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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231392/from-dendritic-cells-to-b-cells-dysfunctions-during-hiv-1-infection-tfh-at-the-cross-road
#1
REVIEW
Nicolas Ruffin, Lylia Hani, Nabila Seddiki
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are essential for B cell differentiation and the subsequent antibody responses. Their numbers and functions are altered during human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infections. In lymphoid tissues, Tfh cells are present in germinal center, where they are the main source of replicative HIV-1 and represent a major reservoir. Paradoxically, Tfh numbers are increased in chronically infected individuals. Understanding the fate of Tfh cells in the course of HIV-1 infection is essential for the design of efficient strategies toward a protective HIV vaccine or a cure...
February 23, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231264/precision-engineering-for-prrsv-resistance-in-pigs-macrophages-from-genome-edited-pigs-lacking-cd163-srcr5-domain-are-fully-resistant-to-both-prrsv-genotypes-while-maintaining-biological-function
#2
Christine Burkard, Simon G Lillico, Elizabeth Reid, Ben Jackson, Alan J Mileham, Tahar Ait-Ali, C Bruce A Whitelaw, Alan L Archibald
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a panzootic infectious disease of pigs, causing major economic losses to the world-wide pig industry. PRRS manifests differently in pigs of all ages but primarily causes late-term abortions and stillbirths in sows and respiratory disease in piglets. The causative agent of the disease is the positive-strand RNA PRRS virus (PRRSV). PRRSV has a narrow host cell tropism, limited to cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. CD163 has been described as a fusion receptor for PRRSV, whereby the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain 5 (SRCR5) region was shown to be an interaction site for the virus in vitro...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230656/role-of-nonneutralizing-antibodies-in-vaccines-and-or-hiv-infected-individuals
#3
Luzia Mayr, Bin Su, Christiane Moog
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increased body of evidence gathered over time indicate that antibodies are capable of many inhibitory mechanisms, virus neutralization being just one of them. Nonneutralizing antibodyactivities interfering with HIV replication can also lead to a decrease in viral load and even in-vivo protection. RECENT FINDINGS: It was previously believed that neutralizing antibodies can achieve sterilizing protection mainly by using their neutralization capacities against the infecting virus directly at the portal of virus entry...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230184/tobacco-vein-banding-mosaic-virus-6k2-protein-hijacks-nbpsbo1-for-virus-replication
#4
Chao Geng, Zhi-Yong Yan, De-Jie Cheng, Jin Liu, Yan-Ping Tian, Chang-Xiang Zhu, Hong-Yan Wang, Xiang-Dong Li
Chloroplast-bound vesicles are key components in viral replication complexes (VRCs) of potyviruses. The potyviral VRCs are induced by the second 6 kDa protein (6K2) and contain at least viral RNA and nuclear inclusion protein b. To date, no chloroplast protein has been identified to interact with 6K2 and involve in potyvirus replication. In this paper, we showed that the Photosystem II oxygen evolution complex protein of Nicotiana benthamiana (NbPsbO1) was a chloroplast protein interacting with 6K2 of Tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV; genus Potyvirus) and present in the VRCs...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229964/csfv-proliferation-is-associated-with-gbf1-and-rab2
#5
Wulong Liang, Minping Zheng, Changlei Bao, Yanming Zhang
The Golgi apparatus and its resident proteins are utilized and regulated by viruses to facilitate their proliferation. In this study, we investigated Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) proliferation when the function of the Golgi was disturbed. Golgi function was disturbed using chemical inhibitors, namely, brefeldin A (BFA) and golgicide A (GCA), and RNA interfering targets, such as the Golgi-specific BFA-resistance guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GBF1) and Rab2 GTPases. CSFV proliferation was significantly inhibited during RNA replication and viral particle generation after BFA and GCA treatment...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229049/human-enterovirus-68-interferes-with-the-host-cell-cycle-to-facilitate-viral-production
#6
Zeng-Yan Wang, Ting Zhong, Yue Wang, Feng-Mei Song, Xiao-Feng Yu, Li-Ping Xing, Wen-Yan Zhang, Jing-Hua Yu, Shu-Cheng Hua, Xiao-Fang Yu
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging pathogen that recently caused a large outbreak of severe respiratory disease in the United States and other countries. Little is known about the relationship between EV-D68 virus and host cells. In this study, we assessed the effect of the host cell cycle on EV-D68 viral production, as well as the ability of EV-D68 to manipulate host cell cycle progression. The results suggest that synchronization in G0/G1 phase, but not S phase, promotes viral production, while synchronization in G2/M inhibits viral production...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228595/hepatitis-c-virus-specific-t-cell-receptor-mrna-engineered-human-t-cells-impact-of-antigen-specificity-on-functional-properties
#7
Anangi Balasiddaiah, Haleh Davanian, Soo Aleman, Anna Pasetto, Lars Frelin, Matti Sällberg, Volker Lohmann, Sarene Koh, Antonio Bertoletti, Margaret Chen
Therapy with genetically modified autologous T cells has shown great promise in cancer therapy. For an efficient control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, cytotoxic T cells (CTL) are pivotal but persistence of activated T cells may lead to liver toxicity. Here, anti-HCV T cell receptors (TCRs) recognising the HCV non-structural (NS) NS3 or NS5 viral peptide target were examined by mRNA transfection of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) derived from healthy donors as well as chronically infected HCV patients...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228593/er-protein-scap-inhibits-dengue-virus-ns2b3-protease-by-suppressing-its-k27-linked-polyubiquitylation
#8
Heng Liu, Lele Zhang, Jin Sun, Wei Chen, Senlin Li, Qiang Wang, Huansha Yu, Zanxian Xia, Xia Jin, Chen Wang
Dengue viruses (DENVs) are an emerging threat to global public health. The NS2B3 protease complex of DENV has recently been shown to cleave antiviral protein STING and thereby subverting the innate immune signaling to facilitate virus replication. Whether host cells have mechanism to counteract this virus-mediated immunosuppression is unclear. We discovered that the K27-linked poly-ubiquitination of NS3 protein facilitates its recruitment of NS2B and the formation of NS2B3, and consequently the enhanced cleavage of STING...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228591/the-swi-snf-chromatin-regulator-brg1-modulates-the-transcriptional-regulatory-activity-of-the-ebv-dna-polymerase-processivity-factor-bmrf1
#9
Mei-Tzu Su, Ya-Ting Wang, Yen-Ju Chen, Su-Fang Lin, Ching-Hwa Tsai, Mei-Ru Chen
During lytic phase of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), binding of the transactivator Zta to the origin of lytic replication (oriLyt) and the BHLF1 transcript, forming a stable RNA-DNA hybrid, are required to initiate viral DNA replication. EBV-encoded viral DNA replication proteins form complexes to amplify viral DNA. BMRF1, the viral DNA polymerase accessory factor, is essential for lytic DNA replication and also known as a transcriptional regulator of the expression of BHLF1 and BALF2 (ssDNA-binding protein). In order to determine systematically how BMRF1 regulates viral transcription, a BMRF1 knockout bacmid was generated to analyze viral gene expression using a viral DNA microarray...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228590/a-polymorphism-within-the-internal-fusion-loop-of-the-ebola-virus-glycoprotein-modulates-host-cell-entry
#10
Markus Hoffmann, Lisa Crone, Erik Dietzel, Jennifer Paijo, Mariana González-Hernández, Inga Nehlmeier, Ulrich Kalinke, Stephan Becker, Stefan Pöhlmann
The large scale of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa in 2013-2016 raised the question whether the host cell interactions of the responsible Ebola virus (EBOV) strain differed from those of other ebolaviruses. We previously reported that the glycoprotein (GP) of the virus circulating in West Africa in 2014 (EBOV2014) exhibited reduced ability to mediate entry into two non-human primate (NHP)-derived cell lines relative to the GP of EBOV1976. Here, we investigated the molecular determinants underlying the differential entry efficiency...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228589/capsid-phosphorylation-state-and-hepadnavirus-virion-secretion
#11
Xiaojun Ning, Suresh H Basagoudanavar, Kuancheng Liu, Laurie Luckenbaugh, Duoqian Wei, Chunyan Wang, Bo Wei, Yingren Zhao, Taotao Yan, William Delaney, Jianming Hu
The C-terminal domain (CTD) of hepadnavirus core protein is involved in multiple steps of viral replication. In particular, CTD is initially phosphorylated at multiple sites to facilitate viral RNA packaging into immature nucleocapsids (NCs) and the early stage of viral DNA synthesis. For the avian hepadnavirus, the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), CTD is dephosphorylated subsequently to facilitate the late stage of viral DNA synthesis and to stabilize NCs containing mature viral DNA. The role of CTD phosphorylation in virion secretion, if any, has remained unclear...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228588/investigation-of-the-role-of-protein-kinase-d-in-human-rhinovirus-replication
#12
Anabel Guedán, Dawid Swieboda, Mark Charles, Marie Toussaint, Sebastian L Johnston, Amin Asfor, Anusha Panjwani, Tobias J Tuthill, Henry Danahay, Tony Raynham, Aurelie Mousnier, Roberto Solari
Picornavirus replication is known to cause extensive remodelling of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum membranes and a number of the host proteins involved in the viral replication complex have been identified, including oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III beta (PI4KB). Since both OSBP and PI4KB are substrates for protein kinase D (PKD) and PKD is known to be involved in the control of Golgi vesicular and lipid transport, we hypothesised that PKD played a role in viral replication...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228083/oncolytic-virus-regulatory-aspects-from-quality-control-to-clinical-studies
#13
Teruhide Yamaguchi, Eriko Uchida
Oncolytic viruses, which include both naturally occurring wild-type viruses/attenuated viruses and genetically modified viruses, have recently been developed for use in innovative cancer therapies. Genetically modified oncolytic viruses possess the unique ability to replicate conditionally as a unique gene therapy product. Since oncolytic viruses exhibit prolonged persistence in patients, viral shedding and transmission to third parties should be major concerns for clinical trials, along with the clinical safety and efficacy...
February 22, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225830/ex-vivo-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-from-donors-on-suppressive-art-can-lead-to-sustained-production-of-infectious-hiv-1-from-a-subset-of-infected-cells
#14
John K Bui, Elias K Halvas, Elizabeth Fyne, Michele D Sobolewski, Dianna Koontz, Wei Shao, Brian Luke, Feiyu F Hong, Mary F Kearney, John W Mellors
The fate of HIV-infected cells after reversal of proviral latency is not well characterized. Simonetti, et al. recently showed that CD4+ T-cells containing intact proviruses can clonally expand in vivo and produce low-level infectious viremia. We hypothesized that reversal of HIV latency by activation of CD4+ T-cells can lead to the expansion of a subset of virus-producing cells rather than their elimination. We established an ex vivo cell culture system involving stimulation of CD4+ T-cells from donors on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) with PMA/ionomycin (day 1-7), followed by rest (day 7-21), and then repeat stimulation (day 21-28), always in the presence of high concentrations of raltegravir and efavirenz to effectively block new cycles of viral replication...
February 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225575/25-hydroxy-vitamin-d-suppresses-hepatitis-c-virus-replication-and-contributes-to-rapid-virological-response-of-treatment-efficacy
#15
Jee-Fu Huang, Yu-Min Ko, Chung-Feng Huang, Ming-Lun Yeh, Chia-Yen Dai, Meng-Hsuan Hsieh, Ching-I Huang, Hua-Ling Yang, Shu-Chi Wang, Zu-Yau Lin, Shinn-Chern Chen, Ming-Lung Yu, Wan-Long Chuang
AIM: 25-hydroxy vitamin D (Vit D) plays a role in treatment outcomes in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (CHC). We aimed to clarify HCV replication is inhibited by Vit D in HCV replicon cells. Clinical implication was assessed for rapid virological response (RVR) and sustained virological response (SVR) among those patients receiving anti-viral therapy. METHODS: Cell survival and viral loads were observed in Con1 (genotype-1b) and J6/JFH (genotype-2a) cells treated with different doses of Vit D...
February 22, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224788/coarse-grained-molecular-modeling-of-solution-structure-ensemble-of-dengue-virus-non-structural-protein-5-with-small-angle-x-ray-scattering-intensity
#16
Guanhua Zhu, Wuan Geok Saw, Anjaiah Nalaparaju, Gerhard Grüber, Lanyuan Lu
An ensemble modeling scheme incorporating coarse-grained simulations with experimental small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data is applied to the dengue virus 2 (DENV2) non-structural protein 5 (NS5). NS5 serves a key role in viral replication through its two domains that are connected by a ten-residue polypeptide segment. A set of representative structures are generated from a simulated structure pool using SAXS data fitting by the non-negativity least squares (NNLS) or the standard Ensemble Optimization Method (EOM) based on a genetic algorithm (GA)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223815/antitumor-effects-of-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-against-colorectal-cancer-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#17
Lei Yin, Chunhong Zhao, Jixia Han, Zengjun Li, Yanan Zhen, Ruixue Xiao, Zhongfa Xu, Yanlai Sun
BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is on the rise. Furthermore, late-stage diagnoses and limited efficacious treatment options make CRC a complex clinical challenge. Therefore, a new therapeutic regimen with a completely novel therapeutic mechanism is necessary for CRC. In the present study, the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 2 (oHSV2) in CRC was assessed in vitro and in vivo. oHSV2 is an oncolytic agent derived from herpes simplex virus type 2 that encodes granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223732/effects-of-sex-and-generation-on-hepatitis-b-viral-load-in-families-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Ai-Ru Hsieh, Cathy Sj Fann, Chau-Ting Yeh, Hung-Chun Lin, Shy-Yi Wan, Yi-Cheng Chen, Chia-Lin Hsu, Jennifer Tai, Shi-Ming Lin, Dar-In Tai
AIM: To explore factors associated with persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a cohort of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-affected families and then investigate factors that correlate with individual viral load among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive relatives. METHODS: We evaluated non-genetic factors associated with HBV replication in relatives of patients with HCC. Relatives of 355 HCC cases were interviewed using a structured questionnaire...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223458/mutation-of-the-n-terminal-region-of-chikungunya-virus-capsid-protein-implications-for-vaccine-design
#19
Adam Taylor, Xiang Liu, Ali Zaid, Lucas Y H Goh, Jody Hobson-Peters, Roy A Hall, Andres Merits, Suresh Mahalingam
Mosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. Capsid protein, a structural protein encoded by the CHIKV RNA genome, is able to translocate to the host cell nucleolus. In encephalitic alphaviruses, nuclear translocation induces host cell transcriptional shutoff; however, the role of capsid protein nucleolar localization in arthritogenic alphaviruses remains unclear. Using recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged expression constructs and CHIKV infectious clones, we describe a nucleolar localization sequence (NoLS) in the N-terminal region of capsid protein, previously uncharacterized in CHIKV...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223439/sumoylation-of-turnip-mosaic-virus-rna-polymerase-promotes-viral-infection-by-counteracting-the-host-npr1-mediated-immune-response
#20
Xiaofei Cheng, Ruyi Xiong, Yinzi Li, Fangfang Li, Xueping Zhou, Aiming Wang
Sumoylation is a transient, reversible dynamic posttranslational modification that regulates diverse cellular processes including plant-pathogen interactions. Sumoylation of NPR1, a master regulator of basal and systemic acquired resistance to a broad spectrum of plant pathogens, activates the defense response. Here, we report that NIb, the only RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) that targets the nucleus upon translation, interacts exclusively with and is sumoylated by SUMO3 (SMALL UBIQUITIN-LIKE MODIFIER3), but not the three other Arabidopsis thaliana SUMO paralogs...
February 21, 2017: Plant Cell
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