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Sreyashi Samaddar, Kizzy Vazquez, Dipen Ponika, Pedro Toruno, Karim Sahbani, Sultana Begum, Ahmed Abouelela, Wagdy Mekhael, Zaghloul Ahmed
Direct current electrical fields have been shown to be a major factor in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival, as well as in the maturation of dividing cells during development. During adulthood, spinal cord cells are continuously produced in both animals and humans, and they hold great potential for neural restoration following spinal cord injury. While the effects of direct current electrical fields on adult-born spinal cells cultured ex vivo have recently been reported, the effects of direct current electrical fields on adult-born spinal cells in vivo have not been characterized...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
D Kaczmarek, J Ristikankare, E Jankowska
Direct current (DC) polarization has been demonstrated to alleviate the effects of various deficits in the operation of the central nervous system. However, the effects of trans-spinal DC stimulation (tsDCS) have been investigated less extensively than the effects of transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS), and their cellular mechanisms have not been elucidated. The main objectives of this study were, therefore, to extend our previous analysis of DC effects on the excitability of primary afferents and synaptic transmission by examining the effects of DC on two spinal modulatory feed-back systems, presynaptic inhibition and post-activation depression, in an anaesthetized rat preparation...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Serena Fiocchi, Paolo Ravazzani, Alberto Priori, Marta Parazzini
Recent studies have shown that the specific application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the cerebellum can modulate cerebellar activity. In parallel, transcutaneous spinal DC stimulation (tsDCS) was found to be able to modulate conduction along the spinal cord and spinal cord functions. Of particular interest is the possible use of these techniques in pediatric age, since many pathologies and injuries, which affect the cerebellar cortex as well as spinal cord circuits, are diffuse in adults as well as in children...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Elzbieta Jankowska, Dominik Kaczmarek, Francesco Bolzoni, Ingela Hammar
The effects of trans-spinal direct current (DC) stimulation (tsDCS) on specific neuronal populations are difficult to elucidate, as it affects a variety of neuronal networks. However, facilitatory and depressive effects on neurons processing information from the skin and from muscles can be evaluated separately when weak (0.2-0.3 μA) DC is applied within restricted areas of the rat spinal cord. The effects of such local DC application were recently demonstrated to persist for at least 1 h, and to include changes in the excitability of afferent fibres and their synaptic actions...
May 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Zaghloul Ahmed
Spontaneous and evoked spinal activities interact to set the characteristics of emergent motor responses. Gamma motor neurons have feedforward and feedback functions in motor control, which are crucial for transforming motor commands into action. Meanwhile, the intrinsic excitability and functional connectivity of alpha motor neurons determine the accuracy of actions. In this study, we investigated the effects of trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) on spontaneous and cortically evoked activity of well-isolated single units of gamma and alpha motor neurons in mice...
February 2016: Physiological Reports
Weiguo Song, Alzahraa Amer, Daniel Ryan, John H Martin
An important strategy for promoting voluntary movements after motor system injury is to harness activity-dependent corticospinal tract (CST) plasticity. We combine forelimb motor cortex (M1) activation with co-activation of its cervical spinal targets in rats to promote CST sprouting and skilled limb movement after pyramidal tract lesion (PTX). We used a two-step experimental design in which we first established the optimal combined stimulation protocol in intact rats and then used the optimal protocol in injured animals to promote CST repair and motor recovery...
March 2016: Experimental Neurology
Alessandro Picelli, Elena Chemello, Paola Castellazzi, Laura Roncari, Andreas Waldner, Leopold Saltuari, Nicola Smania
PURPOSE: Preliminary evidence has shown no additional effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on robotic gait training in chronic stroke, probably due to the neural organization of locomotion involving cortical and spinal control. Our aim was to compare the combined effects of tDCS and transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) on robotic gait training in chronic stroke. METHODS: Thirty chronic stroke patients received ten 20-minute robot-assisted gait training sessions, five days a week, for 2 consecutive weeks combined with anodal tDCS + sham tsDCS (group 1; n = 10) or sham tDCS + cathodal tsDCS (group 2; n = 10) or tDCS + cathodal tsDCS (group 3; n = 10)...
2015: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Tommaso Bocci, Matteo Caleo, Beatrice Vannini, Maurizio Vergari, Filippo Cogiamanian, Simone Rossi, Alberto Priori, Ferdinando Sartucci
BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS) is a noninvasive technique based on the application of weak electrical currents over spinal cord. NEW METHOD: We studied the effects of tsDCS on interhemispheric motor connectivity and visual processing by evaluating changes in ipsilateral Silent Period (iSP), Transcallosal Conduction Time (TCT) and hemifield Visual Evoked Potentials (hVEPs), before (T0) and at a different intervals following sham, anodal and cathodal tsDCS (T9-T11 level, 2...
October 30, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Tommaso Bocci, Sara Marceglia, Maurizio Vergari, Valeria Cognetto, Filippo Cogiamanian, Ferdinando Sartucci, Alberto Priori
This study aimed to assess the effects of thoracic anodal and cathodal transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) on upper and lower limb corticospinal excitability. Although there have been studies assessing how thoracic tsDCS influences the spinal ascending tract and reflexes, none has assessed the effects of this technique over upper and lower limb corticomotor neuronal connections. In 14 healthy subjects we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) from abductor hallucis (AH) and hand abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles before (baseline) and at different time points (0 and 30 min) after anodal or cathodal tsDCS (2...
July 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
Tommaso Bocci, Davide Barloscio, Maurizio Vergari, Andrea Di Rollo, Simone Rossi, Alberto Priori, Ferdinando Sartucci
OBJECTIVE: Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a new and safe technique for modulating spinal cord excitability. We assessed changes in intracortical excitability following tsDCS by evaluating changes in cortical silent period (cSP), paired-pulse short intracortical inhibition (SICI), and intracortical facilitation (ICF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy subjects were studied before (T0) and at different intervals (T1 and T2) after anodal, cathodal, and sham tsDCS (20', 2...
December 2015: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
A Perrotta, M Bolla, M G Anastasio, M Serrao, G Sandrini, F Pierelli
OBJECTIVE: Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) modulates spinal cord pain pathways. The study is aimed to clarify the neurophysiology of the tsDCS-induced modulation of the spinal cord pain processing by evaluating the effect of the tsDCS on temporal summation threshold (TST) of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR). METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study the effects of anodal, cathodal and sham tsDCS (2 mA, 15 min) applied on the skin overlying the thoracic spinal cord were investigated in 10 healthy subjects...
January 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Weiguo Song, Dennis Q Truong, Marom Bikson, John H Martin
Motor cortex (MCX) motor representation reorganization occurs after injury, learning, and different long-term stimulation paradigms. The neuromodulatory approach of transspinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) has been used to promote evoked cortical motor responses. In the present study, we used cathodal tsDCS (c-tsDCS) of the rat cervical cord to determine if spinal cord activation can modify the MCX forelimb motor map. We used a finite-element method model based on coregistered high-resolution rat MRI and microcomputed tomography imaging data to predict spinal current density to target stimulation to the caudal cervical enlargement...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
C H Meyer-Frießem, L M Haag, T Schmidt-Wilcke, W Magerl, E M Pogatzki-Zahn, M Tegenthoff, P K Zahn
Non-invasive approaches to pain management are needed to manage patient pain escalation and to providing sufficient pain relief. Here, we evaluate the potential of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) to modulate pain sensitivity to electrical stimuli and mechanical pinpricks in 24 healthy subjects in a sham-controlled, single-blind study. Pain ratings to mechanical pinpricks and electrical stimuli were recorded prior to and at three time points (0, 30, and 60min) following 15min of anodal tsDCS (2...
March 4, 2015: Neuroscience Letters
Marie-Cécile Niérat, Thomas Similowski, Jean-Charles Lamy
Although compelling evidence has demonstrated considerable neuroplasticity in the respiratory control system, few studies have explored the possibility of altering descending projections to phrenic motoneurons (PMNs) using noninvasive stimulation protocols. The present study was designed to investigate the immediate and long-lasting effects of a single session of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS), a promising technique for modulating spinal cord functions, on descending ventilatory commands in healthy humans...
October 22, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Zaghloul Ahmed
The spinal cord is extremely complex. Therefore, trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is expected to produce a multitude of neurophysiological changes. Here, we asked how tsDCS differentially affects synaptic and nonsynaptic transmission. We investigated the effects of tsDCS on synaptically mediated responses by stimulating the medullary longitudinal fascicle and recording responses in the sciatic nerve and triceps and tibialis anterior muscles. Response amplitude was increased during cathodal-tsDCS (c-tsDCS), but reduced during anodal-tsDCS (a-tsDCS)...
September 1, 2014: Physiological Reports
A C Heide, T Winkler, H J Helms, M A Nitsche, C Trenkwalder, W Paulus, C G Bachmann
BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a new non-invasive technique to modulate spinal cord activity. The pathophysiological concept of primary RLS proposes increased spinal excitability. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study used tsDCS to reduce pathologically enhanced spinal excitability in RLS patients and to thereby ameliorate clinical symptoms. METHODS: 20 patients with idiopathic RLS and 14 healthy subjects participated in this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study...
September 2014: Brain Stimulation
Tommaso Bocci, Beatrice Vannini, Antonio Torzini, Andrea Mazzatenta, Maurizio Vergari, Filippo Cogiamanian, Alberto Priori, Ferdinando Sartucci
Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a new promising technique for modulating spinal cord function in humans. However, its effects on corticospinal pathways and lower motorneuron excitability are poorly understood. We studied the effects of tsDCS on motor unit recruitment by evaluating changes in motor unit number (MUNE) and peripheral silent period (PSP) after sham (s-tsDCS), anodal (a-tsDCS) and cathodal (c-tsDCS) tsDCS applied either over the cervical or the lower thoracic spinal cord in healthy subjects...
August 22, 2014: Neuroscience Letters
Marta Parazzini, Serena Fiocchi, Ilaria Liorni, Elena Rossi, Filippo Cogiamanian, Maurizio Vergari, Alberto Priori, Paolo Ravazzani
OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) induces changes in spinal cord function in humans. Nonetheless, the current density (J) spatial distributions generated by tsDCS are unknown. This work aimed to estimate the J distributions in the spinal cord during tsDCS. METHODS: Computational electromagnetics techniques were applied to realistic human models, based on high-resolution MRI of healthy volunteers (a 26-years-old female adult model "Ella"; a 14years-old male adolescent model "Louis"; an 11years old female adolescent model "Billie")...
November 2014: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Jean-Charles Lamy, Maxwell Boakye
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) is one of many genes thought to influence neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the BDNF gene due to valine-to-methionine substitution at codon 66 (BDNF Val66Met) in the normal population has been associated with complex neuronal phenotype, including differences in brain morphology, episodic memory, or cortical plasticity following brain stimulation and is believed to influence synaptic changes following motor learning task...
July 2013: Journal of Neurophysiology
M Hubli, V Dietz, M Schrafl-Altermatt, M Bolliger
OBJECTIVE: Spinal neuronal function is impaired after a severe spinal cord injury (SCI) and can be assessed by the analysis of spinal reflex (SR) behavior. We applied transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) and locomotor activity, to determine whether the excitability of spinal neuronal circuitries underlying locomotion can be modulated after motor complete SCI. METHOD: SRs were evoked by non-noxious electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve. SR behavior was assessed before, immediately after, and 20 min after four different interventions (anodal, cathodal, sham tsDCS, or locomotion) in subjects with motor complete SCI and healthy subjects...
June 2013: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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