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Giulia Prete, Anita D'Anselmo, Luca Tommasi, Alfredo Brancucci
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been increasingly adopted to modulate perceptual and cognitive functions, but the effects on auditory perception are still relatively uncharted. Starting from the evidence that a stronger right ear advantage effect (REA) in dichotic listening positively correlates with speech sound processing, the present study was aimed at modulating the REA by means of high-frequency transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (hf-tRNS). Stimulation was applied over the auditory cortex (AC) either unilaterally (Experiment 1, N = 50) or bilaterally (Experiment 2, N = 24) during a verbal dichotic listening task...
March 13, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Naoki Ohno, Tosiaki Miyati, Shuto Suzuki, Hirohito Kan, Toshitaka Aoki, Yoshitaka Nakamura, Yuki Hiramatsu, Satoshi Kobayashi, Toshifumi Gabata
PURPOSE: To suppress olefinic signals and enable simultaneous and quantitative estimation of multiple functional parameters associated with water and lipid, we investigated a modified method using chemical shift displacement and recovery-based separation of lipid tissue (SPLIT) involving acquisitions with different inversion times (TIs), echo times (TEs), and b-values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-shot diffusion echo-planar imaging (SSD-EPI) with multiple b-values (0-3000 s/mm2 ) was performed without fat suppression to separate water and lipid images using the chemical shift displacement of lipid signals in the phase-encoding direction...
March 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Jeffrey L Bennetzen, Minkyu Park
Most annotations of large eukaryotic genomes initially find transposable elements (TEs) and other repeats, then mask them so that subsequent efforts can be concentrated on the annotation and study of non-TE genes. However, TEs often contribute to host biology, and their community biologies are of intrinsic interest. This review discusses the challenges, rationale and technologies for comprehensive TE annotation in the commonly giant genomes of animals and plants. Complete discovery of the TEs in a fully sequenced genome is laborious, but feasible, with current strategies in the hands of a careful researcher...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Mark N Belkin, Cesar E Soria, Albert L Waldo, C Jan Willem Borleffs, David L Hayes, Roderick Tung, Jagmeet P Singh, Gaurav A Upadhyay
BACKGROUND: Despite the clear association between atrial fibrillation and risk for thromboembolic events (TEs), the clinical significance of new-onset device-detected atrial tachyarrhythmia (DDAT) and TE remains disputed. We aimed to determine the risk of TE in patients with new-onset DDAT. METHODS AND RESULTS: The OVID Medline, Cochrane, and Scopus databases (inception to November 2016) were searched. Randomized controlled trials, prospective, or retrospective studies of pacemaker or defibrillator patients reporting incidence of DDAT were selected...
March 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Lu Zeng, R Daniel Kortschak, Joy M Raison, Terry Bertozzi, David L Adelson
Transposable Elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences that make up significant fractions of amniote genomes. However, they are difficult to detect and annotate ab initio because of their variable features, lengths and clade-specific variants. We have addressed this problem by refining and developing a Comprehensive ab initio Repeat Pipeline (CARP) to identify and cluster TEs and other repetitive sequences in genome assemblies. The pipeline begins with a pairwise alignment using krishna, a custom aligner. Single linkage clustering is then carried out to produce families of repetitive elements...
2018: PloS One
Aoi Hosaka, Tetsuji Kakutani
Although transposable elements (TEs) have been regarded as genomic parasites, accumulating evidence suggests that they can also have beneficial roles in evolution of diverse biological processes. In this review, we focus on epigenetic control of TEs as sources of selectable phenotypic variation, with an emphasis on their connections to defense responses.
March 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Zoé Joly-Lopez, Thomas E Bureau
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements that were once perceived as merely selfish, but are now recognized as potent agents of adaptation. One way TEs contribute to genome evolution is through TE exaptation, a process whereby TEs, which usually persist by replicating in the genome, transform into novel host genes, which thereafter persist by conferring phenotypic benefits. Exapted TEs are known to contribute diverse and vital functions, and may facilitate punctuated equilibrium, yet we have little understanding about the process of TE exaptation...
March 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Pengcheng Sun, Heng Li, Zhuofan Lu, Xiaofan Su, Zengguang Ma, Jianpin Chen, Liming Li, Chuanqing Zhou, Yao Chen, Xinyu Chai
BACKGROUND: Electrical stimulation has been widely used in many ophthalmic diseases to modulate neuronal activities or restore partial visual function. Due to the different processing pathways and mechanisms, responses to visual and electrical stimulation in the primary visual cortex and higher visual areas might be different. This differences would shed some light on the properties of cortical responses evoked by electrical stimulation. OBJECTIVE: This study's goal was to directly compare the cortical responses evoked by visual and electrical stimulation and investigate the cortical processing of visual information and extrinsic electrical signal...
February 21, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Daniela A Grassi, Marie E Jönsson, Per Ludvik Brattås, Johan Jakobsson
TRIM28 is an epigenetic co-repressor protein that mediates transcriptional silencing. TRIM28 participates, together with the large family of Kruppel-associated box domain zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFP) transcription factors, in the repression of transposable elements (TE). Recent advances indicate that TRIM28-based repression of TEs occurs in the mammalian brain and may provide beneficial effects through the regulation of transcriptional networks. Here, we provide an overview of TRIM28-related functions, highlighting the role of controlling TEs in neural progenitor cells and discuss how this mechanism may have contributed to the evolution of the complex human brain...
March 6, 2018: Brain Research
Nadia Bolognini, Carlo Miniussi
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electric stimulation (tES) are noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) tools that are now widely used in neuroscientific research in humans. The fact that both TMS and tES are able to modulate brain plasticity and, in turn, affect behavior is opening up new horizons in the treatment of brain circuit and plasticity disorders. In the present chapter, we will first provide the reader with a brief background on the basic principles of NIBS, describing the electromagnetic and physical foundations of TMS and tES, as well as the current knowledge of the neurophysiologic basis of their effects on brain activity and plasticity...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Viktor Tokan, Janka Puterova, Matej Lexa, Eduard Kejnovsky
BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that guanine-rich DNA sequences form quadruplex structures (G4) in vitro but there is scarce evidence of guanine quadruplexes in vivo. The majority of potential quadruplex-forming sequences (PQS) are located in transposable elements (TEs), especially close to promoters within long terminal repeats of plant LTR retrotransposons. RESULTS: In order to test the potential effect of G4s on retrotransposon expression, we cloned the long terminal repeats of selected maize LTR retrotransposons upstream of the lacZ reporter gene and measured its transcription and translation in yeast...
March 6, 2018: BMC Genomics
Ying Jin, Molly Hammell
Transposable elements (TE) are mobile genetic elements that can readily change their genomic position. When not properly silenced, TEs can contribute a substantial portion to the cell's transcriptome, but are typically ignored in most RNA-seq data analyses. One reason for leaving TE-derived reads out of RNA-seq analyses is the complexities involved in properly aligning short sequencing reads to these highly repetitive regions. Here we describe a method for including TE-derived reads in RNA-seq differential expression analysis using an open source software package called TEtranscripts...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lu Wang, I King Jordan
A convergence of novel genome analysis technologies is enabling population genomic studies of human transposable elements (TEs). Population surveys of human genome sequences have uncovered thousands of individual TE insertions that segregate as common genetic variants, i.e. TE polymorphisms. These recent TE insertions provide an important source of naturally occurring human genetic variation. Investigators are beginning to leverage population genomic data sets to execute genome-scale association studies for assessing the phenotypic impact of human TE polymorphisms...
March 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Clément Gilbert, Cédric Feschotte
It is becoming clear that most eukaryotic transposable elements (TEs) owe their evolutionary success in part to horizontal transfer events, which enable them to invade new species. Recent large-scale studies are beginning to unravel the mechanisms and ecological factors underlying this mode of transmission. Viruses are increasingly recognized as vectors in the process but also as a direct source of genetic material horizontally acquired by eukaryotic organisms. Because TEs and endogenous viruses are major catalysts of variation and innovation in genomes, we argue that horizontal inheritance has had a more profound impact in eukaryotic evolution than is commonly appreciated...
March 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Kazuyuki Kubo, Hiroyuki Takei, Atsumori Hamahata, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Sakurai
PURPOSE: To prevent tissue expander (TE) exposure following mastectomy flap necrosis in immediate breast reconstruction, the TE is usually covered completely or partially with a musculofascial (MF) flap. This study compares the complications of the two coverage methods. METHODS: We reviewed, retrospectively, 106 cases of immediate TE-based breast reconstruction. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether complete or partial TE coverage was done...
March 5, 2018: Surgery Today
Yuefang Li, Zhen Li, Giulio Cozzi, Clara Turetta, Carlo Barbante, Ju Huang, Longfei Xiong
In order to extract pollution signal of trace elements (TEs) in glacier snow at the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau of China by human activities, concentrations of 18 TEs (Al, Ti, Fe, Rb, Sr, Ba, V, Cr, Mn, Li, Cu, Co, Mo, Cs, Sb, Pb, Tl, and U), 14 rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu), Y and Th in digested snow samples from five glaciers in April-May 2013 before monsoon season were measured. Results shown that higher TEs concentrations were found in glaciers at the northern plateau while lower concentrations in glaciers at the central and southern plateau...
February 23, 2018: Chemosphere
Andre Y F Tan, Magdy Sourial, John M Hutson, Bridget R Southwell
BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) using interferential current (IFC) is a new therapeutic treatment for constipation. Clinical studies show that TES-IFC for 3-6 months improves colonic transit, but it is not clear if short-term stimulation affects transit or the effect requires longer to develop. The aim of this study was to determine if TES-IFC for only four days affects oral-rectal transit time in healthy pigs. METHODS: Twenty-two 4-5-week old large white female piglets had transit studies during week 4 and week 5 by placing a capsule containing 18 radiopaque plastic markers in the esophagus under anesthetic followed by x-rays at 6, 30, 54, and 78 hours...
March 2, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Fuyuan Jing, Le Zhao, Marna D Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J Nikolau
The substrate specificity of acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) plays an essential role in controlling the fatty acid profile produced by type II fatty acid synthases. Here we identify two groups of residues that synergistically determine different substrate specificities of two acyl-ACP TEs from Cuphea viscosissima (CvFatB1 and CvFatB2). One group (V194, V217, N223, R226, R227, and I268 in CvFatB2) is critical in determining the structure and depth of a hydrophobic cavity in the N-terminal hotdog domain that binds the substrate's acyl moiety...
February 28, 2018: Nature Communications
Nicola Gerrett, Tatsuro Amano, Yoshimitsu Inoue, George Havenith, Narihiko Kondo
The sweat glands maximum ion reabsorption rates were investigated (n = 12, 21.7 ± 3.0 years, 59.4 ± 9.8 kg, 166.9 ± 10.4 cm and 47.1 ± 7.5 mL/kg/min) during two separate endogenous protocols; cycling at 30% (LEX) and 60% VO2max (MEX) and one exogenous trial; passive heating (PH) (43°C water lower leg immersion) in 27°C, 50%RH. Oesophageal temperature (Tes ), skin temperature (Tsk ), and forearm, chest and lower back sweat rate (SR) and galvanic skin conductance (GSC) were measured. Salivary aldosterone was measured pre-and postheating (n = 3)...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Andrea Coluccio, Gabriela Ecco, Julien Duc, Sandra Offner, Priscilla Turelli, Didier Trono
BACKGROUND: The KZFP/KAP1 (KRAB zinc finger proteins/KRAB-associated protein 1) system plays a central role in repressing transposable elements (TEs) and maintaining parent-of-origin DNA methylation at imprinting control regions (ICRs) during the wave of genome-wide reprogramming that precedes implantation. In naïve murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs), the genome is maintained highly hypomethylated by a combination of TET-mediated active demethylation and lack of de novo methylation, yet KAP1 is tethered by sequence-specific KZFPs to ICRs and TEs where it recruits histone and DNA methyltransferases to impose heterochromatin formation and DNA methylation...
February 26, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
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