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Backwards walking

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141826/effects-of-cognitive-versus-motor-dual-task-on-spatiotemporal-gait-parameters-in-healthy-controls-and-multiple-sclerosis-patients-with-and-without-fall-history
#1
Razieh Mofateh, Reza Salehi, Hossein Negahban, Mohammad Mehravar, Shirin Tajali
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to compare the effects of cognitive or motor tasks on gait performance between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with and without fall history. METHODS: The investigation included MS patients with fall history (n = 25) and without fall history (n = 25) and matched healthy controls (n = 25). Participants walked at their preferred speed on a motorized treadmill under three walking conditions in a randomized order: walking only, walking while performing a concurrent cognitive task (counting backward aloud by 3s), and walking while performing a concurrent motor task (carrying a tray with glasses)...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123249/crickets-alter-wind-elicited-escape-strategies-depending-on-acoustic-context
#2
Matasaburo Fukutomi, Hiroto Ogawa
Acoustic signals trigger various behaviours in insects such as courtship or escape from predators. However, it remains unknown whether insects utilize acoustic signals to recognize environmental contexts. The cricket is a prominent model insect for neuroethological studies on acoustic behaviour because female crickets exhibit positive phonotaxis in response to male calling songs, and flying crickets display avoidance behaviour for high-frequency sounds such as echolocation call of bats. The carrier frequency of these sounds is a major factor in determining whether they initiate these acoustic behaviours...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117005/coordination-of-gaze-behavior-and-foot-placement-during-walking-in-persons-with-glaucoma
#3
Andreas B Miller, Kim Lajoie, Robert A Strath, David R Neima, Daniel S Marigold
PURPOSE: Vision normally provides environmental information necessary to direct the foot to safe locations during walking. Peripheral visual field loss limits what a person can see, and may alter how a person visually samples the environment. Here we tested the hypothesis that the spatial-temporal coupling between gaze and stepping in a precision-based walking task is altered in persons with glaucoma, particularly under dual task situations, and results in reduced foot-placement accuracy...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097947/evaluation-of-static-and-dynamic-balance-tests-in-single-and-dual-task-conditions-in-participants-with-nonspecific-chronic-low-back-pain
#4
Ladan Hemmati, Zahra Rojhani-Shirazi, Hamid Malek-Hoseini, Ismail Mobaraki
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate static and dynamic balance tests in single, dual cognitive, and dual manual task conditions in participants with and without nonspecific chronic low back pain. Methods: In this case control study, 40 patients (age range 18-50 years) with nonspecific chronic low back pain for at least 3 months and 40 healthy participants matched for age, weight, height, and sex participated in this study. Balance performance was evaluated using static (One Leg Stance) and dynamic (Modified Star Excursion Balance Test, 10-m walk test, and Timed Up and Go) balance tests...
September 2017: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095771/the-3-m-backwards-walk-and-retrospective-falls-diagnostic-accuracy-of-a-novel-clinical-measure
#5
Valerie Carter, Tarang Jain, Jodi James, Mark Cornwall, Anne Aldrich, Hendrik D de Heer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several measures of fall risk have been previously developed and include forward walking, turning, and stepping motions. However, recent research has demonstrated that backwards walking is more sensitive at identifying age-related changes in mobility and balance compared with forward walking. No clinical test of backwards walking currently exists. Therefore, this article describes a novel clinical test of backwards walking, the 3-m backwards walk (3MBW), and assessed whether it was associated with 1-year retrospective falls in a population of healthy older adults...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073208/pendular-energy-transduction-within-the-step-during-human-walking-on-slopes-at-different-speeds
#6
Arthur H Dewolf, Yuri P Ivanenko, Francesco Lacquaniti, Patrick A Willems
When ascending (descending) a slope, positive (negative) work must be performed to overcome changes in gravitational potential energy at the center of body mass (COM). This modifies the pendulum-like behavior of walking. The aim of this study is to analyze how energy exchange and mechanical work done vary within a step across slopes and speeds. Ten subjects walked on an instrumented treadmill at different slopes (from -9° to 9°), and speeds (between 0.56 and 2.22 m s-1). From the ground reaction forces, we evaluated energy of the COM, recovery (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070634/six-legged-walking-in-insects-how-cpgs-peripheral-feedback-and-descending-signals-generate-coordinated-and-adaptive-motor-rhythms
#7
Salil Sanjay Bidaye, Till Bockemühl, Ansgar Büschges
Walking is a rhythmic locomotor behavior of legged animals and its underlying mechanisms have been the subject of neurobiological research for more than 100 years. In this article, we review relevant historical aspects and contemporary studies in this field of research with a particular focus on the role of central pattern generating networks (CPGs) and their role in the generation of the six-legged walking in insects. Aspects of importance are the generation of single leg stepping, the generation of interleg coordination, and how descending signals influence walking...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060298/informative-sensor-selection-and-learning-for-prediction-of-lower-limb-kinematics-using-generative-stochastic-neural-networks
#8
Eunsuk Chong, Taejin Choi, Hyungmin Kim, Seung-Jong Kim, Yoha Hwang, Jong Min Lee
We propose a novel approach of selecting useful input sensors as well as learning a mathematical model for predicting lower limb joint kinematics. We applied a feature selection method based on the mutual information called the variational information maximization, which has been reported as the state-of-the-art work among information based feature selection methods. The main difficulty in applying the method is estimating reliable probability density of input and output data, especially when the data are high dimensional and real-valued...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051726/head-stabilization-in-the-pigeon-role-of-vision-to-correct-for-translational-and-rotational-disturbances
#9
Leslie M Theunissen, Nikolaus F Troje
Stabilization of the head in animals with limited capacity to move their eyes is key to maintain a stable image on the retina. In many birds, including pigeons, a prominent example for the important role of head stabilization is the characteristic head-bobbing behavior observed during walking. Multimodal sensory feedback from the eyes, the vestibular system and proprioceptors in body and neck is required to control head stabilization. Here, we trained unrestrained pigeons (Columba livia) to stand on a perch that was sinusoidally moved with a motion platform along all three translational and three rotational degrees of freedom...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036816/sex-difference-in-aerobic-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-in-older-adults-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Cindy K Barha, Ging-Yuek R Hsiung, John R Best, Jennifer C Davis, Janice J Eng, Claudia Jacova, Philip E Lee, Michelle Munkacsy, Winnie Cheung, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Aerobic training (AT) is a promising, non-pharmacological intervention to mitigate the deleterious effects of aging and disease on brain health. However, a large amount of variation exists in its efficacy. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of AT in 71 older adults with subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (NCT01027858). Specifically, we investigated: 1) whether sex moderates the relationship between AT and executive functions, and 2) the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and gains in functional fitness capacity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018363/moderate-load-muscular-endurance-strength-training-did-not-improve-peak-power-or-functional-capacity-in-older-men-and-women
#11
Simon Walker, Guy G Haff, Keijo Häkkinen, Robert U Newton
The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64-75 y). Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first) with short rest intervals (30-60 s between sets) at an intensity of 50-60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM) for 15-20 repetitions...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972625/a-flexible-planar-energy-harvesting-device-for-scavenging-road-side-waste-mechanical-energy-via-the-synergistic-piezoelectric-response-of-k0-5na0-5nbo3-batio3-pvdf-composite-films
#12
Venkateswaran Vivekananthan, Nagamalleswara Rao Alluri, Yuvasree Purusothaman, Arunkumar Chandrasekhar, Sang-Jae Kim
Flexible, planar composite piezoelectric nanogenerators (C-PNGs) were developed to harness waste mechanical energy using cost-effective composite films (CFs) prepared via a probe-sonication technique. CFs, made up of highly crystalline, randomly oriented lead free piezoelectric nanoparticles (1 - x)K0.5Na0.5NbO3-xBaTiO3, where x = 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, or 0.08 [designated as KNN-xBTO], were impregnated in a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix. The KNN piezoelectric properties were tuned via the substitution of BTO nanoparticles, without altering the orthorhombic phase...
October 12, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949119/dual-task-mobility-among-individuals-with-chronic-stroke-changes-in-cognitive-motor-interference-patterns-and-relationship-to-difficulty-level-of-mobility-and-cognitive-tasks
#13
Lei Yang, Freddy M Lam, Meizhen Huang, Chengqi He, Marco Y Pang
BACKGROUND: Dual-task mobility performance is compromised after stroke. AIM: This study evaluated how the difficulty level of mobility and cognitive tasks influenced the cognitive-motor interference pattern among individuals with chronic stroke and whether it differed from age-matched control participants. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: University laboratory. POPULATION: Individuals with chronic stroke and age-matched controls...
September 25, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926815/cognitive-function-and-walking-velocity-in-people-with-dementia-a-comparison-of-backward-and-forward-walking
#14
Hanna Johansson, Lillemor Lundin-Olsson, Håkan Littbrand, Yngve Gustafson, Erik Rosendahl, Annika Toots
How forward and backward walking, both central to everyday life, relate to cognition are relatively unexplored in people with dementia. This study aimed to investigate if forward and backward walking velocity respectively, associated with global cognition and executive function in people with dementia, and whether the association differed according to walking aid use or dementia type. Using a cross-sectional design, 161 participants (77% women), a mean Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 15, and mean age of 85...
October 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922312/maximum-step-length-test-performance-in-people-with-parkinson-disease-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Ryan P Duncan, Marie E McNeely, Gammon M Earhart
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Maximum Step Length Test (MSLT), a measure of one's capacity to produce a large step, has been studied in older adults, but not in people with Parkinson disease (PD). We characterized performance and construct validity of the MSLT in PD. METHODS: Forty participants (mean age: 65.12 ± 8.20 years; 45% female) with idiopathic PD completed the MSLT while "OFF" and "ON" anti-PD medication. Construct validity was investigated by examining relationships between MSLT and measures of motor performance...
October 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901834/association-between-gait-and-dual-task-with-cognitive-domains-in-older-people-with-cognitive-impairment
#16
Juliana Hotta Ansai, Larissa Pires de Andrade, Paulo Giusti Rossi, Mariana Luciano Almeida, Francisco Assis Carvalho Vale, José Rubens Rebelatto
The authors investigated whether impaired gait and dual-task performances are associated with specific cognitive domains among older people with preserved cognition (PC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). The sample comprised 40 older adults with PC, 40 with MCI, and 38 with mild AD. The assessment consisted of gait (measured by 10-m walk test and Timed Up and Go Test [TUGT]), dual task (measured by TUGT associated with a cognitive-motor task of calling a phone number), and cognition (domains of the Addenbrooke Cognitive Examination-Revised and Frontal Assessment Battery [FAB])...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888908/quick-foot-placement-adjustments-during-gait-are-less-accurate-in-individuals-with-focal-cerebellar-lesions
#17
Wouter Hoogkamer, Zrinka Potocanac, Frank Van Calenbergh, Jacques Duysens
Online gait corrections are frequently used to restore gait stability and prevent falling. They require shorter response times than voluntary movements which suggests that subcortical pathways contribute to the execution of online gait corrections. To evaluate the potential role of the cerebellum in these pathways we tested the hypotheses that online gait corrections would be less accurate in individuals with focal cerebellar damage than in neurologically intact controls and that this difference would be more pronounced for shorter available response times and for short step gait corrections...
October 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888906/the-comparison-of-ground-reaction-forces-and-lower-limb-muscles-correlation-and-activation-time-delay-between-forward-and-backward-walking
#18
Mohammadreza Mahaki, Gustavo Souto De Sá E Souza, Raghad Mimar, Marcus Fraga Vieira
This study aimed to compare the ground reaction forces (GRF) and lower limb muscles correlation and activation time delay between Forward (FW) and Backward (BW) walking. Twenty-four male students participated in this research. Electromyogram activities of gluteus medius, biceps femoris, medial gastrocnemius, soleus and anterior tibialis muscles along with GRFs were measured. Each participant performed two FW and two BW trials bare foot. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis was performed over anterior-posterior and vertical GRFs time series...
October 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885115/a-9-week-jaques-dalcroze-eurhythmics-intervention-improves-single-and-dual-task-gait-speed-in-community-dwelling-older-people
#19
Lisa Ferguson-Stegall, Mandy Vang, Anthony S Wolfe, Kathy M Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Falls are a major public health concern among older adults, and most occur while walking, especially under dualtask conditions. Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics (JDE) is a music-based movement training program that emphasizes multitask coordinated movement. A previous 6-mo JDE study in older people demonstrated improved gait and balance; however, the effects of short-term JDE interventions on fall risk-related outcomes are largely unknown. We conducted a preliminary investigation on whether a 9-week JDE intervention improved gait and stability in a community-dwelling older cohort, hypothesizing that improvements would occur in all outcome measures...
September 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843186/backward-compared-to-forward-over-ground-gait-retraining-have-additional-benefits-for-gait-in-individuals-with-mild-to-moderate-parkinson-s-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Roné Grobbelaar, Ranel Venter, Karen Estelle Welman
Over ground gait retraining in the reverse direction has shown to be beneficial for neurological rehabilitation, but has not yet been investigated in Parkinson's disease (PD). Backwards walking (BW) might be a useful training alternative to improve PD gait and possibly reduce fall risk during complex multi-directional daily activities. The primary aim was to compare the effect of an eight-week forward (FWG) and backwards (BWG) gait retraining program on gait parameters in PD individuals. Twenty-nine participants (aged 71...
October 2017: Gait & Posture
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