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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130647/randomized-controlled-trial-of-electro-stimulation-therapies-to-modulate-retinal-blood-flow-and-visual-function-in-retinitis-pigmentosa
#1
Ava K Bittner, Kenneth Seger, Rachel Salveson, Samantha Kayser, Natalia Morrison, Patricia Vargas, Deborah Mendelsohn, Jorge Han, Hua Bi, Gislin Dagnelie, Alexandra Benavente, Jessica Ramella-Roman
PURPOSE: We examined changes in visual function and ocular and retinal blood flow (RBF) among retinitis pigmentosa (RP) participants in a randomized controlled trial of electro-stimulation therapies. METHODS: Twenty-one RP participants were randomized (1:1:1) to transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) at 6 weekly half-hour sessions, electro-acupuncture or inactive laser acupuncture (sham control) at 10 half-hour sessions over 2 weeks. Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) visual acuity (VA), quick contrast sensitivity function, Goldmann visual fields, AdaptDx scotopic sensitivity, spectral flow and colour Doppler imaging of the central retinal artery (CRA), and RBF in macular capillaries were measured twice pre-treatment, after 2 TES sessions, within a week and a month after intervention completion...
November 11, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129910/thermostable-exoshells-fold-and-stabilize-recombinant-proteins
#2
Siddharth Deshpande, Nihar D Masurkar, Vallerinteavide Mavelli Girish, Malan Desai, Goutam Chakraborty, Juliana M Chan, Chester L Drum
The expression and stabilization of recombinant proteins is fundamental to basic and applied biology. Here we have engineered a thermostable protein nanoparticle (tES) to improve both expression and stabilization of recombinant proteins using this technology. tES provides steric accommodation and charge complementation to green fluorescent protein (GFPuv), horseradish peroxidase (HRPc), and Renilla luciferase (rLuc), improving the yields of functional in vitro folding by ~100-fold. Encapsulated enzymes retain the ability to metabolize small-molecule substrates, presumably via four 4...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128578/electrical-brain-stimulation-tes-improves-learning-more-than-performance-a-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Bianca A Simonsmeier, Roland H Grabner, Julia Hein, Ugne Krenz, Michael Schneider
Researchers have recently started evaluating whether stimulating the brain noninvasively with a weak and painless electrical current (transcranial Electrical Stimulation, tES) enhances physiological and cognitive processes. Some studies found that tES has weak but positive effects on brain physiology, cognition, or assessment performance, which have attracted massive public interest. We present the first meta-analytic test of the hypothesis that tES in a learning phase is more effective than tES in an assessment phase...
November 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127512/surgical-management-of-spinal-solitary-fibrous-tumor-hemangiopericytoma-a-case-series-of-20-patients
#4
Qi Jia, Zhenhua Zhou, Dan Zhang, Jian Yang, Chao Liu, Ting Wang, Zhipeng Wu, Cheng Yang, Haifeng Wei, Jian Zhao, Tielong Liu, Wang Zhou, Xinghai Yang, Jianru Xiao
PURPOSE: Spinal solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC), a rare mesenchymal tumor that arises from pericytes of Zimmerman, comprises only 0.08% of all primary bone tumors and 0.1% of primary malignant bone tumor and rarely occurs in the spine. We attempt to correlate the clinical factors and different treatment options with the recurrence rate and overall survival of SFT/HPC over time. METHODS: A retrospective study of 20 patients with spinal osseous SFT/HPCs who were surgically treated in our center between 2003 and 2015 was performed...
November 10, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127279/the-emergence-of-pirnas-against-transposon-invasion-to-preserve-mammalian-genome-integrity
#5
REVIEW
Christina Ernst, Duncan T Odom, Claudia Kutter
Transposable elements (TEs) contribute to the large amount of repetitive sequences in mammalian genomes and have been linked to species-specific genome innovations by rewiring regulatory circuitries. However, organisms need to restrict TE activity to ensure genome integrity, especially in germline cells to protect the transmission of genetic information to the next generation. This review features our current understandings of mammalian PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and their role in TE regulation in spermatogenesis...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126811/properties-of-tonic-episodes-of-masseter-muscle-activity-during-waking-hours-and-sleep-in-subjects-with-and-without-history-of-orofacial-pain
#6
Acing Habibie Mude, Shigehisa Kawakami, Seiya Kato, Shogo Minagi
PURPOSE: To provide a scientific data related to the tonic activity of masseter muscle in subjects with and without history of orofacial pain during their normal daily life. METHODS: Thirty-three subjects were divided into two groups, a pain history group (PHG) and a non-pain history group (non-PHG), based on their responses to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders questionnaire. After excluding four subjects with incomplete recordings, full-day masseter muscle surface EMGs of 29 subjects (10 men, 19 women; mean age 24...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126199/evolutionary-epigenomics-of-retrotransposon-mediated-methylation-spreading-in-rice-by
#7
Jae Young Choi, Michael D Purugganan
Plant genomes contain numerous transposable elements (TEs), and many hypotheses on the evolutionary drivers that restrict TE activity have been postulated. Few models, however, have focused on the evolutionary epigenomic interaction between the plant host and its TE. The host genome recruits epigenetic factors, such as methylation, to silence TEs but methylation can spread beyond the TE sequence and influence the expression of nearby host genes. In this study, we investigated this epigenetic trade-off between TE and proximal host gene silencing by studying the epigenomic regulation of repressing long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons (RTs) in Oryza sativa...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122535/limited-output-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-lotes-2017-engineering-principles-regulatory-statutes-and-industry-standards-for-wellness-over-the-counter-or-prescription-devices-with-low-risk
#8
Marom Bikson, Bhaskar Paneri, Andoni Mourdoukoutas, Zeinab Esmaeilpour, Bashar W Badran, Robin Azzam, Devin Adair, Abhishek Datta, Xiao Hui Fang, Brett Wingeier, Daniel Chao, Miguel Alonso-Alonso, Kiwon Lee, Helena Knotkova, Adam J Woods, David Hagedorn, Doug Jeffery, James Giordano, William J Tyler
We present device standards for low-power non-invasive electrical brain stimulation devices classified as limited output transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). Emerging applications of limited output tES to modulate brain function span techniques to stimulate brain or nerve structures, including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS), have engendered discussion on how access to technology should be regulated...
October 17, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115936/analyses-of-methylomes-of-upland-and-lowland-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-ecotypes-using-medip-seq-and-bs-seq
#9
Mollee Dworkin, Shaojun Xie, Malay Saha, Jyothi Thimmapuram, Venu Kal Kalavacharla
BACKGROUND: Switchgrass is a crop with many desirable traits for bioenergy production. Plant genomes have high DNA methylation levels throughout genes and transposable elements and DNA methylation is known to play a role in silencing transposable elements. Here we analyzed methylomes in two switchgrass genotypes AP13 and VS16. AP13 is derived from a lowland ecotype and VS16, typically considered drought-tolerant, is derived from an upland ecotype, both genotypes are tetraploid (2n = 4× = 36)...
November 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113921/antihypertensive-responses-of-vasoactive-androgens-in-an-in-vivo-experimental-model-of-preeclampsia
#10
Mercedes Perusquía, Andrea E Hanson, Claudia M Meza, Cris Kubli, Nieves Herrera, John N Stallone
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (TES) and its 5-reduced metabolites induce a nongenomic vasorelaxation in several vascular beds of mammals; similarly these hormones produce systemic hypotensive and antihypertensive responses in normotensive and hypertensive male rats. Thus, it was hypothesized that the antihypertensive response of androgens, whose levels are elevated during gestation, protect against gestational hypertension. An animal model of preeclampsia was induced in female Wistar rats using DOCA-salt-treated pregnant (PT) and normal pregnant (NP) rats...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109221/coevolution-between-transposable-elements-and-recombination
#11
REVIEW
Tyler V Kent, Jasmina Uzunović, Stephen I Wright
One of the most striking patterns of genome structure is the tight, typically negative, association between transposable elements (TEs) and meiotic recombination rates. While this is a highly recurring feature of eukaryotic genomes, the mechanisms driving correlations between TEs and recombination remain poorly understood, and distinguishing cause versus effect is challenging. Here, we review the evidence for a relation between TEs and recombination, and discuss the underlying evolutionary forces. Evidence to date suggests that overall TE densities correlate negatively with recombination, but the strength of this correlation varies across element types, and the pattern can be reversed...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107363/effects-of-biochar-addition-on-toxic-element-concentrations-in-plants-a-meta-analysis
#12
Xin Peng, Yinger Deng, Yan Peng, Kai Yue
Consuming food contaminated by toxic elements (TEs) could pose a substantial risk to human health. Recently, biochar has been extensively studied as an effective soil ameliorant in situ because of its ability to suppress the phytoavailability of TEs. However, despite the research interest, the effects of biochar applications to soil on different TE concentrations in different plant parts remain unclear. Here, we synthesize 1813 individual observations data collected from 97 articles to evaluate the effects of biochar addition on TE concentrations in plant parts...
October 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100015/an-endosirna-based-repression-mechanism-counteracts-transposon-activation-during-global-dna-demethylation-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#13
Rebecca V Berrens, Simon Andrews, Dominik Spensberger, Fátima Santos, Wendy Dean, Poppy Gould, Jafar Sharif, Nelly Olova, Tamir Chandra, Haruhiko Koseki, Ferdinand von Meyenn, Wolf Reik
Erasure of DNA methylation and repressive chromatin marks in the mammalian germline leads to risk of transcriptional activation of transposable elements (TEs). Here, we used mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to identify an endosiRNA-based mechanism involved in suppression of TE transcription. In ESCs with DNA demethylation induced by acute deletion of Dnmt1, we saw an increase in sense transcription at TEs, resulting in an abundance of sense/antisense transcripts leading to high levels of ARGONAUTE2 (AGO2)-bound small RNAs...
November 2, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093455/using-non-invasive-transcranial-stimulation-to-improve-motor-and-cognitive-function-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Alicia M Goodwill, Jarrad A G Lum, Ashlee M Hendy, Makii Muthalib, Liam Johnson, Natalia Albein-Urios, Wei-Peng Teo
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor and cognitive abilities. There is no cure for PD, therefore identifying safe therapies to alleviate symptoms remains a priority. This meta-analysis quantified the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) to improve motor and cognitive dysfunction in PD. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus, Library of Congress and Cochrane library were searched...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083924/interface-confined-doubly-anisotropic-oxidation-of-two-dimensional-mos2
#15
Yejin Ryu, Wontaek Kim, Seonghyun Koo, Haneul Kang, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Sunmin Ryu
Despite their importance, chemical reactions confined in a low dimensional space are elusive and experimentally intractable. In this work, we report doubly anisotropic, in-plane and out-of-plane, oxidation reactions of two-dimensional crystals, by resolving interface-confined thermal oxidation of a single and multilayer MoS2 supported on silica substrates from their conventional surface reaction. Using optical second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of artificially stacked multilayers, we directly proved that crystallographically oriented triangular oxides (TOs) were formed in the bottommost layer while triangular etch pits (TEs) were generated in the topmost layer and that both structures were terminated with zigzag edges...
November 2, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080836/identification-of-a-novel-mutation-in-the-fgfr3-gene-in-a-chinese-family-with-hypochondroplasia
#16
Jing Chen, Jiangfei Yang, Suzhou Zhao, Hui Ying, Guimei Li, Chao Xu
BACKGROUND: Hypochondroplasia (HCH; OMIM 146000) is a common autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature, short extremities, relative macrocephaly, and lumbar lordosis. Because of its clinical and genetic heterogeneity, gene mutational analysis is particularly important in diagnosis and the phenotypes may be ameliorated if diagnosed early. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we examined a Chinese family with HCH, performed an inductive analysis of their clinical features and radiographic results, and applied targeted exome sequencing (TES) technology to perform a molecular diagnosis...
October 25, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078757/transposable-elements-generate-population-specific-insertional-patterns-and-allelic-variation-in-genes-of-wild-emmer-wheat-triticum-turgidum-ssp-dicoccoides
#17
Katherine Domb, Danielle Keidar, Beery Yaakov, Vadim Khasdan, Khalil Kashkush
BACKGROUND: Natural populations of the tetraploid wild emmer wheat (genome AABB) were previously shown to demonstrate eco-geographically structured genetic and epigenetic diversity. Transposable elements (TEs) might make up a significant part of the genetic and epigenetic variation between individuals and populations because they comprise over 80% of the wild emmer wheat genome. In this study, we performed detailed analyses to assess the dynamics of transposable elements in 50 accessions of wild emmer wheat collected from 5 geographically isolated sites...
October 27, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078418/similarity-between-soybean-and-arabidopsis-seed-methylomes-and-loss-of-non-cg-methylation-does-not-affect-seed-development
#18
Jer-Young Lin, Brandon H Le, Min Chen, Kelli F Henry, Jungim Hur, Tzung-Fu Hsieh, Pao-Yang Chen, Julie M Pelletier, Matteo Pellegrini, Robert L Fischer, John J Harada, Robert B Goldberg
We profiled soybean and Arabidopsis methylomes from the globular stage through dormancy and germination to understand the role of methylation in seed formation. CHH methylation increases significantly during development throughout the entire seed, targets primarily transposable elements (TEs), is maintained during endoreduplication, and drops precipitously within the germinating seedling. By contrast, no significant global changes in CG- and CHG-context methylation occur during the same developmental period...
October 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075641/expression-of-c4-4a-in-an-in-vitro-human-tissue-engineered-skin-model
#19
Benedikte Jacobsen, Danielle Larouche, Olivier Rochette-Drouin, Michael Ploug, Lucie Germain
A multi-LU-domain-containing protein denoted C4.4A exhibits a tightly regulated membrane-associated expression in the suprabasal layers of stratified squamous epithelia such as skin and the esophagus, and the expression of C4.4A is dysregulated in various pathological conditions. However, the biological function of C4.4A remains unknown. To enable further studies, we evaluated the expression of C4.4A in monolayer cultures of normal human keratinocytes and in tissue-engineered skin substitutes (TESs) produced by the self-assembly approach, which allow the formation of a fully differentiated epidermis tissue...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073138/why-reinvent-the-wheel-lessons-in-schistosomiasis-control-from-the-past
#20
Clive Shiff
Schistosomiasis has been of concern to local health authorities for most of the last century, and in spite of a lack of effective chemotherapy, the disease was dealt with quite effectively in many endemic countries by snail control and environmental management [1]. Much of this work was reported in journals prior to the electronic era but, sadly, seems to have been subsequently ignored. For many years, there followed a global hiatus on schistosomiasis control, and much of the local expertise was lost, but many things have changed more recently, mainly with the advent of generic and affordable praziquantel...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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