Read by QxMD icon Read

virus replication

Nadège Hamon, Malika Kaci, Jean-Pierre Uttaro, Christian Périgaud, Christophe Mathé
The synthesis and the antiviral evaluation of 3'-halo (iodo and fluoro) 5'-norcarbocyclic nucleoside phosphonates is described. No antiviral activity was observed against Zika virus, Dengue virus 2, HSV-1, HSV-2 and Chikungunya virus. In contrast, some of the synthesized compounds are potent inhibitors of the replication of HIV-1, comparatively to (R)-PMPA, with no concomitant cytotoxicity.
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Jeanne M Sisk, Matthew B Frieman, Carolyn E Machamer
Enveloped viruses gain entry into host cells by fusing with cellular membranes, a step that is required for virus replication. Coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), fuse at the plasma membrane or use receptor-mediated endocytosis and fuse with endosomes, depending on the cell or tissue type. The virus spike (S) protein mediates fusion with the host cell membrane. We have shown previously that an Abelson (Abl) kinase inhibitor, imatinib, significantly reduces SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV viral titres and prevents endosomal entry by HIV SARS S and MERS S pseudotyped virions...
March 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Jessica M Hogestyn, David J Mock, Margot Mayer-Proschel
Human herpesviruses (HVs) have developed ingenious mechanisms that enable them to traverse the defenses of the central nervous system (CNS). The ability of HVs to enter a state of latency, a defining characteristic of this viral family, allows them to persist in the human host indefinitely. As such, HVs represent the most frequently detected pathogens in the brain. Under constant immune pressure, these infections are largely asymptomatic in healthy hosts. However, many neurotropic HVs have been directly connected with CNS pathology in the context of other stressors and genetic risk factors...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Karin Kosulin, Elena Lam, Albert Heim, Thomas Dobner, Estefanía Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviral (HAdV) infections are usually mild and self-limited, however, some infections from species A, B, C, D and E, can cause severe illnesses, which have raised public health concerns over the past few years. Current available antiviral therapies have limited efficacy and severe toxicity; therefore, finding new targets for specific anti-adenoviral drug design is urgently needed. Our previous work showed that the small molecule compound, HBX, inhibits HAdV type 5 (species C, HAdV-C5) replication and oncogenic transformation through inhibition of the cellular pro-viral factor ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7)...
March 20, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Xueliang Cao, Xinbo Liu, Shiying Zheng, Lihua Xu, Haibo Wu, Jie Liu
Previous studies have shown that dogs are susceptible to influenza A viruses, and the close contact between dogs and humans poses a threat to public health. In 2015, a novel H3N8 influenza virus was isolated from a dog in eastern China. This strain was characterized by whole-genome sequencing with subsequent phylogenetic analysis and genetic comparison and found to be most closely related to avian influenza viruses co-circulating in China. It was able to replicate in mice without prior adaptation. The continued circulation of this novel H3N8 influenza virus in dogs could endanger other mammalian species...
March 20, 2018: Archives of Virology
Wang Dong, Huifang Lv, Cheng Li, Yaru Liu, Chengbao Wang, Jihui Lin, Yifan Wang, Gui Qian, Kangkang Guo, Yanming Zhang
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection results in highly significant economic losses. Previous studies have suggested that CSFV can be recognized by RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) to trigger innate defenses. However, the role of mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), the adaptor of RLRs, is still unknown during CSFV infection. Here, we showed that CSFV infection increased MAVS expression in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). Additionally, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in MAVS expression in CSFV-infected PAMs...
March 19, 2018: Archives of Virology
Xiaoyong Chen, Shasha Liu, Mohsan Ullah Goraya, Mohamed Maarouf, Shile Huang, Ji-Long Chen
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are contagious pathogens responsible for severe respiratory infection in humans and animals worldwide. Upon detection of IAV infection, host immune system aims to defend against and clear the viral infection. Innate immune system is comprised of physical barriers (mucus and collectins), various phagocytic cells, group of cytokines, interferons (IFNs), and IFN-stimulated genes, which provide first line of defense against IAV infection. The adaptive immunity is mediated by B cells and T cells, characterized with antigen-specific memory cells, capturing and neutralizing the pathogen...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jacob D Estes, Scott W Wong, Jason M Brenchley
Humans have a close phylogenetic relationship with nonhuman primates (NHPs) and share many physiological parallels, such as highly similar immune systems, with them. Importantly, NHPs can be infected with many human or related simian viruses. In many cases, viruses replicate in the same cell types as in humans, and infections are often associated with the same pathologies. In addition, many reagents that are used to study the human immune response cross-react with NHP molecules. As such, NHPs are often used as models to study viral vaccine efficacy and antiviral therapeutic safety and efficacy and to understand aspects of viral pathogenesis...
March 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Yuki Katayama, Masashi Tachibana, Nozomi Kurisu, Yukako Oya, Yuichi Terasawa, Hiroshi Goda, Kouji Kobiyama, Ken J Ishii, Shizuo Akira, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi, Fuminori Sakurai
Oncolytic reovirus, which possesses 10 segments of dsRNA genome, mediates antitumor effects via not only virus replication in a tumor cell-specific manner, but also activation of antitumor immunity; however, the mechanism(s) of reovirus-induced activation of antitumor immunity have not been fully elucidated. Recent studies have demonstrated that overcoming an immunosuppressive environment in tumor-bearing hosts is important to achieve efficient activation of antitumor immunity. Among the various types of cells involved in immunosuppression, it has been revealed that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are significantly increased in tumor-bearing hosts and play crucial roles in the immunosuppression in tumor-bearing hosts...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Yan-Jiun Lee, Nan Dai, Shannon E Walsh, Stephanie Müller, Morgan E Fraser, Kathryn M Kauffman, Chudi Guan, Ivan R Corrêa, Peter R Weigele
Certain viruses of bacteria (bacteriophages) enzymatically hypermodify their DNA to protect their genetic material from host restriction endonuclease-mediated cleavage. Historically, it has been known that virion DNAs from the Delftia phage ΦW-14 and the Bacillus phage SP10 contain the hypermodified pyrimidines α-putrescinylthymidine and α-glutamylthymidine, respectively. These bases derive from the modification of 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (5-hmdU) in newly replicated phage DNA via a pyrophosphorylated intermediate...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dai Hatakeyama, Masaki Shoji, Seiya Yamayoshi, Rina Yoh, Naho Ohmi, Shiori Takenaka, Ayaka Saitoh, Yumie Arakaki, Aki Masuda, Tsugunori Komatsu, Rina Nagano, Masahiro Nakano, Takeshi Noda, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Takashi Kuzuhara
Histone acetylation plays crucial roles in transcriptional regulation and chromatin organization. Viral RNA of the influenza virus interacts with its nucleoprotein (NP), whose function corresponds to that of eukaryotic histones. NP regulates viral replication and has been shown to undergo acetylation by the CREB-binding protein (CBP) from the host. However, whether NP is the target of other host acetyltransferases is unknown. Here, we show that influenza virus NP undergoes acetylation by the two host acetyltransferases GCN5 and P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) and that this modification affects viral polymerase activities...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nagraj Mani, Andrew G Cole, Janet R Phelps, Andrzej Ardzinski, Kyle D Cobarrubias, Andrea Cuconati, Bruce D Dorsey, Ellen Evangelista, Kristi Fan, Fang Guo, Haitao Guo, Ju-Tao Guo, Troy O Harasym, Salam Kadhim, Steven G Kultgen, Amy C H Lee, Alice H L Li, Quanxin Long, Sara A Majeski, Richeng Mao, Kevin D McClintock, Stephen P Reid, Rene Rijnbrand, Nicholas M Snead, Holly M Micolochick Steuer, Kim Stever, Sunny Tang, Xiaohe Wang, Qiong Zhao, Michael J Sofia
AB-423 is a sulfamoylbenzamide (SBA) class of HBV capsid inhibitor in Phase 1 clinical trials. In cell culture models AB-423 showed potent inhibition of HBV replication (EC50 /EC90 = 0.08-0.27 μM/0.33-1.32 μM) with no significant cytotoxicity (CC50 >10 μM). Addition of 40% human serum resulted in a 5-fold increase in the EC50 values. AB-423 inhibited HBV genotypes A through D and nucleos/tide-resistant variants in vitro Treatment of HepDES19 cells with AB-423 resulted in capsid particles devoid of encapsidated pgRNA and rcDNA indicating it is a class II capsid inhibitor...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Zhengtu Li, Junling Zhao, Hongxia Zhou, Li Li, Yuyang Ding, Jing Li, Beixian Zhou, Haiming Jiang, Nanshan Zhong, Wenhui Hu, Zifeng Yang
AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and mechanisms of Cappariloside A, a chemically synthesized compound, against virus and inflammation induced by influenza virus. MAIN METHODS: The inhibitory activity of Cappariloside A against influenza virus was determined by plaque assay and cytopathic effect inhibition assay. Quantitative real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Bio-Plex methods were used to quantify cytokine and chemokine expression profiles...
March 16, 2018: Life Sciences
Nicolas Noël, Béatrice Jacquelin, Nicolas Huot, Cécile Goujard, Olivier Lambotte, Michaela Müller-Trutwin
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces a persistent and incurable infection. However, the combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) has markedly changed the evolution of the infection and transformed a deadly disease into a manageable chronic infection. Withdrawal of cART generally leads though to resumption of the viral replication. The eradication of the virus from its cellular and anatomical reservoirs remains a goal-to-achieve for a cure. In this context, developing novel therapies contributing to this aim are an important field of research...
March 9, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Seong-Hyun Park, Kyung-Lee Yu, Yu-Mi Jung, Seong-Deok Lee, Ji Chang You
Transcription termination factor-1 (TTF-I) is an RNA polymerase 1-mediated transcription terminator and consisting of a C-terminal DNA-binding domain, central domain, and N-terminal regulatory domain. This protein binds to a so-called 'Sal box' composed of an 11-base pair motif. The interaction of TTF-I with the 'Sal box' is important for many cellular events, including efficient termination of RNA polymerase-1 activity involved in pre-rRNA synthesis and formation of a chromatin loop. To further understand the role of TTF-I in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-I virus production, we generated various TTF-I mutant forms...
March 20, 2018: BMB Reports
Ferdinand Roesch, Molly OhAinle, Michael Emerman
The InterFeron Induced TransMembrane (IFITM) proteins are interferon stimulated genes that restrict many viruses, including HIV-1. SAMHD1 is another restriction factor blocking replication of HIV-1 and other viruses. Some lentiviruses evolved Vpx/Vpr proteins to degrade SAMHD1. However, this viral antagonism can be perturbed by host mechanisms: a recent study showed that in interferon (IFN) treated THP1 cells, Vpx is unable to degrade SAMHD1. In the present work, we designed an Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISGs)-targeted CRISPR knockout screen in order to identify ISGs regulating this phenotype...
March 20, 2018: Retrovirology
Alexander L Greninger, Giselle M Knudsen, Pavitra Roychoudhury, Derek J Hanson, Ruth Hall Sedlak, Hong Xie, Jon Guan, Thuy Nguyen, Vikas Peddu, Michael Boeckh, Meei-Li Huang, Linda Cook, Daniel P Depledge, Danielle M Zerr, David M Koelle, Soren Gantt, Tetsushi Yoshikawa, Mary Caserta, Joshua A Hill, Keith R Jerome
BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus-6A and -6B (HHV-6) are betaherpesviruses that reach > 90% seroprevalence in the adult population. Unique among human herpesviruses, HHV-6 can integrate into the subtelomeric regions of human chromosomes; when this occurs in germ line cells it causes a condition called inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (iciHHV-6). Only two complete genomes are available for replicating HHV-6B, leading to numerous conflicting annotations and little known about the global genomic diversity of this ubiquitous virus...
March 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
Renata C Fleith, Harriet V Mears, Xin Yun Leong, Thomas J Sanford, Edward Emmott, Stephen C Graham, Daniel S Mansur, Trevor R Sweeney
Interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) are highly expressed during the cell-intrinsic immune response to viral infection. IFIT1 inhibits translation by binding directly to the 5' end of foreign RNAs, particularly those with non-self cap structures, precluding the recruitment of the cap-binding eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F and ribosome recruitment. The presence of IFIT1 imposes a requirement on viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm to maintain mechanisms to avoid its restrictive effects...
March 15, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Huai Guan, Maoying Wang, Chenghong Liao, Jing Liang, Prajwalini Mehere, Meiling Tian, Hairong Liu, Howard Robinson, Jianyong Li, Qian Han
Mosquitoes transmit a number of diseases in animals and humans, including Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses that affect millions of people each year. Controlling the disease-transmitting mosquitoes has proven to be a successful strategy to reduce the viruses transmission. Polyamines are required for the life cycle of the RNA viruses, Chikungunya virus and Zika virus, and a depletion of spermidine and spermine in the host via induction of spermine N-acetyltransferase restricts their replication. Spermine N-acetyltransferase is a key catabolic enzyme in the polyamine pathway, however there is no information of the enzyme identification in any insects...
2018: PloS One
Seiya Yamayoshi, Maki Kiso, Atsuhiro Yasuhara, Mutsumi Ito, Yuelong Shu, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
To clarify the threat posed by emergence of highly pathogenic influenza A(H7N9) virus infection among humans, we characterized the viral polymerase complex. Polymerase basic 2-482R, polymerase basic 2-588V, and polymerase acidic-497R individually or additively enhanced virus polymerase activity, indicating that multiple replication-enhancing mutations in 1 isolate may contribute to virulence.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"