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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767690/entorhinal-cortex-volume-is-associated-with-dual-task-gait-cost-among-older-adults-with-mci-results-from-the-gait-and-brain-study
#1
Ryota Sakurai, Robert Bartha, Manuel Montero-Odasso
Background: Low dual-task gait performance (the slowing of gait speed while performing a demanding cognitive task) is associated with low cognitive performance and an increased risk of progression to dementia in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. However, the reason for this remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the relationship between dual-task cost and regional brain volume, focusing on the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, entorhinal cortex, and motor and lateral frontal cortices in older adults with mild cognitive impairment...
May 15, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756498/construct-validity-and-inter-rater-reliability-of-the-dutch-activity-measure-for-post-acute-care-6-clicks-basic-mobility-form-to-assess-the-mobility-of-hospitalized-patients
#2
Sven Jacobus Gertruda Geelen, Karin Valkenet, Cindy Veenhof
To evaluate the construct validity and the inter-rater reliability of the Dutch Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care "6-clicks" Basic Mobility short form measuring the patient's mobility in Dutch hospital care. First, the "6-clicks" was translated by using a forward-backward translation protocol. Next, 64 patients were assessed by the physiotherapist to determine the validity while being admitted to the Internal Medicine wards of a university medical center. Six hypotheses were tested regarding the construct "mobility" which showed that: Better "6-clicks" scores were related to less restrictive pre-admission living situations (p = 0...
May 12, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754837/effects-of-exercise-on-gait-and-motor-imagery-in-people-with-parkinson-disease-and-freezing-of-gait
#3
Peter S Myers, Marie E McNeely, Kristen A Pickett, Ryan P Duncan, Gammon M Earhart
INTRODUCTION: Exercise improves gait in Parkinson disease (PD), but whether exercise differentially affects people with PD with (freezers) and without freezing of gait (non-freezers) remains unclear. This study examines exercise's effects on gait performance, neural correlates related to these effects, and potential neural activation differences between freezers and non-freezers during motor imagery (MI) of gait. METHODS: Thirty-seven participants from a larger exercise intervention completed behavioral assessments and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans before and after a 12-week exercise intervention...
May 8, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724539/dynamic-balance-during-walking-adaptability-tasks-in-individuals-post-stroke
#4
Arian Vistamehr, Chitralakshmi K Balasubramanian, David J Clark, Richard R Neptune, Emily J Fox
Maintaining dynamic balance during community ambulation is a major challenge post-stroke. Community ambulation requires performance of steady-state level walking as well as tasks that require walking adaptability. Prior studies on balance control post-stroke have mainly focused on steady-state walking, but walking adaptability tasks have received little attention. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare dynamic balance requirements during common walking adaptability tasks post-stroke and in healthy adults and identify differences in underlying mechanisms used for maintaining dynamic balance...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678875/distribution-of-spinal-neuronal-networks-controlling-forward-and-backward-locomotion
#5
Natalia Merkulyeva, Aleksandr Veshchitskii, Oleg Gorsky, Natalia Pavlova, Pavel V Zelenin, Yury Gerasimenko, Tatiana G Deliagina, Pavel Musienko
Higher vertebrates, including humans, are capable not only of forward (FW) locomotion but also of walking in other directions relative to the body axis [backward (BW), sideways, etc.]. While the neural mechanisms responsible for controlling FW locomotion have been studied in considerable detail, the mechanisms controlling steps in other directions are mostly unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of spinal neuronal networks controlling FW and BW locomotion. First, we applied electrical epidural stimulation (ES) to different segments of the spinal cord from L2 to S2 to reveal zones triggering FW and BW locomotion in decerebrate cats of either sex...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673837/movements-of-older-adults-during-exergaming-interventions-that-are-associated-with-the-systems-framework-for-postural-control-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Robin Tahmosybayat, Katherine Baker, Alan Godfrey, Nick Caplan, Gill Barry
One in three older adults fall annually, in part due to impairments in the physiological systems that make up the postural control (PC) system. Exercise, particularly balance training, helps to prevent deterioration and even to improve outcomes in the PC system. Exergaming (exercise-gaming) is interactive computer gaming whereby an individual moves the body in response to onscreen cues in a playful format. Exergaming is an alternative method to standard practice for improving PC outcomes, which has been shown to reduce the risk of falling...
May 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672558/the-effects-of-unexpected-mechanical-perturbations-during-treadmill-walking-on-spatiotemporal-gait-parameters-and-the-dynamic-stability-measures-by-which-to-quantify-postural-response
#7
Forough Madehkhaksar, Jochen Klenk, Kim Sczuka, Katharina Gordt, Itshak Melzer, Michael Schwenk
Most falls occur after a loss of balance following an unexpected perturbation such as a slip or a trip. Greater understanding of how humans control and maintain stability during perturbed walking may help to develop appropriate fall prevention programs. The aim of this study was to examine changes in spatiotemporal gait and stability parameters in response to sudden mechanical perturbations in medio-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) direction during treadmill walking. Moreover, we aimed to evaluate which parameters are most representative to quantify postural recovery responses...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554739/potential-dermal-exposure-to-operators-applying-pesticide-on-greenhouse-crops-using-low-cost-equipment
#8
Víctor J Rincón, Francisco C Páez, Julián Sánchez-Hermosilla
During pesticide application, operators are exposed to chemical products. Dermal exposure has been reported as the principal means of exposure for growers. In the present work, potential dermal exposure (PDE) has been assessed when using new low-cost equipment (a knapsack with a vertical spray boom) and compared to a hand-held spray lance, which is the equipment most widely used by growers in greenhouses. Two sprayers were used, a hand-held spray lance with four twin flat-fan nozzles and a knapsack fitted out with a vertical spray boom containing 3 pairs of twin flat-fan nozzles...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533099/autonomic-cardiac-control-response-to-walking-and-executive-cognitive-task-in-adolescents-with-acquired-brain-injury-and-typically-developed-controls
#9
Gilad Sorek, Sharon Shaklai, Shirley Meyer, Michal Katz-Leurer
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) present a range of physical and cognitive as well as cardiac autonomic control system (CACS) dysfunctions. AIM: To examine the CACS response to an executive task, a physical task and a combined physical and executive task, in adolescents with ABI and typically developed (TD) controls. METHODS: Included were two groups: The first group consisted of 17 adolescents (11-18 years) with ABI, during the in-patient or out-patient rehabilitation period...
2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491427/simulation-of-solute-transport-through-heterogeneous-networks-analysis-using-the-method-of-moments-and-the-statistics-of-local-transport-characteristics
#10
Min Li, Tao Qi, Yves Bernabé, Jinzhou Zhao, Ying Wang, Dong Wang, Zheming Wang
We used a time domain random walk approach to simulate passive solute transport in networks. In individual pores, solute transport was modeled as a combination of Poiseuille flow and Taylor dispersion. The solute plume data were interpreted via the method of moments. Analysis of the first and second moments showed that the longitudinal dispersivity increased with increasing coefficient of variation of the pore radii CV and decreasing pore coordination number Z. The third moment was negative and its magnitude grew linearly with time, meaning that the simulated dispersion was intrinsically non-Fickian...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462774/dual-task-related-gait-changes-in-individuals-with-trans-tibial-lower-extremity-amputation
#11
Susan W Hunter, Courtney Frengopoulos, Jeffrey Holmes, Ricardo Viana, Michael W C Payne
BACKGROUND: The improvement of gait and mobility are major rehabilitation goals following lower extremity amputations. However, when living in the community many daily activities require the multitasking of motor and cognitive tasks. The dual-task paradigm can be used to evaluate the concurrent performance of mobility and cognitive tasks. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dual-task gait testing in older adults with trans-tibial amputations...
March 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427828/an-alcohol-withdrawal-test-battery-measuring-multiple-behavioral-symptoms-in-mice
#12
Pamela Metten, Jason P Schlumbohm, Lawrence C Huang, Gian D Greenberg, Wyatt R Hack, Stephanie E Spence, John C Crabbe
Despite acceptance that risk for alcohol-use disorder (AUD) has a large genetic component, the identification of genes underlying various components of risk for AUD has been hampered in humans, in part by the heterogeneity of expression of the phenotype. One aspect of AUD is physical dependence. Alcohol withdrawal is a serious consequence of alcohol dependence with multiple symptoms, many of which are seen in multiple species, and can be experienced over a wide-ranging time course. In the present three studies, we developed a battery of withdrawal tests in mice, examining behavioral symptoms from multiple domains that could be measured over time...
May 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413804/impacts-of-freezing-of-gait-on-forward-and-backward-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Minji Son, Sang-Myung Cheon, Changhong Youm, Youkyung Kim, Jae Woo Kim
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a major risk factor for falls and fall-related injuries in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The characteristics of gait in PD patients with FOG have been studied but remain controversial. To investigate gait characteristics of FOG in PD, this study analyzed the forward and backward walking of patients with PD. Twenty-six patients with PD were recruited [age: 71.0 ± 6.2 years, Hoehn and Yahr stage: 2-3 (median 2.5)]. Based on responses to the New Freezing of Gait Questionnaire, we classified patients into either the "freezer" or "non-freezer" group...
March 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412086/an-ultralightweight-and-living-legged-robot
#14
Tat Thang Vo Doan, Melvin Y W Tan, Xuan Hien Bui, Hirotaka Sato
In this study, we describe the most ultralightweight living legged robot to date that makes it a strong candidate for a search and rescue mission. The robot is a living beetle with a wireless electronic backpack stimulator mounted on its thorax. Inheriting from the living insect, the robot employs a compliant body made of soft actuators, rigid exoskeletons, and flexure hinges. Such structure would allow the robot to easily adapt to any complex terrain due to the benefit of soft interface, self-balance, and self-adaptation of the insect without any complex controller...
February 2018: Soft Robotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406322/gait-speed-and-dynamic-stability-decline-accelerates-only-in-late-life-a-cross-sectional-study-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#15
Anna Lee, Tanvi Bhatt, Renae L Smith-Ray, Edward Wang, Yi-Chung Clive Pai
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Incidence of falls increases with age whereas gait speed declines. The purposes of this study were to examine (1) whether gait speed and center-of-mass (COM) velocity declined steadily across ages in a linear fashion among community-dwelling older adults, and (2) whether such decline corresponded to the similar decline in dynamic stability, which is governed by the control of their COM position and COM velocity relative to base of support (BOS). METHODS: A total of 184 community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years) participated in the cross-sectional study...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357466/backward-walking-highlights-gait-asymmetries-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#16
Germana Cappellini, Francesca Sylos-Labini, Michael J MacLellan, Annalisa Sacco, Daniela Morelli, Francesco Lacquaniti, Yury Ivanenko
To investigate how early injuries to developing motor regions of the brain affect different forms of gait, we compared the spatiotemporal locomotor patterns during forward (FW) and backward (BW) walking in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Bilateral gait kinematics and EMG activity of 11 pairs of leg muscles were recorded in 14 children with CP (9 diplegic, 5 hemiplegic; 3.0-11.1 yr) and 14 typically developing (TD) children (3.3-11.8 yr). During BW, children with CP showed a significant increase of gait asymmetry in foot trajectory characteristics and limb intersegmental coordination...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356055/abnormal-locomotor-muscle-recruitment-activity-is-present-in-horses-with-shivering-and-purkinje-cell-distal-axonopathy
#17
J E Aman, S J Valberg, N Elangovan, A Nicholson, S S Lewis, J Konczak
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar Purkinje cell axonal degeneration has been identified in horses with shivering but its relationship with abnormal hindlimb movement has not been elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To characterise surface electromyographic (sEMG) hindlimb muscle activity in horses with shivering, correlate with clinical scores and examine horses for Purkinje axonal degeneration. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive controlled clinical study. METHODS: The hindlimb of seven shivering and six control draught horses were clinically scored...
January 21, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326895/effects-of-walking-with-hand-held-weights-on-energy-expenditure-and-excess-postexercise-oxygen-consumption
#18
Catherine T Campaña, Pablo B Costa
Walking is not only important to assist in performing daily tasks, but also to gain cardiovascular benefits. Further research on walking is needed to examine the physiological responses to improve health and reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the energy expenditure (EE) during and after walking exercise with versus without hand-held weights (HHW). Nineteen sedentary women (mean±standard deviation; age, 21±2.7 years, height, 163.1±6.3 cm; body mass, 66.6± 15...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281712/posture-alteration-as-a-measure-to-accommodate-uneven-ground-in-able-bodied-gait
#19
Soran Aminiaghdam, Reinhard Blickhan, Roy Muller, Christian Rode
Though the effects of imposed trunk posture on human walking have been studied, less is known about such locomotion while accommodating changes in ground level. For twelve able participants, we analyzed kinematic parameters mainly at touchdown and toe-off in walking across a 10-cm visible drop in ground level (level step, pre-perturbation step, step-down, step-up) with three postures (regular erect, ~30° and ~50° of trunk flexion from the vertical). Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs revealed step-specific effects of posture on the kinematic behavior of gait mostly at toe-off of the pre-perturbation step and the step-down as well as at touchdown of the step-up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243137/activation-of-ankle-muscles-following-rapid-displacement-of-a-light-touch-contact-during-treadmill-walking
#20
Tania Shiva, John E Misiaszek
The first exposure of a rapid displacement of a light touch reference induces an inappropriate balance corrective response during standing in a proportion of participants that is extinguished with repeated exposures. We hypothesized that if the spatial touch reference was critical to performing of a task the evoked response would be more consistently expressed across participants and observed with repeated exposures to the disturbance. To test this, 20 participants received either forward (N = 10) or backward right-touch displacements at right-heel strike during motorized treadmill walking without visual feedback...
February 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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