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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161697/age-period-cohort-modeling-of-multiple-sclerosis-incidence-rates-in-kuwait-1980-2014
#1
Saeed Akhtar, Jarrah Al-Abkal, Jasem Y Al-Hashel, Raed Alroughani
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system with undefined etiology. Genetic predisposition and environmental factors play an imperative role in MS causation and its sustained increasing burden worldwide. This study examined the age, period, and cohort effects on MS incidence rates in Kuwait. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, data on MS cases diagnosed between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2014 and registered in National MS Registry and reference population were obtained...
November 21, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157404/anomalies-characteristic-of-central-nervous-system-demyelination-radiologically-isolated-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Christine Lebrun, Orhun H Kantarci, Aksel Siva, Daniel Pelletier, Darin T Okuda
Radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) was defined in 2009 for asymptomatic patients who presented incidentally identified white matter anomalies within the central nervous system suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). Approximately one-third of RIS subjects will have a seminal clinical demyelinating event within 5 years of the identification of their abnormal MRI. Clinical evolution mirrors relapsing remitting or progressive forms of MS. Pejorative factors for clinical conversion are male gender, age younger than 35 years, and spinal cord lesions...
February 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157398/new-advances-in-disease-modifying-therapies-for-relapsing-and-progressive-forms-of-multiple-sclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Angela Vidal-Jordana
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in which inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss occurs from early stages of the disease. It mainly affects people between 20 and 40 years old, with a female predominance. Treatment options have been increasingly growing in the past years and newer drugs, some with novel mechanisms of action, are being developed for treating patients with MS. There is an increasing interest in developing new drugs that will promote neuroprotection and/or myelin repair through different mechanisms of action that may target the most degenerative component of the disease...
February 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153606/pegylated-interferon-beta-in-the-treatment-of-the-theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis-virus-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Francesca Gilli, Darlene B Royce, Krista D DiSano, Andrew R Pachner
We evaluated the effects of pegylated-interferonβ-1a (pegIFNβ) therapy on intrathecal antibody responses, disability progression, and viral load in the CNS in mice infected with the Theiler's virus (TMEV), an animal model of progressive disability in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The lack of a direct antiviral activity in the CNS, the absence of any effect upon the intrathecal immune response, and the failure to treat disease progression, indicate that the immunomodulatory effects of pegIFNβ-1a likely occur in the systemic circulation rather than within the CNS...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153601/neurodegenerative-diseases-the-immunological-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Monica Molteni, Carlo Rossetti
Increasing evidence supports the notion that the neurodegenerative process occurring in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) does not only imply the neuronal compartment but also involves a strong interaction with the immunological cells of the Central Nervous System (CNS), primarily microglia. Starting from the observation that the neurodegenerative disorders are frequent in elderly individuals, who have an immunological background that possibly favors this process, it is evident that a dysregulation of innate immune response triggered by misfolded and aggregated proteins, or by endogenous molecules released by injured neurons, directly contributes to disease pathogenesis and progression...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151912/duodenal-angiomyolipoma-with-multiple-systemic-vascular-malformations-and-aneurysms-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Yiqiu Wang, Xiuli Zhang, Peng Liu, Guan Jiang, Wenlou Liu
Angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are barely benign mesenchymal tumors that usually occur in the kidneys and may be associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Extrarenal AMLs are markedly rare and infrequently observed in the duodenum. In the present case report, a 22-year-old female patient with duodenal AMLs presenting multiple systemic vascular malformations and aneurysms is described. The patient had a medical history of aneurysm rupture of the right subclavian artery and no other manifestation of TSC. Surgical intervention was performed...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150766/spinobot-an-mri-guided-needle-positioning-system-for-spinal-cellular-therapeutics
#7
Alexander Squires, John N Oshinski, Nicholas M Boulis, Zion Tsz Ho Tse
The neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) results in the death of motor neurons in voluntary muscles. There are no cures for ALS and few available treatments. In studies with small animal models, injection of cellular therapeutics into the anterior horn of the spinal cord has been shown to inhibit the progression of ALS. It was hypothesized that spinal injection could be made faster and less invasive with the aid of a robot. The robotic system presented-SpinoBot-uses MRI guidance to position a needle for percutaneous injection into the spinal cord...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149923/gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-disease-in-systemic-sclerosis
#8
REVIEW
Tracy M Frech, Diane Mar
Although classification criteria for systemic sclerosis (SSc) do not incorporate gastrointestinal tract (GIT) manifestations often present in this disease, the GIT is the most common internal organ involved. Pathophysiology of GIT involvement is thought to be similar to other organs in SSc with fibroproliferative vascular lesions of small arteries and arterioles, increased production of profibrotic growth factors, and alterations of innate, humoral, and cellular immunity. These processes result in neuropathy progressing to myopathy with eventual fibrosis...
February 2018: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149697/characteristics-of-motor-speech-phenotypes-in-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Jan Rusz, Barbora Benova, Hana Ruzickova, Michal Novotny, Tereza Tykalova, Jan Hlavnicka, Tomas Uher, Manuela Vaneckova, Michaela Andelova, Klara Novotna, Lucie Kadrnozkova, Dana Horakova
BACKGROUND: Motor speech disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) are poorly understood and their quantitative, objective acoustic characterization remains limited. Additionally, little data regarding relationships between the severity of speech disorders and neurological involvement in MS, as well as the contribution of pyramidal and cerebellar functional systems on speech phenotypes, is available. METHODS: Speech data were acquired from 141 MS patients with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) ranging from 1 to 6...
November 8, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149058/neurotrophic-and-neuroregenerative-effects-of-gh-igf1
#10
Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi, Vittorio Locatelli, Laura Rizzi
INTRODUCTION: Human neurodegenerative diseases increase progressively with age and present a high social and economic burden. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are both growth factors exerting trophic effects on neuronal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). GH and IGF-1 stimulate protein synthesis in neurons, glia, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells, and favor neuronal survival, inhibiting apoptosis. This study aims to evaluate the effect of GH and IGF-1 on neurons, and their possible therapeutic clinical applications on neuron regeneration in human subjects...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147913/expression-of-tlr7-tlr9-jak2-and-stat3-genes-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-patients-with-systemic-sclerosis
#11
Miša Vreća, Ana Zeković, Nemanja Damjanov, Marina Andjelković, Milena Ugrin, Sonja Pavlović, Vesna Spasovski
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare, chronic, multisystem autoimmune disease clinically characterized by progressive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. The basic mechanism appears to involve endothelial cell injury, overproduction of extracellular matrix proteins, and aberrant immune activation. So far, there have been a few attempts to find genetic biomarkers for monitoring disease activity or for correlation with certain symptoms. In order to reveal reliable biomarkers, we analyzed the expression of four genes representing three important signaling pathways, TLR7, TLR9, and JAK2-STAT3...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143287/lipoic-acid-stimulates-camp-production-in-healthy-control-and-secondary-progressive-ms-subjects
#12
Sarah E Fiedler, Vijayshree Yadav, Amelia R Kerns, Catherine Tsang, Sheila Markwardt, Edward Kim, Rebecca Spain, Dennis Bourdette, Sonemany Salinthone
Lipoic acid (LA) exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; supplementation reduces disease severity and T lymphocyte migration into the central nervous system in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS), and administration in secondary progressive MS (SPMS) subjects reduces brain atrophy compared to placebo. The mechanism of action (MOA) of LA's efficacy in suppression of MS pathology is incompletely understood. LA stimulates production of the immunomodulator cyclic AMP (cAMP) in vitro. To determine whether cAMP could be involved in the MOA of LA in vivo, we performed a clinical trial to examine whether LA stimulates cAMP production in healthy control and MS subjects, and whether there are differences in the bioavailability of LA between groups...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143164/upregulation-of-myelin-gene-expression-by-a-physically-modified-saline-via-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-mediated-activation-of-creb-implications-for-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Malabendu Jana, Supurna Ghosh, Kalipada Pahan
An increase in central nervous system (CNS) remyelination and a decrease in CNS inflammation are important steps to halt the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). RNS60 is a bioactive aqueous solution generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille flow under elevated oxygen pressure. Recently we have demonstrated that RNS60 exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we describe promyelinating property of RNS60. RNS60, but not normal saline (NS), RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen) or PNS60 (saline containing excess oxygen without TCP modification), stimulated the expression of myelin-specific genes and proteins (myelin basic protein, MBP; myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, MOG and proteolipid protein, PLP) in primary mouse oligodendroglia and mixed glial cells...
November 15, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142232/tdp-43-misexpression-causes-defects-in-dendritic-growth
#14
Josiah J Herzog, Mugdha Deshpande, Leah Shapiro, Avital A Rodal, Suzanne Paradis
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) share overlapping genetic causes and disease symptoms, and are linked neuropathologically by the RNA binding protein TDP-43 (TAR DNA binding protein-43 kDa). TDP-43 regulates RNA metabolism, trafficking, and localization of thousands of target genes. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which dysfunction of TDP-43 contributes to disease pathogenesis and progression remain unclear. Severe changes in the structure of neuronal dendritic arbors disrupt proper circuit connectivity, which in turn could contribute to neurodegenerative disease...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142028/high-baseline-serum-clara-cell-16-kda-predicts-subsequent-lung-disease-worsening-in-systemic-sclerosis
#15
Sébastien Rivière, Thong Hua-Huy, Kiet Phong Tiev, Jean Cabane, Anh Tuan Dinh-Xuan
OBJECTIVE: Clara cell secretory protein (CC16) is a sensitive marker of bronchial epithelial cell damage. The CC16 serum level is elevated in patients with pulmonary fibrosis, but its predictive value on lung disease progression has not yet been studied. We aimed to assess the value of serum CC16 concentration in predicting lung disease deterioration in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: We prospectively analyzed and followed 106 patients with SSc during a 4-year period for the risk of developing combined deleterious event, defined as a 10% decrease in total lung capacity or forced vital capacity from baseline, or death, according to serum CC16 at inclusion...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141813/the-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-as-disease-actvity-marker-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-optic-neuritis
#16
A K Bisgaard, G Pihl-Jensen, J L Frederiksen
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been identified as a disease activity marker in several diseases. We aim to evaluate the significance of the NLR in the different subtypes of MS, optic neuritis (ON) and in relation to disease activity and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). METHODS: We included 378 patients and 813 healthy controls (HC) from The Nordic Reference Interval Project 2000 (NORIP)...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141796/high-dose-biotin-as-treatment-for-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Gary Birnbaum, Jessica Stulc
BACKGROUND: Published data suggested high dose biotin improved patients with progressive MS. We wished to determine benefits and side effects of administering daily high dose biotin to patients with progressive multiple sclerosis in a large MS specialty clinic. METHODS: Forty-three patients with progressive multiple scleroses were prescribed pharmaceutical grade biotin as a single daily dose of 300mg/day. Brain MRIs were performed at baseline and after one year on biotin...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137922/extracellular-vesicles-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Tommaso Croese, Roberto Furlan
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by all neural cells, including neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. The lack of adequate technology has not halted neuroscientists from investigating EVs as a mean to decipher neurodegenerative disorders, still in search of comprehensible pathogenic mechanisms and efficient treatment. EVs are thought to be one of ways neurodegenerative pathologies spread in the brain, but also one of the ways the brain tries to displace toxic proteins, making their meaning in pathogenesis uncertain...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136131/characteristic-increases-in-eeg-connectivity-correlate-with-changes-of-structural-mri-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#19
Bahman Nasseroleslami, Stefan Dukic, Michael Broderick, Kieran Mohr, Christina Schuster, Brighid Gavin, Russell McLaughlin, Mark Heverin, Alice Vajda, Parameswaran M Iyer, Niall Pender, Peter Bede, Edmund C Lalor, Orla Hardiman
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a terminal progressive adult-onset neurodegeneration of the motor system. Although originally considered a pure motor degeneration, there is increasing evidence of disease heterogeneity with varying degrees of extra-motor involvement. How the combined motor and nonmotor degeneration occurs in the context of broader disruption in neural communication across brain networks has not been well characterized. Here, we have performed high-density crossectional and longitudinal resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) recordings on 100 ALS patients and 34 matched controls, and have identified characteristic patterns of altered EEG connectivity that have persisted in longitudinal analyses...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132838/therapeutic-effects-of-diosgenin-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#20
Weili Liu, Mei Zhu, Zhongwang Yu, Dou Yin, Fengfeng Lu, Yingyan Pu, Chao Zhao, Cheng He, Li Cao
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Currently, there is no drug available to cure this kind of disease. Diosgenin is a plant-derived steroid saponin. A previous study in our lab revealed that diosgenin can promote oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation and accelerate remyelination. In the present study, we found that diosgenin dose-dependently alleviated the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with reduced central nervous system inflammation and demyelination...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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