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Gudrun Böhmdorfer, Shriya Sethuraman, M Jordan Rowley, Michal Krzyszton, M Hafiz Rothi, Lilia Bouzit, Andrzej T Wierzbicki
RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing is a conserved process where small RNAs target transposons and other sequences for repression by establishing chromatin modifications. A central element of this process are long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA), which in Arabidopsis thaliana are produced by a specialized RNA polymerase known as Pol V. Here we show that non-coding transcription by Pol V is controlled by preexisting chromatin modifications located within the transcribed regions. Most Pol V transcripts are associated with AGO4 but are not sliced by AGO4...
October 25, 2016: ELife
Aung Kyaw Lwin, Edoardo Bertolini, Mario Enrico Pè, Andrea Zuccolo
Transposable elements (TEs) are the most abundant genetic material for almost all eukaryotic genomes. Their effects on the host genomes range from an extensive size variation to the regulation of gene expression, altering gene function and creating new genes. Because of TEs pivotal contribute to the host genome structure and regulation, their identification and characterization provide a wealth of useful data for gaining an in-depth understanding of host genome functioning. The giant reed (Arundo donax) is a perennial rhizomatous C3 grass, octadecaploid, with an estimated nuclear genome size of 2744 Mbp...
October 24, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Pooja Negi, Archana N Rai, Penna Suprasanna
The recognition of a positive correlation between organism genome size with its transposable element (TE) content, represents a key discovery of the field of genome biology. Considerable evidence accumulated since then suggests the involvement of TEs in genome structure, evolution and function. The global genome reorganization brought about by transposon activity might play an adaptive/regulatory role in the host response to environmental challenges, reminiscent of McClintock's original 'Controlling Element' hypothesis...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Annie Lévesque, Aimee N C Campbell, Martina Pavlicova, Mei-Chen Hu, Robrina Walker, Erin A McClure, Udi E Ghitza, Genie Bailey, Maxine Stitzer, Edward V Nunes
OBJECTIVE: Coping strategies are a predictor of abstinence among patients with substance use disorders. However, little is known regarding the role of coping strategies in the effectiveness of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). Using data from a 12week randomized control trial assessing the effectiveness of the Therapeutic Education System (TES), an internet-delivered version of the CRA combined with contingency management, we tested the role of coping strategies as a mediator of treatment effectiveness...
September 30, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Lin Cheng, Matthew D Blackledge, David J Collins, Matthew R Orton, Neil P Jerome, Thorsten Feiweier, Mihaela Rata, Veronica Morgan, Nina Tunariu, Martin O Leach, Dow-Mu Koh
PURPOSE: To introduce T2-adjusted computed DWI (T2-cDWI), a method that provides synthetic images at arbitrary b-values and echo times (TEs) that improve tissue contrast by removing or increasing T2 contrast in diffusion-weighted images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In addition to the standard DWI acquisition protocol T2-weighted echo-planar images at multiple (≥2) echo times were acquired. This allows voxelwise estimation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and T2 values, permitting synthetic images to be generated at any chosen b-value and echo time...
October 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Christian Parisod
Taking transposable elements into consideration in surveys of genetic and epigenetic variation remains challenging in species lacking a high-quality reference genome. Here, molecular techniques reducing genome complexity and specifically targeting restructuring and methylation changes in TE genome fractions are described. In particular, methyl-sensitive transposon display (MSTD) uses isoschizomers and PCR amplifications to assess the methylation environment of TE insertions. MSTD offers reliable insights into genome-wide epigenetic changes associated with TEs, especially when used together with similar techniques tracking random sequences...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Wing Ting To, Jan Ost, John Hart, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste
Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of a corresponding external sound source. Research has suggested that functional abnormalities in tinnitus patients involve auditory as well as non-auditory brain areas. Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) to the auditory cortex, has demonstrated modulation of brain activity to transiently suppress tinnitus symptoms...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Hyojun Park, Sanghoon Lee, BoKyong Kim, Do Hoon Lim, Yoon-La Choi, Gyu Seong Choi, Jong Man Kim, Jae Berm Park, Choon Hyuck David Kwon, Jae-Won Joh, Sung Joo Kim
Given that retroperitoneal liposarcoma (LPS) is extremely difficult to completely resect, and has a relatively high rate of recurrence, radiotherapy (RT) is the treatment of choice after surgical resection. However, it is difficult to obtain a sufficient radiation field because of the close proximity of surrounding organs. We introduce the use of tissue expanders (TEs) after LPS resection in an attempt to secure a sufficient radiation field and to improve recurrence-free survival.This study is a retrospective review of 53 patients who underwent surgical resection of LPS at Samsung Medical Center between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012, and had no residual tumor detected 2 months postoperatively...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hidenori Nishihara, Naoki Kobayashi, Chiharu Kimura-Yoshida, Kuo Yan, Olga Bormuth, Qiong Ding, Akiko Nakanishi, Takeshi Sasaki, Mika Hirakawa, Kenta Sumiyama, Yasuhide Furuta, Victor Tarabykin, Isao Matsuo, Norihiro Okada
Acquisition of cis-regulatory elements is a major driving force of evolution, and there are several examples of developmental enhancers derived from transposable elements (TEs). However, it remains unclear whether one enhancer element could have been produced via cooperation among multiple, yet distinct, TEs during evolution. Here we show that an evolutionarily conserved genomic region named AS3_9 comprises three TEs (AmnSINE1, X6b_DNA and MER117), inserted side-by-side, and functions as a distal enhancer for wnt5a expression during morphogenesis of the mammalian secondary palate...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Bing Lin, Xue-Bi Cai, Zhi-Li Zheng, Xiu-Feng Huang, Xiao-Ling Liu, Jia Qu, Zi-Bing Jin
Stargardt disease (STGD1) is a juvenile macular degeneration predominantly inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, characterized by decreased central vision in the first 2 decades of life. The condition has a genetic basis due to mutation in the ABCA4 gene, and arises from the deposition of lipofuscin-like substance in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) with secondary photoreceptor cell death. In this study, we describe the clinical and genetic features of Stargardt patients from four unrelated Chinese cohorts...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xue-Bi Cai, Xiu-Feng Huang, Yi Tong, Qin-Kang Lu, Zi-Bing Jin
Choroideremia is a bilateral and progressive X-linked inherited disease characterized by widespread chorioretinal atrophy with relative sparing of the macular region. It is caused by mutations in the ubiquitously expressed CHM gene, which lead to the absence of the Rab escort protein 1 (REP-1), resulting in prenylation deficiency. Typical fundus appearances for choroideremia were found in 3 probands from three unrelated Chinese families in our study. We firstly used the targeted exome sequencing (TES) technology to detect mutations in CHM gene...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nathalie Feiner
Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that can insert elsewhere in the genome and modify genome structure and gene regulation. The role of TEs in evolution is contentious. One hypothesis posits that TE activity generates genomic incompatibilities that can cause reproductive isolation between incipient species. This predicts that TEs will accumulate during speciation events. Here, I tested the prediction that extant lineages with a relatively high rate of speciation have a high number of TEs in their genomes...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Ruey Terng Ng, Way Seah Lee, Hak Lee Ang, Kai Ming Teo, Yee Ian Yik, Nai Ming Lai
BACKGROUND: Childhood constipation is a common problem with substantial health, economic and emotional burdens. Existing therapeutic options, mainly pharmacological, are not consistently effective, and some are associated with adverse effects after prolonged use. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES), a non-pharmacological approach, is postulated to facilitate bowel movement by modulating the nerves of the large bowel via the application of electrical current transmitted through the abdominal wall...
October 12, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Björn Pietzenuk, Catarine Markus, Hervé Gaubert, Navratan Bagwan, Aldo Merotto, Etienne Bucher, Ales Pecinka
BACKGROUND: The mobilization of transposable elements (TEs) is suppressed by host genome defense mechanisms. Recent studies showed that the cis-regulatory region of Arabidopsis thaliana COPIA78/ONSEN retrotransposons contains heat-responsive elements (HREs), which cause their activation during heat stress. However, it remains unknown whether this is a common and potentially conserved trait and how it has evolved. RESULTS: We show that ONSEN, COPIA37, TERESTRA, and ROMANIAT5 are the major families of heat-responsive TEs in A...
October 11, 2016: Genome Biology
Shun Duan, Bingran Yu, Chunxiao Gao, Wei Yuan, Jie Ma, Fu-Jian Xu
For effective gene therapy, non-viral gene carriers with low toxicity and high transfection efficiency are of much importance. In this work, we developed a facile strategy to prepare hyperbranched hydroxyl-rich polycations (denoted by TE) by the one-pot method involving ring-opening reactions between two commonly used reagents, ethylenediamine (ED) with two amino groups and 1,3,5-triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) with three epoxy groups. The hyperbranched TEs with different molecular weights have been investigated on their DNA condensation ability, protein absorption property, biocompatibility, transfection efficiency and in vivo cancer therapy and toxicity...
October 11, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Edgar Flores-Soto, Jorge Reyes-García, Abril Carbajal-García, Elías Campuzano-González, Mercedes Perusquía, Bettina Sommer, Luis M Montaño
: Testosterone (TES), other androgens and female sex steroids induce non-genomic rapid relaxing effects in airway smooth muscle (ASM). In guinea pig ASM, basal tension was relaxed by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and TES; 17β-estradiol (E2) had a small effect. Blockers of L-type voltage dependent Ca(2+) channel (L-VDCC, D-600) and store operated Ca(2+) channel (SOC, 2-APB) also relaxed the basal tone. In tracheal myocytes, DHEA and TES diminished intracellular basal Ca(2+) concentrations (b[Ca(2+)]i) as D-600+2-APB but to a higher extend...
October 4, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Xianzong Wang, Xiaolin Liu
BACKGROUND: Horizontal transfer (HT) of genetic materials is increasingly being found in both animals and plants and mainly concerns transposable elements (TEs). Many crustaceans have big genome sizes and are thus likely to harbor high TE contents. Their habitat might offer them ample opportunities to exchange genetic materials with organisms that are ecologically close but taxonomically distant to them. RESULTS: In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), an important economic crustacean, to explore traces of HT events...
October 7, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Ryosuke Tomio, Takenori Akiyama, Masahiro Toda, Takayuki Ohira, Kazunari Yoshida
OBJECTIVE Transcranial motor evoked potential (tMEP) monitoring is popular in neurosurgery; however, the accuracy of tMEP can be impaired by craniotomy. Each craniotomy procedure and changes in the CSF levels affects the current spread. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of several craniotomies on tMEP monitoring by using C3-4 transcranial electrical stimulation (TES). METHODS The authors used the finite element method to visualize the electric field in the brain, which was generated by TES, using realistic 3D head models developed from T1-weighted MR images...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Wei Yin, Zong-Ji Wang, Qi-Ye Li, Jin-Ming Lian, Yang Zhou, Bing-Zheng Lu, Li-Jun Jin, Peng-Xin Qiu, Pei Zhang, Wen-Bo Zhu, Bo Wen, Yi-Jun Huang, Zhi-Long Lin, Bi-Tao Qiu, Xing-Wen Su, Huan-Ming Yang, Guo-Jie Zhang, Guang-Mei Yan, Qi Zhou
Snakes have numerous features distinctive from other tetrapods and a rich history of genome evolution that is still obscure. Here, we report the high-quality genome of the five-pacer viper, Deinagkistrodon acutus, and comparative analyses with other representative snake and lizard genomes. We map the evolutionary trajectories of transposable elements (TEs), developmental genes and sex chromosomes onto the snake phylogeny. TEs exhibit dynamic lineage-specific expansion, and many viper TEs show brain-specific gene expression along with their nearby genes...
October 6, 2016: Nature Communications
Mayte Castellano, German Martinez, Maria Carmen Marques, Jordi Moreno-Romero, Claudia Köhler, Vicente Pallas, Gustavo Gomez
Eukaryotic organisms exposed to adverse conditions are required to show a certain degree of transcriptional plasticity in order to cope successfully with stress. Epigenetic regulation of the genome is a key regulatory mechanism allowing dynamic changes of the transcriptional status of the plant in response to stress. The Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) induces the demethylation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) leaves, leading to increasing transcription rates of rRNA. In addition to the clear alterations observed in vegetative tissues, HSVd infection is also associated with drastic changes in gametophyte development...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
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