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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512223/kinematics-of-the-lever-arm-swing-in-myosin-vi
#1
Mauro L Mugnai, D Thirumalai
Myosin VI (MVI) is the only known member of the myosin superfamily that, upon dimerization, walks processively toward the pointed end of the actin filament. The leading head of the dimer directs the trailing head forward with a power stroke, a conformational change of the motor domain exaggerated by the lever arm. Using a unique coarse-grained model for the power stroke of a single MVI, we provide the molecular basis for its motility. We show that the power stroke occurs in two major steps. First, the motor domain attains the poststroke conformation without directing the lever arm forward; and second, the lever arm reaches the poststroke orientation by undergoing a rotational diffusion...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474271/can-recovery-foot-placement-affect-older-adults-slip-fall-severity
#2
Shuaijie Wang, Xuan Liu, Anna Lee, Yi-Chung Pai
Following a slip occurred in the overground walking, a fall can be classified into two exclusive categories: feet-forward fall or split fall. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the placement of the recovery foot would determine the slip types, the likelihood of fall, and the severity associated with each fall. The fall severity was estimated based on the impact velocity of body segments or trunk orientation upon fall arrest. One hundred ninety-five participants experienced a novel, unannounced slip while walking on a 7-m walkway...
May 4, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443006/cognitive-resources-necessary-for-motor-control-in-older-adults-are-reduced-by-walking-and-coordination-training
#3
Ben Godde, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
We examined if physical exercise interventions were effective to reduce cognitive brain resources recruited while performing motor control tasks in older adults. Forty-three older adults (63-79 years of age) participated in either a walking (n = 17) or a motor coordination (n = 15) intervention (1 year, 3 times per week) or were assigned to a control group (n = 11) doing relaxation and stretching exercises. Pre and post the intervention period, we applied functional MRI to assess brain activation during imagery of forward and backward walking and during counting backwards from 100 as control task...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416189/the-validity-and-reliability-of-the-arabic-version-of-the-japanese-orthopedic-association-back-pain-evaluation-questionnaire-can-we-implement-it-in-saudi-arabia
#4
Saud Mohammed Alfayez, Abdullah Nasser Bin Dous, Abdullah Abdulaziz Altowim, Qais Abdulmohsin Alrabiei, Bandar Obaid Alsubaie, Waleed Mohammad Awwad
BACKGROUND: The Japanese Orthopedic Association designed their back pain evaluation questionnaire (JOABPEQ) which was proven to be feasible, reliable and valid. The questionnaire's validity and reliability were confirmed when it was implemented in patients with different cultural background. Since the JOABPEQ still has not been utilized in any of the Arabic countries, we present the Arabic version with its validity and reliability. METHODS: After ensuring an optimal forward-backward translation of the JOABPEQ, the Arabic version was distributed among 151 patients visiting our clinics from December 2015 to February 2016...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376130/does-movement-influence-representations-of-time-and-space
#5
Jonna Loeffler, Markus Raab, Rouwen Cañal-Bruland
Embodied cognition posits that abstract conceptual knowledge such as mental representations of time and space are at least partially grounded in sensorimotor experiences. If true, then the execution of whole-body movements should result in modulations of temporal and spatial reference frames. To scrutinize this hypothesis, in two experiments participants either walked forward, backward or stood on a treadmill and responded either to an ambiguous temporal question (Experiment 1) or an ambiguous spatial question (Experiment 2) at the end of the walking manipulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356683/a-study-on-total-intravenous-anesthesia-in-orthognathic-surgical-procedures
#6
P L Vasundhar, Gokkulakrishnan Sadhasivam, Satya Bhushan, Siva Kalyan, Kho Chai Chiang
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of propofol for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia among patients undergoing various combinations of orthognathic surgical procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following Preoperative evaluation, patients were given Fentanyl (2 micrograms/kg) intravenously. Induction (2 mg/kg) and maintenance (10 mg/kg/hr) of anaesthesia was achieved by Propofol infusion. Blood Pressure and heart rate were maintained at >70 or 80 mm Hg and >50 respectively and were monitored continuously...
July 2016: National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271903/effects-of-corrective-taping-on-balance-and-gait-in-patients-with-hallux-valgus
#7
Gozde Gur, Ozden Ozkal, Burcu Dilek, Songul Aksoy, Nilgun Bek, Yavuz Yakut
BACKGROUND: Taping is an effective temporary therapy for improving hallux valgus (HV) in adults. Although HV has been demonstrated to impair postural balance, there is a lack of information about how corrective taping affects balance and gait patterns in adults with HV deformity. METHODS: Eighteen middle-aged female patients (average age, 53.5 years) with HV were included. Corrective tape was applied to correct HV angulation. A series of balance and gait stability tests were performed before applying tape and 1 hour after the tape was applied with a Balance Master computerized posturography device...
May 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265136/comparison-of-forward-walking-and-backward-walking-in-stroke-hemiplegia-patients-focusing-on-the-paretic-side
#8
Misato Makino, Akiyoshi Takami, Atsushi Oda
[Purpose] To investigate the features of backward walking in stroke patients with hemiplegia by focusing on the joint movements and moments of the paretic side, walking speed, stride length, and cadence. [Subjects and Methods] Nine stroke patients performed forward walking and backward walking along a 5-m walkway. Walking speed and stride length were self-selected. Movements were measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system and a force plate. One walking cycle of the paretic side was analyzed. [Results] Walking speed, stride length, and cadence were significantly lower in backward walking than in forward walking...
February 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260915/prevalence-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-employable-patients-after-acute-coronary-event-in-cardiac-rehabilitation
#9
Annett Salzwedel, Maria-Dorothea Heidler, Kathrin Haubold, Martin Schikora, Rona Reibis, Karl Wegscheider, Michael Jöbges, Heinz Völler
INTRODUCTION: Adequate cognitive function in patients is a prerequisite for successful implementation of patient education and lifestyle coping in comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs. Although the association between cardiovascular diseases and cognitive impairments (CIs) is well known, the prevalence particularly of mild CI in CR and the characteristics of affected patients have been insufficiently investigated so far. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, 496 patients (54...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259041/trunk-sway-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-quantitative-assessment-in-clinical-practice
#10
Tomas Bäcklund, Jennifer Frankel, Hanna Israelsson, Jan Malm, Nina Sundström
BACKGROUND: In diagnosis and treatment of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), there is need for clinically applicable, quantitative assessment of balance and gait. Using a body-worn gyroscopic system, the aim of this study was to assess postural stability of iNPH patients in standing, walking and during sensory deprivation before and after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage and surgery. A comparison was performed between healthy elderly (HE) and patients with various types of hydrocephalus (ventriculomegaly (VM))...
February 24, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255224/dual-task-does-not-increase-slip-and-fall-risk-in-healthy-young-and-older-adults-during-walking
#11
Rahul Soangra, Thurmon E Lockhart
Dual-task tests can identify gait characteristics peculiar to fallers and nonfallers. Understanding the relationship between gait performance and dual-task related cognitive-motor interference is important for fall prevention. Dual-task adapted changes in gait instability/variability can adversely affect fall risks. Although implicated, it is unclear if healthy participants' fall risks are modified by dual-task walking conditions. Seven healthy young and seven healthy older adults were randomly assigned to normal walking and dual-task walking sessions with a slip perturbation...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238656/moonwalker-descending-neurons-mediate-visually-evoked-retreat-in-drosophila
#12
Rajyashree Sen, Ming Wu, Kristin Branson, Alice Robie, Gerald M Rubin, Barry J Dickson
Insects, like most animals, tend to steer away from imminent threats [1-7]. Drosophila melanogaster, for example, generally initiate an escape take-off in response to a looming visual stimulus, mimicking a potential predator [8]. The escape response to a visual threat is, however, flexible [9-12] and can alternatively consist of walking backward away from the perceived threat [11], which may be a more effective response to ambush predators such as nymphal praying mantids [7]. Flexibility in escape behavior may also add an element of unpredictability that makes it difficult for predators to anticipate or learn the prey's likely response [3-6]...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222290/insect-navigation-what-backward-walking-reveals-about-the-control-of-movement
#13
Matthew Collett, Paul Graham, Thomas S Collett
Ants often walk backwards to drag large prey to their nest. New experiments show how they can use information from retinotopically encoded views to follow visual routes even while moving backwards. The mechanisms enabling ants to decouple body orientation and the control of travel direction are likely to be shared with other, flying, insects.
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208109/stability-against-backward-balance-loss-age-related-modifications-following-slip-like-perturbations-of-multiple-amplitudes
#14
Dario Martelli, Federica Aprigliano, Peppino Tropea, Guido Pasquini, Silvestro Micera, Vito Monaco
Falls are one of the most serious problems in the elderly. Although previous studies clearly link the increased risk of falls with ageing, the mechanisms responsible for the modifications of reactive motor behaviours in response to external perturbations are not yet fully understood. This study investigated how the stability against backward balance loss is affected by aging and intensity of perturbations. The Margin of Stability (MoS) was estimated while eight young and eight elderly adults managed three slip-like perturbations of different intensities while walking at the same normalized speed...
February 9, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197836/does-direction-of-walking-impact-binocular-rivalry-between-competing-patterns-of-optic-flow
#15
Richard Paris, Bobby Bodenheimer, Randolph Blake
When dissimilar monocular images are viewed simultaneously by the two eyes, stable binocular vision gives way to unstable vision characterized by alternations in dominance between the two images in a phenomenon called binocular rivalry. These alternations in perception reveal the existence of inhibitory interactions between neural representations associated with conflicting visual inputs. Binocular rivalry has been studied since the days of Wheatstone, but one recent strategy is to investigate its susceptibility to influences caused by one's own motor activity...
February 14, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157575/observing-prioritization-effects-on-cognition-and-gait-the-effect-of-increased-cognitive-load-on-cognitively-healthy-older-adults-dual-task-performance
#16
Linda M Maclean, Laura J E Brown, H Khadra, Arlene J Astell
Previous studies exploring the effects of attention-prioritization on cognitively healthy older adults' gait and cognitive dual task (DT) performance have shown DT cost in gait outcomes but inconsistent effects on cognitive performance, which may reflect task difficulty (the cognitive load). This study aimed to identify whether changing the cognitive load during a walking and counting DT improved the challenge/sensitivity of the cognitive task to observe prioritization effects on concurrent gait and cognitive performance outcomes...
January 24, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131487/effects-of-obesity-on-dynamic-stability-control-during-recovery-from-a-treadmill-induced-slip-among-young-adults
#17
Feng Yang, JaeEun Kim, Fei Yang
This study sought to investigate the effects of obesity on falls and dynamic stability control in young adults when subject to a standardized treadmill-induced gait-slip. Forty-four young adults (21 normal-weight and 23 obese) participated in this study. After their muscle strength was assessed at the right knee under maximum voluntary isometric (flexion and extension) contractions, participants were moved to an ActiveStep treadmill. Following 5 normal walking trials on the treadmill, all participants encountered an identical and unexpected slip defined as a perturbation in the anterior direction with the magnitude of 24-cm slip distance and 2...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126335/two-biomechanical-strategies-for-locomotor-adaptation-to-split-belt-treadmill-walking-in-subjects-with-and-without-transtibial-amputation
#18
Brian P Selgrade, Megan E Toney, Young-Hui Chang
Locomotor adaptation is commonly studied using split-belt treadmill walking, in which each foot is placed on a belt moving at a different speed. As subjects adapt to split-belt walking, they reduce metabolic power, but the biomechanical mechanism behind this improved efficiency is unknown. Analyzing mechanical work performed by the legs and joints during split-belt adaptation could reveal this mechanism. Because ankle work in the step-to-step transition is more efficient than hip work, we hypothesized that control subjects would reduce hip work on the fast belt and increase ankle work during the step-to-step transition as they adapted...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111152/how-ants-use-vision-when-homing-backward
#19
Sebastian Schwarz, Michael Mangan, Jochen Zeil, Barbara Webb, Antoine Wystrach
Ants can navigate over long distances between their nest and food sites using visual cues [1, 2]. Recent studies show that this capacity is undiminished when walking backward while dragging a heavy food item [3-5]. This challenges the idea that ants use egocentric visual memories of the scene for guidance [1, 2, 6]. Can ants use their visual memories of the terrestrial cues when going backward? Our results suggest that ants do not adjust their direction of travel based on the perceived scene while going backward...
February 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092165/recommendations-for-best-disinfectant-practices-to-reduce-the-spread-of-infection-via-wrestling-mats
#20
Linda Mull Young, Vicki Abram Motz, Emily R Markey, Suzanne C Young, Ronald E Beaschler
CONTEXT: At the request of the National Wrestling Coaches Association and the head wrestling coach at our university, we conducted a study of infection transmission in collegiate wrestlers. OBJECTIVE: To examine disinfectant effectiveness and develop best-practice guidelines for minimizing the spread of skin infections via wrestling mats. DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study and crossover study. SETTING: Laboratory and two 15-college wrestling invitational meets...
February 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
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