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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238727/testosterone-metabolism-of-equine-single-cyps-of-the-3a-subfamily-compared-to-the-human-cyp3a4
#1
S Vimercati, M Büchi, J Zielinski, N Peduto, M Mevissen
Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) are responsible for the phase I metabolism of drugs, xenobiotics and endogenous substances. Knowledge of single CYPs and their substrates is important for drug metabolism, helps to predict adverse effects and may prevent reduced drug efficacy in polypharmacy. In this study, three equine isoenzymes of the 3A subfamily, the equine flavoprotein NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase (POR), and the cytochrome b5 (CYB5) were cloned, sequenced and heterologously expressed in a baculovirus expression system...
February 23, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228978/population-and-clinical-genetics-of-human-transposable-elements-in-the-post-genomic-era
#2
REVIEW
Lavanya Rishishwar, Lu Wang, Evan A Clayton, Leonardo Mariño-Ramírez, John F McDonald, I King Jordan
Recent technological developments-in genomics, bioinformatics and high-throughput experimental techniques-are providing opportunities to study ongoing human transposable element (TE) activity at an unprecedented level of detail. It is now possible to characterize genome-wide collections of TE insertion sites for multiple human individuals, within and between populations, and for a variety of tissue types. Comparison of TE insertion site profiles between individuals captures the germline activity of TEs and reveals insertion site variants that segregate as polymorphisms among human populations, whereas comparison among tissue types ascertains somatic TE activity that generates cellular heterogeneity...
2017: Mobile Genetic Elements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228849/considerations-and-complications-of-mapping-small-rna-high-throughput-data-to-transposable-elements
#3
Alexandros Bousios, Brandon S Gaut, Nikos Darzentas
BACKGROUND: High-throughput sequencing (HTS) has revolutionized the way in which epigenetic research is conducted. When coupled with fully-sequenced genomes, millions of small RNA (sRNA) reads are mapped to regions of interest and the results scrutinized for clues about epigenetic mechanisms. However, this approach requires careful consideration in regards to experimental design, especially when one investigates repetitive parts of genomes such as transposable elements (TEs), or when such genomes are large, as is often the case in plants...
2017: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228418/folic-acid-supplementation-increases-cutaneous-vasodilator-sensitivity-to-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-older-adults
#4
Anna E Stanhewicz, Jody L Greaney, Lacy M Alexander, W Larry Kenney
During heat stress, blunted increases in skin sympathetic nervous system activity (SSNA) and reductions in end-organ vascular responsiveness contribute to the age-related reduction in reflex cutaneous vasodilation. In older adults, folic acid supplementation improves the cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) response to passive heating; however, the influence of folic acid supplementation on SSNA:CVC transduction is unknown. Fourteen older adults (66±1yrs, 8M/6F) ingested folic acid (5mg·day(-1)) or placebo for 6 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227520/cross-frequency-information-transfer-from-eeg-to-emg-in-grasping
#5
Winnie K Y So, Lingling Yang, Beth Jelfs, Qi She, Savio W H Wong, Joseph N Mak, Rosa H M Chan, Winnie K Y So, Lingling Yang, Beth Jelfs, Qi She, Savio W H Wong, Joseph N Mak, Rosa H M Chan, Rosa H M Chan, Beth Jelfs, Savio W H Wong, Lingling Yang, Qi She, Joseph N Mak, Winnie K Y So
This paper presents an investigation into the cortico-muscular relationship during a grasping task by evaluating the information transfer between EEG and EMG signals. Information transfer was computed via a non-linear model-free measure, transfer entropy (TE). To examine the cross-frequency interaction, TEs were computed after the times series were decomposed into various frequency ranges via wavelet transform. Our results demonstrate the capability of TE to capture the direct interaction between EEG and EMG...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226855/on-comparing-in-vivo-intracranial-recordings-in-non-human-primates-to-predictions-of-optimized-transcranial-electrical-stimulation
#6
Abhishek Datta, Matthew R Krause, Praveen K Pilly, Jaehoon Choe, Theodoras P Zanos, Chris Thomas, Christopher C Pack, Abhishek Datta, Matthew R Krause, Praveen K Pilly, Jaehoon Choe, Theodoras P Zanos, Chris Thomas, Christopher C Pack, Jaehoon Choe, Chris Thomas, Theodoros P Zanos, Abhishek Datta, Praveen K Pilly, Christopher C Pack, Matthew R Krause
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) can be optimized to achieve maximal current flow at desired brain regions. The aim of this study was to characterize electric field magnitudes generated by tES optimization and to compare them to experimentally induced values as determined by data from intracranial electrodes. Local field potentials were recorded from two monkeys with implanted multi-site intracranial Utah arrays during transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and the neural effect predictions obtained from optimized electrode placement were assessed...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207775/the-contribution-of-gender-based-violence-and-network-trauma-to-gender-differences-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#7
Derrick Silove, Jess R Baker, Mohammed Mohsin, Maree Teesson, Mark Creamer, Meaghan O'Donnell, David Forbes, Natacha Carragher, Tim Slade, Katherine Mills, Richard Bryant, Alexander McFarlane, Zachary Steel, Kim Felmingham, Susan Rees
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs twice as commonly amongst women as men. Two common domains of trauma, network trauma and gender based violence (GBV), may contribute to this gender difference in PTSD rates. We examined data from a nationally representative sample of the Australian population to clarify the characteristics of these two trauma domains in their contributions to PTSD rates in men and women. METHODS: We drew on data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being to assess gender differences across a comprehensive range of trauma domains, including (1) prevalence of lifetime exposure; (2) identification of an index trauma or DSM-IV Criterion A event; and (3) the likelihood of developing full DSM-IV PTSD symptoms once an index trauma was identified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204924/genome-wide-analysis-of-transposable-elements-in-the-coffee-berry-borer-hypothenemus-hampei-coleoptera-curculionidae-description-of-novel-families
#8
Eric M Hernandez-Hernandez, Rita Daniela Fernández-Medina, Lucio Navarro-Escalante, Jonathan Nuñez, Pablo Benavides-Machado, Claudia M A Carareto
The coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei is the most limiting pest of coffee production worldwide. The CBB genome has been recently sequenced; however, information regarding the presence and characteristics of transposable elements (TEs) was not provided. Using systematic searching strategies based on both de novo and homology-based approaches, we present a library of TEs from the draft genome of CBB sequenced by the Colombian Coffee Growers Federation. The library consists of 880 sequences classified as 66% Class I (LTRs: 46%, non-LTRs: 20%) and 34% Class II (DNA transposons: 8%, Helitrons: 16% and MITEs: 10%) elements, including families of the three main LTR (Gypsy, Bel-Pao and Copia) and non-LTR (CR1, Daphne, I/Nimb, Jockey, Kiri, R1, R2 and R4) clades and DNA superfamilies (Tc1-mariner, hAT, Merlin, P, PIF-Harbinger, PiggyBac and Helitron)...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199335/ecological-networks-to-unravel-the-routes-to-horizontal-transposon-transfers
#9
Samuel Venner, Vincent Miele, Christophe Terzian, Christian Biémont, Vincent Daubin, Cédric Feschotte, Dominique Pontier
Transposable elements (TEs) represent the single largest component of numerous eukaryotic genomes, and their activity and dispersal constitute an important force fostering evolutionary innovation. The horizontal transfer of TEs (HTT) between eukaryotic species is a common and widespread phenomenon that has had a profound impact on TE dynamics and, consequently, on the evolutionary trajectory of many species' lineages. However, the mechanisms promoting HTT remain largely unknown. In this article, we argue that network theory combined with functional ecology provides a robust conceptual framework and tools to delineate how complex interactions between diverse organisms may act in synergy to promote HTTs...
February 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194564/xylogenesis-in-zinnia-zinnia-elegans-cell-cultures-unravelling%C3%A2-the-regulatory-steps-in-a-complex-developmental-programmed-cell-death-event
#10
REVIEW
Elena T Iakimova, Ernst J Woltering
Physiological and molecular studies support the view that xylogenesis can largely be determined as a specific form of vacuolar programmed cell death (PCD). The studies in xylogenic zinnia cell culture have led to many breakthroughs in xylogenesis research and provided a background for investigations in other experimental models in vitro and in planta . This review discusses the most essential earlier and recent findings on the regulation of xylem elements differentiation and PCD in zinnia and other xylogenic systems...
February 13, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194103/reassessment-of-non-monosynaptic-excitation-from-the-motor-cortex-to-motoneurons-in-single-motor-units-of-the-human-biceps-brachii
#11
Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Toshiki Tazoe, Masanori Sakamoto, Takashi Endoh, Satoshi Shibuya, Leonardo A Elias, Rinaldo A Mezzarane, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Yukari Ohki
Corticospinal excitation is mediated by polysynaptic pathways in several vertebrates, including dexterous monkeys. However, indirect non-monosynaptic excitation has not been clearly observed following transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) or cervicomedullary stimulation (CMS) in humans. The present study evaluated indirect motor pathways in normal human subjects by recording the activities of single motor units (MUs) in the biceps brachii (BB) muscle. The pyramidal tract was stimulated with weak TES, CMS, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) contralateral to the recording side...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193737/exogenous-transposable-elements-circumvent-identity-based-silencing-permitting-the-dissection-of-expression-dependent-silencing
#12
Dalen Fultz, R Keith Slotkin
The propagation of epigenetic marks has received a great deal of attention, yet the initiation of epigenetic silencing of a new transgene, virus, or transposable element (TE) remains enigmatic. The overlapping and simultaneous function of multiple silencing mechanisms has obscured this area of investigation. Here, we have revealed two broad mechanisms that can initiate silencing independently: identity-based and expression-dependent silencing. We found that identity-based silencing is targeted by 21-22 or 24 nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) generated from previously silenced regions of the genome...
February 13, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187389/atmospheric-wet-deposition-of-dissolved-trace-elements-to-jiaozhou-bay-north-china-fluxes-sources-and-potential-effects-on-aquatic-environments
#13
Jianwei Xing, Jinming Song, Huamao Yuan, Qidong Wang, Xuegang Li, Ning Li, Liqin Duan, Baoxiao Qu
To analyze the fluxes, seasonal variations, sources and potential ecological effects of dissolved trace elements (TEs) in atmospheric wet deposition (AWD), one-year wet precipitation samples were collected and determined for nine TEs in Jiaozhou Bay (JZB) between June 2015 and May 2016. Both the volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration and flux sequence for the measured TEs was Al > Mn > Zn > Fe > Pb > Se > Cr > Cd > Co. Al was the most abundant TE with a VWM concentration and wet flux of 33...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185733/evaluating-the-potential-health-risk-of-toxic-trace-elements-in-vegetables-accounting-for-variations-in-soil-factors
#14
Yang Yang, Weiping Chen, Meie Wang, Yanling Li, Chi Peng
Vegetable crop consumption is one of the main sources of dietary exposure to toxic trace elements (TEs). A paired survey of soil and vegetable samples was conducted in 589 agricultural sites in the Youxian prefecture, southern China, to investigate the effect of soil factors on the accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in different vegetables. A site-specific model was developed to estimate the health risk from vegetable consumption. The TE concentration varied in different plant species, and rape can be cultivated in contaminated areas for its potential use in restricting the transfer of TE from soil to edible plant parts...
February 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166742/analysis-of-small-rnas-revealed-differential-expressions-during-pollen-and-embryo-sac-development-in-autotetraploid-rice
#15
Xiang Li, Muhammad Qasim Shahid, Juan Xia, Zijun Lu, Na Fang, Lan Wang, Jinwen Wu, Zhixiong Chen, Xiangdong Liu
BACKGROUND: Partial pollen and embryo sac sterilities are the two main reasons for low fertility in autotetraploid rice. Our previous study revealed that small RNAs changes may associate with pollen fertility in autotetraploid rice. However, knowledge on comparative analysis between the development of pollen and embryo sac by small RNAs in autotetraploid rice is still unknown. In the present study, WE-CLSM (whole-mount eosin B-staining confocal laser scanning microscopy) and high-throughput sequencing technology was employed to examine the cytological variations and to analyze small RNAs changes during pollen and embryo sac development in autotetraploid rice compared with its diploid counterpart...
February 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165062/hybridogenesis-and-a-potential-case-of-r2-non-ltr-retrotransposon-horizontal-transmission-in-bacillus-stick-insects-insecta-phasmida
#16
Claudia Scavariello, Andrea Luchetti, Francesco Martoni, Livia Bonandin, Barbara Mantovani
Horizontal transfer (HT) is an event in which the genetic material is transferred from one species to another, even if distantly related, and it has been demonstrated as a possible essential part of the lifecycle of transposable elements (TEs). However, previous studies on the non-LTR R2 retrotransposon, a metazoan-wide distributed element, indicated its vertical transmission since the Radiata-Bilateria split. Here we present the first possible instances of R2 HT in stick insects of the genus Bacillus (Phasmida)...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153510/efficacy-of-electrical-pudendal-nerve-stimulation-versus-transvaginal-electrical-stimulation-in-treating-female-idiopathic-urgency-urinary-incontinence
#17
Siyou Wang, Jianwei Lv, Xiaoming Feng, Tingting Lv
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacies of electrical pudendal nerve stimulation (EPNS) versus transvaginal electrical stimulation (TES) in treating female idiopathic urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty female patients with idiopathic urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) refractory to medication were randomized, at a ratio of 2:1, into groupⅠof 80 cases and groupⅡof 40 cases. GroupsⅠandⅡwere treated by EPNS and transvaginal electrical stimulation (TES), respectively...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153421/anatomic-comparison-of-traditional-and-enucleation-partial-nephrectomy-specimens
#18
Adam C Calaway, Dibson D Gondim, Chandra K Flack, Joseph M Jacob, Muhammad T Idrees, Ronald S Boris
OBJECTIVE: To compare pseudocapsule (PC) properties of clear cell renal cell carcinoma tumors removed via both traditional partial nephrectomy (PNx) and enucleative techniques as well as quantify the difference in volume of normal renal parenchyma removed between groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of clear cell PNx specimens between 2011 and 2014 was performed. All patients undergoing tumor enucleation (TE) were included. A single pathologist reviewed the pathological specimens...
January 30, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149701/relocate2-a-high-resolution-transposable-element-insertion-site-mapping-tool-for-population-resequencing
#19
Jinfeng Chen, Travis R Wrightsman, Susan R Wessler, Jason E Stajich
BACKGROUND: Transposable element (TE) polymorphisms are important components of population genetic variation. The functional impacts of TEs in gene regulation and generating genetic diversity have been observed in multiple species, but the frequency and magnitude of TE variation is under appreciated. Inexpensive and deep sequencing technology has made it affordable to apply population genetic methods to whole genomes with methods that identify single nucleotide and insertion/deletion polymorphisms...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146551/correction-normal-levels-of-sox9-expression-in-the-developing-mouse-testis-depend-on-the-tes-tesco-enhancer-but-this-does-not-act-alone
#20
Nitzan Gonen, Alexander Quinn, Helen C O'Neill, Peter Koopman, Robin Lovell-Badge
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006520.].
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
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