaccinated infected pigs to other vaccinated pigs. The experiment started by randomly assigning weaned pigs to groups V (n=24) and U (n=26). V pigs were vaccinated with a commercial live attenuated PRRSV vaccine and the U animals were kept as unvaccinated controls. Twenty-eight days later, 6U pigs were separated and allocated in individual boxes...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284598/porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-type-1-viruses-induce-hypoplasia-of-erythroid-cells-and-myeloid-cell-hyperplasia-in-the-bone-marrow-of-experimentally-infected-piglets-independently-of-the-viral-load-and-virulence
#5
Shyrley Paola Amarilla, Jaime Gómez-Laguna, Librado Carrasco, Irene M Rodríguez-Gómez, José M Caridad Y Ocerín, Simon P Graham, Jean-Pierre Frossard, Falko Steinbach, Francisco J Salguero
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSV) present a wide phenotypic and genetic diversity. Experimental infections have demonstrated viral replication, including highly pathogenic strains (HP-PRRSV), in primary lymphoid organs such as the thymus. However, studies of the bone marrow are scarce but necessary to help elucidate the immunobiology of PRRSV strains of differing virulence. In this study, whereas viral RNA was detected within the bone marrow of animals experimentally infected with both low virulent Lelystad (LV) and 215-06 PRRSV-1 strains and with the highly virulent SU1-bel strain, PRRSV positive cells were only occasionally detected in one SU1-bel infected animal...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284415/sampling-guidelines-for-oral-fluid-based-surveys-of-group-housed-animals
#6
Marisa L Rotolo, Yaxuan Sun, Chong Wang, Luis Giménez-Lirola, David H Baum, Phillip C Gauger, Karen M Harmon, Marlin Hoogland, Rodger Main, Jeffrey J Zimmerman
Formulas and software for calculating sample size for surveys based on individual animal samples are readily available. However, sample size formulas are not available for oral fluids and other aggregate samples that are increasingly used in production settings. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop sampling guidelines for oral fluid-based porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) surveys in commercial swine farms. Oral fluid samples were collected in 9 weekly samplings from all pens in 3 barns on one production site beginning shortly after placement of weaned pigs...
February 17, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278192/pbmc-transcriptome-profiles-identifies-potential-candidate-genes-and-functional-networks-controlling-the-innate-and-the-adaptive-immune-response-to-prrsv-vaccine-in-pietrain-pig
#7
Md Aminul Islam, Christine Große-Brinkhaus, Maren Julia Pröll, Muhammad Jasim Uddin, Sharmin Aqter Rony, Dawit Tesfaye, Ernst Tholen, Michael Hoelker, Karl Schellander, Christiane Neuhoff
The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a devastating viral disease affecting swine production, health and welfare throughout the world. A synergistic action of the innate and the adaptive immune system of the host is essential for mounting a durable protective immunity through vaccination. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the transcriptome profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to characterize the innate and the adaptive immune response to PRRS Virus (PRRSV) vaccination in Pietrain pigs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274496/next-generation-sequencing-as-a-tool-for-the-study-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-macro-and-micro-molecular-epidemiology
#8
REVIEW
M Cortey, I Díaz, G E Martín-Valls, E Mateu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272485/construction-and-immunogenicity-of-a-recombinant-swinepox-virus-expressing-a-multi-epitope-peptide-for-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#9
Huixing Lin, Zhe Ma, Xin Hou, Lei Chen, Hongjie Fan
To characterize neutralizing mimotopes, phages were selected from a 12-mer phage display library using three anti-porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) neutralizing monoclonal antibodies: (1) A1; (2) A2; and (3) A7. Of these, A2 and A7 recognize the mimotope, P2, which contains the SRHDHIH motif, which has conserved consensus sequences from amino acid positions 156 to 161 in the N-terminal ectodomain of GP3. The artificial multi-epitope gene, mp2, was designed by combining three repeats of the mimotope P2...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253336/type-2-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection-increases-apoptosis-at-the-maternal-fetal-interface-in-late-gestation-pregnant-gilts
#10
Predrag Novakovic, John C S Harding, Ahmad N Al-Dissi, Susan E Detmer
The pathogenesis of fetal death associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is hypothesized to be a consequence of PRRS virus-induced apoptosis at the maternal-fetal interface (MFI). The objectives of this study were to evaluate distribution and degree of apoptosis in the uterine and fetal placental tissues during the experimental type 2 PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection and determine associations between apoptosis at the MFI, PRRSV RNA concentration and antigen staining intensity, PRRSV-induced microscopic lesions, and fetal preservation status...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244336/characterisation-of-the-nucleic-acid-binding-features-of-the-prrsv-7ap-and-its-ability-to-induce-antinuclear-antibodies
#11
Ferenc Olasz, Béla Dénes, Ádám Bálint, Tibor Magyar, Sándor Belák, Zoltán Zádori
A short alternative open reading frame named ORF7a has recently been discovered within the nucleocapsid gene of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) genome. Proteins (7ap) translated from the ORF7a of two divergent strains - a type I and a type II - are able to completely reduce the motility of nucleic acids at relatively high molar charge ratios in gel retardation assays indicating strong dsDNA- and ssRNA-binding capability. Conserved RNA- and DNA-binding properties suggest that nucleic acid binding is a functional property of the divergent 7aps, and not an arbitrary consequence of their net positive charge...
March 2017: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241868/dynamic-changes-in-bronchoalveolar-macrophages-and-cytokines-during-infection-of-pigs-with-a-highly-or-low-pathogenic-genotype-1-prrsv-strain
#12
Patricia Renson, Nicolas Rose, Mireille Le Dimna, Sophie Mahé, André Keranflec'h, Frédéric Paboeuf, Catherine Belloc, Marie-Frédérique Le Potier, Olivier Bourry
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replicates primarily in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and the resulting lung damage is influenced by strain virulence. To better understand the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection, we performed a longitudinal study of the PAM population and lung cytokines in specific pathogen-free pigs infected either with the highly pathogenic Lena strain or with the low pathogenic Finistere strain in comparison to uninfected pigs. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood were collected to follow viral, cellular and cytokine changes in lung with respect to clinical signs and systemic events...
February 27, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239040/efficacy-of-type-2-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-vaccine-against-the-2010-isolate-of-vietnamese-highly-pathogenic-prrsv-challenge-in-pigs
#13
Hiroshi Iseki, Kenji Kawashima, Nguyen Tung, Kenjiro Inui, Mitsutaka Ikezawa, Tomoyuki Shibahara, Makoto Yamakawa
The efficacy of a commercial attenuated live type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine was tested under experimental infection with a highly virulent Vietnamese virus isolated from a diseased pig affected with highly pathogenic PRRS (HP-PRRS) using specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs. Twenty-five 4-week-old SPF pigs were divided into three groups as follows: pigs vaccinated with a single dose of the vaccine (Group 1, n=10), unvaccinated pigs (Group 2, n=10) and unvaccinated and non-infectious control pigs (Group 3, n=5)...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237230/estimation-of-the-transmission-parameters-for-swine-influenza-and-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-viruses-in-pigs-from-weaning-to-slaughter-under-natural-conditions
#14
Emanuela Pileri, Gerard E Martín-Valls, Ivan Díaz, Alberto Allepuz, Meritxell Simon-Grifé, Ariadna García-Saenz, Jordi Casal, Enric Mateu
In the present study, the transmission parameters of swine influenza virus (SIV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) have been calculated using the basic reproductive rate (R) parameter in two commercial pig farms (F1 and F2). In order to do this, a serological (PRRSV genotype 1 and SIV) and virological (SIV) follow-up of a batch of animals was carried out weekly from 3 weeks of age until the age of slaughter on each farm. Results of the analysis for SIV and PRRSV showed different transmission profiles depending on the farm, the pathogen, and time of transmission...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237226/unraveling-the-contact-patterns-and-network-structure-of-pig-shipments-in-the-united-states-and-its-association-with-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-outbreaks
#15
Kyuyoung Lee, Dale Polson, Erin Lowe, Rodger Main, Derald Holtkamp, Beatriz Martínez-López
The analysis of the pork value chain is becoming key to understanding the risk of infectious disease dissemination in the swine industry. In this study, we used social network analysis to characterize the swine shipment network structure and properties in a typical multisite swine production system in the US. We also aimed to evaluate the association between network properties and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) transmission between production sites. We analyzed the 109,868 swine shipments transporting over 93 million swine between more than 500 production sites from 2012 to 2014...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235682/nuclear-imprisonment-of-host-cellular-mrna-by-nsp1%C3%AE-protein-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#16
Mingyuan Han, Hanzhong Ke, Qingzhan Zhang, Dongwan Yoo
Positive-strand RNA genomes function as mRNA for viral protein synthesis which is fully reliant on host cell translation machinery. Competing with cellular protein translation apparatus needs to ensure the production of viral proteins, but this also stifles host innate defense. In the present study, we showed that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), whose replication takes place in the cytoplasm, imprisoned host cell mRNA in the nucleus, which suggests a novel mechanism to enhance translation of PRRSV genome...
February 18, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231264/precision-engineering-for-prrsv-resistance-in-pigs-macrophages-from-genome-edited-pigs-lacking-cd163-srcr5-domain-are-fully-resistant-to-both-prrsv-genotypes-while-maintaining-biological-function
#17
Christine Burkard, Simon G Lillico, Elizabeth Reid, Ben Jackson, Alan J Mileham, Tahar Ait-Ali, C Bruce A Whitelaw, Alan L Archibald
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a panzootic infectious disease of pigs, causing major economic losses to the world-wide pig industry. PRRS manifests differently in pigs of all ages but primarily causes late-term abortions and stillbirths in sows and respiratory disease in piglets. The causative agent of the disease is the positive-strand RNA PRRS virus (PRRSV). PRRSV has a narrow host cell tropism, limited to cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. CD163 has been described as a fusion receptor for PRRSV, whereby the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain 5 (SRCR5) region was shown to be an interaction site for the virus in vitro...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228336/evaluation-of-hydrophobic-chitosan-based-particulate-formulations-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-vaccine-candidate-t-cell-antigens
#18
Helen Mokhtar, Lucia Biffar, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, Jean-Pierre Frossard, Sarah McGowan, Miriam Pedrera, Rebecca Strong, Jane C Edwards, Margarita Garcia-Durán, Maria Jose Rodriguez, Graham R Stewart, Falko Steinbach, Simon P Graham
PRRS control is hampered by the inadequacies of existing vaccines to combat the extreme diversity of circulating viruses. Since immune clearance of PRRSV infection may not be dependent on the development of neutralising antibodies and the identification of broadly-neutralising antibody epitopes have proven elusive, we hypothesised that conserved T cell antigens represent potential candidates for development of a novel PRRS vaccine. Previously we had identified the M and NSP5 proteins as well-conserved targets of polyfunctional CD8 and CD4 T cells...
February 3, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222748/identification-of-host-cellular-proteins-that-interact-with-the-m-protein-of-a-highly-pathogenic-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-vaccine-strain
#19
Qian Wang, Yanwei Li, Hong Dong, Li Wang, Jinmei Peng, Tongqing An, Xufu Yang, Zhijun Tian, Xuehui Cai
BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) continues to pose one of the greatest threats to the swine industry. M protein is the most conserved and important structural protein of PRRSV. However, information about the host cellular proteins that interact with M protein remains limited. METHODS: Host cellular proteins that interact with the M protein of HP-PRRSV were immunoprecipitated from MARC-145 cells infected with PRRSV HuN4-F112 using the M monoclonal antibody (mAb)...
February 22, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215617/genetic-engineering-alveolar-macrophages-for-host-resistance-to-prrsv
#20
REVIEW
Randall S Prather, Kristin M Whitworth, Susan K Schommer, Kevin D Wells
Standard strategies for control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have not been effective, as vaccines have not reduced the prevalence of disease and many producers depopulate after an outbreak. Another method of control would be to prevent the virus from infecting the pig. The virus was thought to infect alveolar macrophages by interaction with a variety of cell surface molecules. One popular model had PRRSV first interacting with heparin sulfate followed by binding to sialoadhesin and then being internalized into an endosome...
February 10, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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