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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326895/effects-of-walking-with-hand-held-weights-on-energy-expenditure-and-excess-postexercise-oxygen-consumption
#1
Catherine T Campaña, Pablo B Costa
Walking is not only important to assist in performing daily tasks, but also to gain cardiovascular benefits. Further research on walking is needed to examine the physiological responses to improve health and reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the energy expenditure (EE) during and after walking exercise with versus without hand-held weights (HHW). Nineteen sedentary women (mean±standard deviation; age, 21±2.7 years, height, 163.1±6.3 cm; body mass, 66.6± 15...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281712/posture-alteration-as-a-measure-to-accommodate-uneven-ground-in-able-bodied-gait
#2
Soran Aminiaghdam, Reinhard Blickhan, Roy Muller, Christian Rode
Though the effects of imposed trunk posture on human walking have been studied, less is known about such locomotion while accommodating changes in ground level. For twelve able participants, we analyzed kinematic parameters mainly at touchdown and toe-off in walking across a 10-cm visible drop in ground level (level step, pre-perturbation step, step-down, step-up) with three postures (regular erect, ~30° and ~50° of trunk flexion from the vertical). Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs revealed step-specific effects of posture on the kinematic behavior of gait mostly at toe-off of the pre-perturbation step and the step-down as well as at touchdown of the step-up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243137/activation-of-ankle-muscles-following-rapid-displacement-of-a-light-touch-contact-during-treadmill-walking
#3
Tania Shiva, John E Misiaszek
The first exposure of a rapid displacement of a light touch reference induces an inappropriate balance corrective response during standing in a proportion of participants that is extinguished with repeated exposures. We hypothesized that if the spatial touch reference was critical to performing of a task the evoked response would be more consistently expressed across participants and observed with repeated exposures to the disturbance. To test this, 20 participants received either forward (N = 10) or backward right-touch displacements at right-heel strike during motorized treadmill walking without visual feedback...
December 15, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232308/a-backward-walking-training-program-to-improve-balance-and-mobility-in-acute-stroke-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Dorian K Rose, Lou DeMark, Emily J Fox, David J Clark, Peter Wludyka
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Strategies to address gait and balance deficits early poststroke are minimal. The postural and motor control requirements of Backward Walking Training (BWT) may provide benefits to improve balance and walking speed in this population. This pilot study (1) determined the feasibility of administering BWT during inpatient rehabilitation and (2) compared the effectiveness of BWT to Standing Balance Training (SBT) on walking speed, balance, and balance-related efficacy in acute stroke...
January 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227095/four-component-catalytic-machinery-reversible-three-state-control-of-organocatalysis-by-walking-back-and-forth-on-a-track
#5
Nikita Mittal, Merve S Özer, Michael Schmittel
A three-component supramolecular walker system is presented where a two-footed ligand (biped) walks back and forth on a tetrahedral 3D track upon the addition and removal of copper(I) ions, respectively. The addition of N-methylpyrrolidine as a catalyst to the walker system generates a four-component catalytic machinery, which acts as a three-state switchable catalytic ensemble in the presence of substrates for a conjugate addition. The copper(I)-ion-initiated walking process of the biped ligand on the track regulates the catalytic activity in three steps: ON versus intON (intermediate ON) versus OFF...
December 11, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182659/fractal-analyses-reveal-independent-complexity-and-predictability-of-gait
#6
Frédéric Dierick, Anne-Laure Nivard, Olivier White, Fabien Buisseret
Locomotion is a natural task that has been assessed for decades and used as a proxy to highlight impairments of various origins. So far, most studies adopted classical linear analyses of spatio-temporal gait parameters. Here, we use more advanced, yet not less practical, non-linear techniques to analyse gait time series of healthy subjects. We aimed at finding more sensitive indexes related to spatio-temporal gait parameters than those previously used, with the hope to better identify abnormal locomotion. We analysed large-scale stride interval time series and mean step width in 34 participants while altering walking direction (forward vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179887/biomechanical-analysis-of-dance-for-parkinson-s-disease-a-paradoxical-case-study-of-balance-and-gait-effects
#7
Kristen L Sowalsky, Jill Sonke, Lori J P Altmann, Leonardo Almeida, Chris J Hass
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to measure the effects of a dance training program on subjective and objective balance and gait measures in a person with Parkinson's disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: The participant was measured via clinical scales and biomechanical balance and gait analyses pre- and post-16 weeks of dance participation at the University Center for Arts in Medicine. The dance program consisted of 75 minute sessions three days a week. RESULTS: Improved clinical scales included the Schwab and England scale (+10%), falls efficacy scale (-11 points), six-minute walk (+15...
November 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173139/walking-back-to-the-future
#8
Jonna Loeffler, Markus Raab, Rouwen Cañal-Bruland
Embodied cognition frameworks suggest a direct link between sensorimotor experience and cognitive representations of concepts ( Shapiro, 2011 ). We examined whether this holds also true for concepts that cannot be directly perceived with the sensorimotor system (i.e., temporal concepts). To test this, participants learned object-space (Exp. 1) or object-time (Exp. 2) associations. Afterwards, participants were asked to assign the objects to their location in space/time meanwhile they walked backward, forward, or stood on a treadmill...
September 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141826/effects-of-cognitive-versus-motor-dual-task-on-spatiotemporal-gait-parameters-in-healthy-controls-and-multiple-sclerosis-patients-with-and-without-fall-history
#9
Razieh Mofateh, Reza Salehi, Hossein Negahban, Mohammad Mehravar, Shirin Tajali
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to compare the effects of cognitive or motor tasks on gait performance between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with and without fall history. METHODS: The investigation included MS patients with fall history (n = 25) and without fall history (n = 25) and matched healthy controls (n = 25). Participants walked at their preferred speed on a motorized treadmill under three walking conditions in a randomized order: walking only, walking while performing a concurrent cognitive task (counting backward aloud by 3s), and walking while performing a concurrent motor task (carrying a tray with glasses)...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123249/crickets-alter-wind-elicited-escape-strategies-depending-on-acoustic-context
#10
Matasaburo Fukutomi, Hiroto Ogawa
Acoustic signals trigger various behaviours in insects such as courtship or escape from predators. However, it remains unknown whether insects utilize acoustic signals to recognize environmental contexts. The cricket is a prominent model insect for neuroethological studies on acoustic behaviour because female crickets exhibit positive phonotaxis in response to male calling songs, and flying crickets display avoidance behaviour for high-frequency sounds such as echolocation call of bats. The carrier frequency of these sounds is a major factor in determining whether they initiate these acoustic behaviours...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117005/coordination-of-gaze-behavior-and-foot-placement-during-walking-in-persons-with-glaucoma
#11
Andreas B Miller, Kim Lajoie, Robert A Strath, David R Neima, Daniel S Marigold
PURPOSE: Vision normally provides environmental information necessary to direct the foot to safe locations during walking. Peripheral visual field loss limits what a person can see, and may alter how a person visually samples the environment. Here we tested the hypothesis that the spatial-temporal coupling between gaze and stepping in a precision-based walking task is altered in persons with glaucoma, particularly under dual task situations, and results in reduced foot-placement accuracy...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097947/evaluation-of-static-and-dynamic-balance-tests-in-single-and-dual-task-conditions-in-participants-with-nonspecific-chronic-low-back-pain
#12
Ladan Hemmati, Zahra Rojhani-Shirazi, Hamid Malek-Hoseini, Ismail Mobaraki
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate static and dynamic balance tests in single, dual cognitive, and dual manual task conditions in participants with and without nonspecific chronic low back pain. Methods: In this case control study, 40 patients (age range 18-50 years) with nonspecific chronic low back pain for at least 3 months and 40 healthy participants matched for age, weight, height, and sex participated in this study. Balance performance was evaluated using static (One Leg Stance) and dynamic (Modified Star Excursion Balance Test, 10-m walk test, and Timed Up and Go) balance tests...
September 2017: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095771/the-3-m-backwards-walk-and-retrospective-falls-diagnostic-accuracy-of-a-novel-clinical-measure
#13
Valerie Carter, Tarang Jain, Jodi James, Mark Cornwall, Anne Aldrich, Hendrik D de Heer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several measures of fall risk have been previously developed and include forward walking, turning, and stepping motions. However, recent research has demonstrated that backwards walking is more sensitive at identifying age-related changes in mobility and balance compared with forward walking. No clinical test of backwards walking currently exists. Therefore, this article describes a novel clinical test of backwards walking, the 3-m backwards walk (3MBW), and assessed whether it was associated with 1-year retrospective falls in a population of healthy older adults...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073208/pendular-energy-transduction-within-the-step-during-human-walking-on-slopes-at-different-speeds
#14
Arthur H Dewolf, Yuri P Ivanenko, Francesco Lacquaniti, Patrick A Willems
When ascending (descending) a slope, positive (negative) work must be performed to overcome changes in gravitational potential energy at the center of body mass (COM). This modifies the pendulum-like behavior of walking. The aim of this study is to analyze how energy exchange and mechanical work done vary within a step across slopes and speeds. Ten subjects walked on an instrumented treadmill at different slopes (from -9° to 9°), and speeds (between 0.56 and 2.22 m s-1). From the ground reaction forces, we evaluated energy of the COM, recovery (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070634/six-legged-walking-in-insects-how-cpgs-peripheral-feedback-and-descending-signals-generate-coordinated-and-adaptive-motor-rhythms
#15
Salil Sanjay Bidaye, Till Bockemühl, Ansgar Büschges
Walking is a rhythmic locomotor behavior of legged animals and its underlying mechanisms have been the subject of neurobiological research for more than 100 years. In this article, we review relevant historical aspects and contemporary studies in this field of research with a particular focus on the role of central pattern generating networks (CPGs) and their role in the generation of the six-legged walking in insects. Aspects of importance are the generation of single leg stepping, the generation of interleg coordination, and how descending signals influence walking...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060298/informative-sensor-selection-and-learning-for-prediction-of-lower-limb-kinematics-using-generative-stochastic-neural-networks
#16
Eunsuk Chong, Taejin Choi, Hyungmin Kim, Seung-Jong Kim, Yoha Hwang, Jong Min Lee
We propose a novel approach of selecting useful input sensors as well as learning a mathematical model for predicting lower limb joint kinematics. We applied a feature selection method based on the mutual information called the variational information maximization, which has been reported as the state-of-the-art work among information based feature selection methods. The main difficulty in applying the method is estimating reliable probability density of input and output data, especially when the data are high dimensional and real-valued...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051726/head-stabilization-in-the-pigeon-role-of-vision-to-correct-for-translational-and-rotational-disturbances
#17
Leslie M Theunissen, Nikolaus F Troje
Stabilization of the head in animals with limited capacity to move their eyes is key to maintain a stable image on the retina. In many birds, including pigeons, a prominent example for the important role of head stabilization is the characteristic head-bobbing behavior observed during walking. Multimodal sensory feedback from the eyes, the vestibular system and proprioceptors in body and neck is required to control head stabilization. Here, we trained unrestrained pigeons (Columba livia) to stand on a perch that was sinusoidally moved with a motion platform along all three translational and three rotational degrees of freedom...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036816/sex-difference-in-aerobic-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-in-older-adults-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Cindy K Barha, Ging-Yuek R Hsiung, John R Best, Jennifer C Davis, Janice J Eng, Claudia Jacova, Philip E Lee, Michelle Munkacsy, Winnie Cheung, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Aerobic training (AT) is a promising, non-pharmacological intervention to mitigate the deleterious effects of aging and disease on brain health. However, a large amount of variation exists in its efficacy. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of AT in 71 older adults with subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (NCT01027858). Specifically, we investigated: 1) whether sex moderates the relationship between AT and executive functions, and 2) the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and gains in functional fitness capacity...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018363/moderate-load-muscular-endurance-strength-training-did-not-improve-peak-power-or-functional-capacity-in-older-men-and-women
#19
Simon Walker, Guy G Haff, Keijo Häkkinen, Robert U Newton
The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64-75 y). Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first) with short rest intervals (30-60 s between sets) at an intensity of 50-60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM) for 15-20 repetitions...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972625/a-flexible-planar-energy-harvesting-device-for-scavenging-road-side-waste-mechanical-energy-via-the-synergistic-piezoelectric-response-of-k0-5na0-5nbo3-batio3-pvdf-composite-films
#20
Venkateswaran Vivekananthan, Nagamalleswara Rao Alluri, Yuvasree Purusothaman, Arunkumar Chandrasekhar, Sang-Jae Kim
Flexible, planar composite piezoelectric nanogenerators (C-PNGs) were developed to harness waste mechanical energy using cost-effective composite films (CFs) prepared via a probe-sonication technique. CFs, made up of highly crystalline, randomly oriented lead free piezoelectric nanoparticles (1 - x)K0.5Na0.5NbO3-xBaTiO3, where x = 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, or 0.08 [designated as KNN-xBTO], were impregnated in a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix. The KNN piezoelectric properties were tuned via the substitution of BTO nanoparticles, without altering the orthorhombic phase...
October 12, 2017: Nanoscale
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