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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341877/characterizing-the-effects-of-insertion-of-a-5-2%C3%A2-kb-region-of-a-vacv-genome-which-contains-known-immune-evasion-genes-on-mva-immunogenicity
#1
Melissa R Ryerson, Joanna L Shisler
Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated Vaccinia virus (VACV) that is a popular vaccine vector candidate against many different pathogens. Its replication-restricted nature makes it a safe vaccine. However, higher doses or multiple boosts of MVA are necessary to elicit an immune response similar to wild-type VACV. Multiple strategies have been used to create modified MVA viruses that remain safe, but have increased immunogenicity. For example, one common strategy is to delete MVA immunomodulatory proteins in hopes of increasing the host immune response...
January 13, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341872/a-cqferritin-protein-inhibits-white-spot-syndrome-virus-infection-via-regulating-iron-ions-in-red-claw-crayfish-cherax-quadricarinatus
#2
Xiao-Xiao Chen, Yan-Yao Li, Xue-Jiao Chang, Xiao-Lu Xie, Yu-Ting Liang, Ke-Jian Wang, Wen-Yun Zheng, Hai-Peng Liu
It is well known that iron is an essential element for all living organism. The intracellular iron availability is also important for the host's innate immune response to various pathogens, in which the iron homeostasis can be regulated by ferritin due to its iron storage property. In this study, a full-length cDNA sequence of ferritin (named as CqFerritin) was identified with 1410 bp from red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, which contained an open reading frame of 513 bp, encoding 170 amino acids with a conserved ferritin domain...
January 13, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341226/molecular-details-of-spontaneous-insertion-and-interaction-of-hcv-non-structure-3-protease-protein-domain-with-pip2-containing-membrane
#3
Huynh Minh Hung, Tran Dieu Hang, Minh Tho Nguyen
Hepatitis C virus (HCV), known as the leading cause of liver cirrhosis, viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, has been affecting more than 150 million people globally. The HCV non-structure 3 (NS3) protease protein domain plays a key role in HCV replication and pathogenesis; and is currently a primary target for HCV antiviral therapy. Through unbiased molecular dynamics simulations which take advantage of the novel highly mobile membrane mimetic model, we constructed the membrane-bound state of the protein domain at the atomic level...
January 17, 2018: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340280/serum-vitamin-d-levels-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#4
Ebada Said, Waleed El Agawy, Rehab Ahmed, Mohamed Hassany, Amal Ahmed, Hanan Fouad, Hosam Baiumy
Background and Objectives: According to the demographic health survey conducted in 2015, Egypt had 10% documented prevalence of anti-HBc positive patients aged 1-59 and 1% viremic patients amongst the population in the same age group, with a domination of genotype D. Several studies claimed the possible role of vitamin D deficiency in hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and disease progression. Patients and Methods: Serum vitamin D levels [25(OH D3] were assessed in 96 HBeAg negative non-cirrhotic chronic HBV patients and 25 healthy subjects classified as following: Group I: 48 chronic HBV patients with persistently normal ALT levels and HBV DNA level < 2000 IU/mL for ≥ 6 months; Group II: 48 chronic HBV patients with CHB with persistently elevated ALT and HBV DNA level ≥ 2000 IU/mL for ≥ 6 months; and Group III: 25 apparently healthy subjects with normal liver enzymes and negative hepatitis viral markers were taken as the control group...
December 2017: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340211/differences-in-adaptive-dynamics-determine-the-success-of-virus-variants-that-propagate-together
#5
María Arribas, Jacobo Aguirre, Susanna Manrubia, Ester Lázaro
Virus fitness is a complex parameter that results from the interaction of virus-specific characters (e.g. intracellular growth rate, adsorption rate, virion extracellular stability, and tolerance to mutations) with others that depend on the underlying fitness landscape and the internal structure of the whole population. Individual mutants usually have lower fitness values than the complex population from which they come from. When they are propagated and allowed to attain large population sizes for a sufficiently long time, they approach mutation-selection equilibrium with the concomitant fitness gains...
January 2018: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339753/efficient-isolation-on-vero-dogslamtag-cells-and-full-genome-characterization-of-dolphin-morbillivirus-dmv-by-next-generation-sequencing
#6
Simone Peletto, Claudio Caruso, Francesco Cerutti, Paola Modesto, Cristina Biolatti, Alessandra Pautasso, Carla Grattarola, Federica Giorda, Sandro Mazzariol, Walter Mignone, Loretta Masoero, Cristina Casalone, Pier Luigi Acutis
The Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV) genome from the first Mediterranean epidemic (1990-'92) is the only cetacean Morbillivirus that has been completely sequenced. Here, we report the first application of next generation sequencing (NGS) to morbillivirus infection of aquatic mammals. A viral isolate, representative of the 2006-'08 Mediterranean epidemic (DMV_IZSPLV_2008), efficiently grew on Vero.DogSLAMtag cells and was submitted to whole genome characterization by NGS. The final genome length was 15,673 nucleotides, covering 99...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339750/a-single-dose-of-modified-vaccinia-ankara-expressing-ebola-virus-like-particles-protects-nonhuman-primates-from-lethal-ebola-virus-challenge
#7
Arban Domi, Friederike Feldmann, Rahul Basu, Nathanael McCurley, Kyle Shifflett, Jackson Emanuel, Michael S Hellerstein, Farshad Guirakhoo, Chiara Orlandi, Robin Flinko, George K Lewis, Patrick W Hanley, Heinz Feldmann, Harriet L Robinson, Andrea Marzi
Ebola virus (EBOV), isolate Makona, was the causative agent of the West African epidemic devastating predominantly Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone from 2013-2016. While several experimental vaccine and treatment approaches have been accelerated through human clinical trials, there is still no approved countermeasure available against this disease. Here, we report the construction and preclinical efficacy testing of a novel recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine expressing the EBOV-Makona glycoprotein GP and matrix protein VP40 (MVA-EBOV)...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339472/mirna-mediated-targeting-of-human-cytomegalovirus-reveals-biological-host-and-viral-targets-of-ie2
#8
Rasmus Møller, Toni M Schwarz, Vanessa M Noriega, Maryline Panis, David Sachs, Domenico Tortorella, Benjamin R tenOever
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) impacts more than one-half of the human population owing to its capacity to manipulate the cell and create latent reservoirs in the host. Despite an extensive understanding of HCMV biology during acute infection in fibroblasts, the molecular basis for latency in myeloid cells remains incomplete. This knowledge gap is due largely to the fact that the existing genetic systems require virus rescue in fibroblasts, precluding the study of genes that are essential during acute infection, yet likely play unique roles in myeloid cells or the establishment of latency...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339154/a-new-hepatitis-b-virus-e-antigen-negative-strain-gene-used-as-a-reference-sequence-in-an-animal-model
#9
Min Cao, Zhonghua Zhao, Yuwei Tang, Qinglv Wei, Lei Wang, Qin Xiang, Yunmei Zhang, Huatang Zhang, Guoqi Lai
Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) e-antigen (HBeAg)-negative strains is increasingly prevalent. Currently, detailed information of the obtained natural HBV strain is not available except for the B genotype and HBeAg-negative. The aim of the present study was to characterize the natural genetic variation of the HBeAg-negative strain and investigate its function. The genic sequence was determined using Sanger sequencing, and compared to related sequences using alignment and phylogenetic analysis. In vivo, virus-specific serum markers were investigated in CBA/CaJ mice...
January 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339107/influenza-a-virus-polymerase-an-attractive-target-for-next-generation-anti-influenza-therapeutics
#10
REVIEW
Zhongxia Zhou, Tao Liu, Jian Zhang, Peng Zhan, Xinyong Liu
The influenza RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) is conserved among different types of influenza virus, playing an important part in transcription and replication. In this regard, influenza RdRP is an attractive target for novel anti-influenza drug discovery. Herein, we will introduce the structural and functional information of influenza polymerase; and an overview of inhibitors targeting the PA endonuclease and PB2 cap-binding site is provided, along with the approaches utilized for identification of these inhibitors...
January 12, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338738/rapid-hiv-disease-progression-following-superinfection-in-an-hla-b-27-05-b-57-01-positive-transmission-recipient
#11
Jacqui Brener, Astrid Gall, Jacob Hurst, Rebecca Batorsky, Nora Lavandier, Fabian Chen, Anne Edwards, Chrissy Bolton, Reena Dsouza, Todd Allen, Oliver G Pybus, Paul Kellam, Philippa C Matthews, Philip J R Goulder
BACKGROUND: The factors determining differential HIV disease outcome among individuals expressing protective HLA alleles such as HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*57:01 remain unknown. We here analyse two HIV-infected subjects expressing both HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*57:01. One subject maintained low-to-undetectable viral loads for more than a decade of follow up. The other progressed to AIDS in < 3 years. RESULTS: The rapid progressor was the recipient within a known transmission pair, enabling virus sequences to be tracked from transmission...
January 16, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338737/transcriptome-profiling-of-whitefly-guts-in-response-to-tomato-yellow-leaf-curl-virus-infection
#12
Liang Geng, Li-Xin Qian, Ruo-Xuan Shao, Yin-Quan Liu, Shu-Sheng Liu, Xiao-Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Plant viruses in agricultural crops are of great concern worldwide, and over 75% of them are transmitted from infected to healthy plants by insect vectors. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a begomovirus, which is the largest and most economically important group of plant viruses, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. The circulation of TYLCV in the insect involves complex insect-virus interactions, whereas the molecular mechanisms of these interactions remain ambiguous...
January 16, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338543/lucidone-suppresses-dengue-viral-replication-through-the-induction-of-heme-oxygenase-1
#13
Wei-Chun Chen, Chin-Kai Tseng, Chun-Kuang Lin, Shen-Nien Wang, Wen-Hung Wang, Shih-Hsien Hsu, Yu-Hsuan Wu, Ling-Chien Hung, Yen-Hsu Chen, Jin-Ching Lee
Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes life-threatening diseases such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Currently, there is no effective therapeutic agent or vaccine against DENV infection; hence, there is an urgent need to discover anti-DENV agents. The potential therapeutic efficacy of lucidone was first evaluated in vivo using a DENV-infected Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) suckling mouse model by monitoring body weight, clinical score, survival rate, and viral titer. We found that lucidone effectively protected mice from DENV infection by sustaining survival rate and reducing viral titers in DENV-infected ICR suckling mice...
January 17, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338047/amino-acid-substitutions-affecting-aspartic-acid-605-and-valine-606-decrease-the-interaction-strength-between-the-influenza-virus-rna-polymerase-pb2-627-domain-and-the-viral-nucleoprotein
#14
Ho-Pan Hsia, Yin-Hua Yang, Wun-Chung Szeto, Benjamin E Nilsson, Chun-Yeung Lo, Andy Ka-Leung Ng, Ervin Fodor, Pang-Chui Shaw
The influenza virus RNA genome is transcribed and replicated in the context of the viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex by the viral RNA polymerase. The nucleoprotein (NP) is the structural component of the vRNP providing a scaffold for the viral RNA. In the vRNP as well as during transcription and replication the viral polymerase interacts with NP but it is unclear which parts of the polymerase and NP mediate these interactions. Previously the C-terminal '627' domain (amino acids 538-693) of PB2 was shown to interact with NP...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337866/crispr-cas-targeting-of-host-genes-as-an-antiviral-strategy
#15
REVIEW
Shuliang Chen, Xiao Yu, Deyin Guo
Currently, a new gene editing tool-the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) associated (Cas) system-is becoming a promising approach for genetic manipulation at the genomic level. This simple method, originating from the adaptive immune defense system in prokaryotes, has been developed and applied to antiviral research in humans. Based on the characteristics of virus-host interactions and the basic rules of nucleic acid cleavage or gene activation of the CRISPR-Cas system, it can be used to target both the virus genome and host factors to clear viral reservoirs and prohibit virus infection or replication...
January 16, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337856/interaction-between-hepatitis-b-virus-and-toll-like-receptors-current-status-and-potential-therapeutic-use-for-chronic-hepatitis-b
#16
REVIEW
Zhiyong Ma, Qian Cao, Yong Xiong, Ejuan Zhang, Mengji Lu
Immune defense against infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is complex and involves both host innate and adaptive immune systems. It is well accepted that the development of sufficient HBV-specific T cell and B cell responses are required for controlling an HBV infection. However, the contribution of innate immunity to removing HBV has been explored in recent years. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are recognized as the first line of antiviral immunity because they initiate intracellular signaling pathways to induce antiviral mediators such as interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines...
January 16, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337371/avian-retrovirus-mediated-tumor-specific-gene-knockout
#17
Wei Wang, Bingning Dong, Feng Yang
The RCAS (replication-competent avian sarcoma leukosis virus long-terminal repeat with splice acceptor)-TVA (tumor virus A) gene delivery system has been successfully used in modeling human cancers. Based on this, we have recently developed a novel RCI-Oncogene (RCAS-Cre-IRES-Oncogene) gene delivery system that can be used to efficiently manipulate gene expression in spontaneous tumors in vivo. We used this system for tumor gene knockout (TuKO) and demonstrated a crucial role of FGFR1 in driving mammary tumor metastasis...
January 16, 2018: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337164/identification-of-novel-antivirals-inhibiting-recognition-of-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-virus-capsid-protein-by-the-importin-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-1-heterodimer-through-high-throughput-screening
#18
David R Thomas, Lindsay Lundberg, Chelsea Pinkham, Sharon Shechter, Aaron Debono, Jonathan Baell, Kylie M Wagstaff, Caroline A Hick, Kylene Kehn-Hall, David A Jans
Although the alphavirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the cause of multiple outbreaks resulting in extensive human and equine mortality and morbidity, there are currently no anti-VEEV therapeutics available. VEEV pathogenicity is largely dependent on targeting of the viral capsid protein (CP) to the host cell nucleus through the nuclear transporting importin (Imp) α/β1 heterodimer. Here we perform a high-throughput screen, combined with nested counterscreens to identify small molecules able to inhibit the Impα/β1:CP interaction for the first time...
January 11, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337163/utility-of-ultra-deep-sequencing-for-detection-of-varicella-zoster-virus-antiviral-resistance-mutations
#19
Mélanie Mercier-Darty, David Boutolleau, Raphaël Lepeule, Christophe Rodriguez, Sonia Burrel
We report the first application of ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genotypic antiviral testing in a case of acyclovir-resistant VZV infection initially detected by Sanger sequencing within a deeply immunocompromised heart transplant recipient. As added-value compared to Sanger analysis, UDS revealed complex dynamics of viral population under antiviral pressure. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus affecting populations worldwide. VZV is commonly acquired in youth whose primary infection usually manifests as benign varicella (chickenpox)...
January 11, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337162/antiviral-activity-of-k22-against-members-of-the-order-nidovirales
#20
Julie Christiane Françoise Rappe, Adriaan de Wilde, Han Di, Christin Müller, Hanspeter Stalder, Philip V'kovski, Eric Snijder, Margo A Brinton, John Ziebuhr, Nicolas Ruggli, Volker Thiel
Recently, a novel antiviral compound (K22) that inhibits replication of a broad range of animal and human coronaviruses was reported to interfere with viral RNA synthesis by impairing double-membrane vesicle (DMV) formation (Lundin et al., 2014). Here we assessed potential antiviral activities of K22 against a range of viruses representing two (sub)families of the order Nidovirales, the Arteriviridae (porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus [PRRSV], equine arteritis virus [EAV] and simian hemorrhagic fever virus [SHFV]), and the Torovirinae (equine torovirus [EToV] and White Bream virus [WBV])...
January 11, 2018: Virus Research
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