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Na Li, Yunhuan Yan, Angke Zhang, Jiming Gao, Chong Zhang, Xue Wang, Gaopeng Hou, Gaiping Zhang, Jinbu Jia, En-Min Zhou, Shuqi Xiao
Many viruses encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that are small non-coding single-stranded RNAs which play critical roles in virus-host interactions. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically impactful viruses in the swine industry. The present study sought to determine whether PRRSV encodes miRNAs that could regulate PRRSV replication. Four viral small RNAs (vsRNAs) were mapped to the stem-loop structures in the ORF1a, ORF1b and GP2a regions of the PRRSV genome by bioinformatics prediction and experimental verification...
October 17, 2016: Oncotarget
Tahar Ait-Ali, Ivan Díaz, Ferran Soldevila, Esmeralda Cano, Yanli Li, Alison D Wilson, Bruno Giotti, Alan L Archibald, Enric Mateu, Laila Darwich
Little is known about the host factor in the response to PRRSV vaccination. For this purpose, piglets were immunized with a commercial PRRSV-live vaccine and classified as high responders (HR) or low responders (LR) as regards to the frequencies of virus-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells. Six weeks post vaccination, PBMCs isolated from three individuals with the most extreme responses in each HR and LR groups and 3 unvaccinated controls, were either stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin, challenged with the vaccine or mock treated for 24 h, prior conducting transcriptional studies, gene ontology and pathway analyses...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary Research
Y Wang, J Guo, S Qiao, Q Li, J Yang, Q Jin, G Zhang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important swine pathogen, causing huge economic losses each year worldwide. Immunization with vaccines containing the glycoprotein 5 (GP5) of PRRSV is the main measure to induce neutralizing antibodies and control the disease. Here, we developed a GP5 protein-based ELISA for detecting antibodies against PRRSV. The overall yield of purified GP5 in E. coli flask culture was more than 45 mg/L cell culture. Western blot and IFA indicated that the GP5 protein was highly immunogenic...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
D Evenson, P F Gerber, C T Xiao, P G Halbur, C Wang, D Tian, Y Y Ni, X J Meng, T Opriessnig
Current porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines sometimes fail to provide adequate immunity to protect pigs from PRRSV-induced disease. This may be due to antigenic differences among PRRSV strains. Rapid production of attenuated farm-specific homologous vaccines is a feasible alternative to commercial vaccines. In this study, attenuation and efficacy of a codon-pair de-optimized candidate vaccine generated by synthetic attenuated virus engineering approach (SAVE5) were tested in a conventional growing pig model...
October 11, 2016: Vaccine
Haiyan Sun, Asit K Pattnaik, Fernando A Osorio, Hiep L X Vu
We recently generated a fully synthetic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain (designated as PRRSV-CON), which confers unprecedented levels of heterologous protection. We report herein that the synthetic PRRSV-CON possesses a unique phenotype in that it induces type-I interferons (IFNs) instead of suppressing these cytokines as most of the naturally occurring PRRSV isolates do. Through gain- and loss- of-function studies, the IFN-inducing phenotype of PRRSV-CON was mapped to the 3.3kb genomic fragment encoding three viral nonstructural proteins: nsp1α, nsp1β and the N-terminal part of nsp2...
October 10, 2016: Virology
Xiangdong Li, Jiajun Wu, Feifei Tan, Yingying Li, Guobiao Ji, Jinshan Zhuang, Xinyan Zhai, Kegong Tian
BACKGROUND: The recent emergence of NADC30-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in vaccinated pigs arose more attentions for the high incidents of mutation and recombination of PRRSVs. FINDINGS: In this study, we determined full-length genome sequences of two NADC30-like PRRSV isolates from recent PRRSV outbreaks in China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two isolates were clustered in an independent branch together with NADC30, an American isolate in 2008...
2016: SpringerPlus
Michael D Piontkowski, Jeremy Kroll, Francois-Xavier Orveillon, Christian Kraft, Teresa Coll
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be devastating to commercial breeding operations. The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel European PRRSV vaccinal strain for safety and efficacy in bred gilts. In 2 experiments, 110 gilts were vaccinated intramuscularly and the vaccine was evaluated for safety and efficacy. Gilts in Experiment 1 were evaluated for local and systemic reactions and gilts in both experiments were observed for clinical signs of disease through farrow. In both experiments, piglet clinical observations, piglet average daily weight gain (ADWG), gilt serology [determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)], gilt and piglet viremia [determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)], as well as piglet lung lesion scores and PRRS virus in lung tissue (qPCR) were determined...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
Zhenguang Li, Yanliang He, Xiaoqin Xu, Xue Leng, Shufen Li, Yongjun Wen, Fengxue Wang, Mingqi Xia, Shipeng Cheng, Hua Wu
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) remains a major threat to swine industry all over the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of pathogenesis and immune responses caused by a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). RESULTS: All piglets experimentally infected with a HP-PRRSV TJ strain virus developed typical clinical signs of PRRS. The percentages of CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) lymphocytes significantly decreased in the infected group as compared to the uninfected control animals (p < 0...
October 12, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Zhi Chen, Shaoning Liu, Wenbo Sun, Lei Chen, Dongwan Yoo, Feng Li, Sufang Ren, Lihui Guo, Xiaoyan Cong, Jun Li, Shun Zhou, Jiaqiang Wu, Yijun Du, Jinbao Wang
The nonstructural protein 1α (NSP1α) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a nucleo-cytoplasmic protein that suppresses the production of type I interferon (IFN). In this study, we investigated the relationship between the subcellular distribution of NSP1α and its inhibition of type I IFN. NSP1α was found to contain the classical nuclear export signal (NES) and NSP1α nuclear export was CRM-1-mediated. NSP1α was shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm. We also showed that the nuclear export of NSP1α was necessary for its ability for type I IFN inhibition...
October 5, 2016: Virology
Xiaofei Bai, Yuzhou Wang, Xin Xu, Zhe Sun, Yan Xiao, Guobiao Ji, Yingying Li, Feifei Tan, Xiangdong Li, Kegong Tian
NADC30-like PRRSV has been recently reported and became endemic in vaccinated pig herds in China. The outbreaks of disease in vaccinated pigs indicated the inefficacy of commercial PRRSV vaccines. In this study, five commercial PRRSV vaccines that have been widely used in China were used to evaluate the efficacy to a NADC30-like PRRSV infection. The vaccinated pigs were challenged with HNjz15, a NADC30-like PRRSV at 28days post vaccination. Compared to unvaccinated pigs, the vaccinated pigs clinically shortened the period of fever with less pig numbers of clinical manifestations and had improved body weight gain at the end of the study...
October 3, 2016: Vaccine
Adthakorn Madapong, Gun Temeeyasen, Kepalee Saeng-Chuto, Thitima Tripipat, Wichian Navasakuljinda, Alongkot Boonsoongnern, Angkana Tantituvanont, Dachrit Nilubol
The antibody response and pattern of shedding of vaccine virus following vaccination with modified live genotype I or II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines (MLVs) were investigated. Ninety PRRSV-free pigs were divided randomly seven, groups including the NEG, EU1, EU2, US1, US2, US3 and US4 groups. The NEG group was unvaccinated. The EU1, EU2, US1, US2, US3 and US4 groups were vaccinated with the following MLVs: AMERVAC(®) PRRS, Porcillis(®) PRRS, Fostera™ PRRS, Ingelvac(®) PRRS MLV, Ingelvac(®) PRRS ATP, and PrimePac™ PRRS+ , respectively...
September 30, 2016: Archives of Virology
Hiep L X Vu, Asit K Pattnaik, Fernando A Osorio
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important viral pathogens currently affecting swine production worldwide. Although PRRS vaccines have been commercially available for over 20 years, the available vaccines are considered inadequately effective for control and eradication of the virus. Major obstacles for the development of a highly effective PRRS vaccine include the highly variable nature of the viral genome, the viral ability to subvert the host immune system, and the incomplete understanding of the immune protection against PRRSV infection...
September 21, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Na Li, Taofeng Du, Yunhuan Yan, Angke Zhang, Jiming Gao, Gaopeng Hou, Shuqi Xiao, En-Min Zhou
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in the swine industry. Current antiviral strategies do not effectively prevent and control PRRSV. Recent reports show that microRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in viral infections by post transcriptionally regulating the expression of viral or host genes. Our previous research showed that non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) is an essential factor for PRRSV infection. Using bioinformatic prediction and experimental verification, we demonstrate that MYH9 expression is regulated by the miRNA let-7f-5p, which binds to the MYH9 mRNA 3'UTR and may play an important role during PRRSV infection...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Baochao Fan, Hongjian Zhang, Juan Bai, Xing Liu, Yufeng Li, Xianwei Wang, Ping Jiang
Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) was first characterized in 2006 in China, and it causes great economic losses to the Chinese swine production industry. A China Landrace pig, the Tibetan pig, which has striking phenotypic and physiological differences from lowland pigs, is mainly distributed in the Tibetan highlands of China. The susceptibility of the Tibetan pig to HP-PRRSV has not been reported. In this study, 15 4-week-old Tibetan piglets were divided into three groups, and their susceptibility to HP-PRRSV was examined in the highland region...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Zhibin Yu, Chen Huang, Qiong Zhang, Wen-Hai Feng
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) mainly infects monocyte/macrophage cells and modulates cytokine production to regulate host immune response. IL-12p40 is the basic subunit of IL-12, a heterodimeric cytokine, which plays key roles in the cell-mediated immune response. In the present study, we demonstrated that PRRSV infection induced IL-12p40 production in vitro and in vivo. Subsequently, we showed that inhibitors of p38 MAPK, JNK, and NF-κB dramatically reduced PRRSV-induced IL-12p40 expression...
October 2, 2016: Virus Research
Adrienne M Antonson, Emily C Radlowski, Marcus A Lawson, Jennifer L Rytych, Rodney W Johnson
Maternal infection during pregnancy increases risk for neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced stress resilience in offspring, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. We hypothesized that piglets born from gilts infected with a respiratory virus during late gestation would exhibit aberrant microglia activity, cognitive deficits and reduced sociability. Pregnant gilts were inoculated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV; 5 x 10(5) TCID50 of live PRRSV) or saline at gestational day 76...
September 17, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Pablo E Piñeyro, Sakthivel Subramaniam, Scott P Kenney, C Lynn Heffron, Luis G Giménez-Lirola, Xiang-Jin Meng
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically important global swine pathogen. PRRSV infects porcine dendritic cells (DCs), but the effects of the interactions with DCs are largely unknown. Current research focuses on the production and regulation of interferons and selected inflammatory cytokines in DCs, which may play key roles in immune modulation. In addition, PRRSV also downregulates swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA-I), SLA-II, and CD80/86 costimulatory molecules in DCs...
September 19, 2016: Viral Immunology
Jinling Liu, Shu Wei, Lixia Liu, Lihui Yu, Chunyan Wang, Yujun Zhao, Fengping Shan, Guoshun Shen
The related study has confirmed that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection may impair mature states of DCs can lead to suboptimal adaptive immune response ("The role of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in immunephenotype and Th1/Th2 balance of dendritic cells" (Jinling Liu, We Shu, Liaxia Liu et al., 2016) [1]). In this data article,the porcine dendritic cells (DCs) isolated from porcine peripheral blood and spleen were collected after infection with PRRSV, then the characteristics of the subset differentiation of DCs were analyzed with FACS Calibur Cytometer and fluorescence microscope respectively...
December 2016: Data in Brief
X Shi, X Zhang, L Wang, W Li, B Jiang, R Deng, A Wang, G Zhang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes one of the most economically devastating and pandemic porcine diseases. Previous study has shown that MARC-145 cells pretreated with recombinant IFN-β (rIFN-β) couldn't develop cytopathic effect (CPE) of PRRSV. However, up to date, it is not clear whether MARC-145 cells post-treated with rIFN-β could develop CPE of PRRSV. The present work showed that the MARC-145 cells didn't develop the CPE at 120 hr post-infection (p.i.) with low-dose of PRRSV when the cells were pre-treated with rIFN-β (Group 1), post-treated with rIFN-β at 4 hr p...
2016: Acta Virologica
Xingchen Wang, Xiaorong Yang, Rong Zhou, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Xin Guo, Hanchun Yang
The emergence of type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been noticed recently in China. In the present study, the complete genomic characterization of a strain of type 1 PRRSV (designated GZ11-G1) was described and its pathogenicity for piglets was analyzed. The results showed that the complete genome of GZ11-G1 with a size of 15,094 nt, excluding the poly (A) tails, shared 80.2-96.3% identity with the representative strains of type 1 PRRSV, and in particular, it had highest homology (96...
October 2, 2016: Virus Research
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