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Geographically weighted regression

Alia Alghwiri, Gregory Marchetti
PURPOSE: To investigate the point prevalence of upper back pain (UBP) and lower back pain (LBP) in Jordanian schoolteachers and to estimate the work-related reported disability. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was used to assess back pain in a convenience sample of teachers in Jordan. Crude and weighted prevalence estimates of self-reported spinal pain and limited productivity were described. Demographic and occupational factors associated with self-reported pain and limited productivity were identified by multinomial/logistic regression...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Ebba Malmqvist, Zeyan Liew, Karin Källén, Anna Rignell-Hydbom, Ralf Rittner, Lars Rylander, Beate Ritz
Air pollution has been suggested to affect fetal growth, but more data is needed to assess the timing of exposure effects by using ultrasound measures. It is also important to study effects in low exposure areas to assess eventual thresholds of effects. The MAPSS (Maternal Air Pollution in Southern Sweden) cohort consists of linked registry data for around 48,000 pregnancies from an ultrasound database, birth registry and exposure data based on residential addresses. Measures of air pollution exposure were obtained through dispersion modelling with input data from an emissions database (NOx) with high resolution (100-500m grids)...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Research
Tiziana Grassi, Antonella De Donno, Francesco Bagordo, Francesca Serio, Prisco Piscitelli, Elisabetta Ceretti, Claudia Zani, Gaia C V Viola, Milena Villarini, Massimo Moretti, Sara Levorato, Annalaura Carducci, Marco Verani, Gabriele Donzelli, Sara Bonetta, Silvia Bonetta, Elisabetta Carraro, Silvia Bonizzoni, Alberto Bonetti, Umberto Gelatti
The prevalence of obesity among Italian children has reached such alarming levels as to require detailed studies of the causes of the phenomenon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in order to assess the weight status of 1164 Italian children aged 6-8 years (the Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for Supporting Public Health Policy (MAPEC_LIFE) cohort) and to identify any associations between selected socio-economic and environmental factors and overweight/obesity. The data were obtained by means of a questionnaire given to parents, and any associations were examined by binomial logistic regression analyses...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Wang Wei, Jin Yuan-Yuan, Yan Ci, Alayi Ahan, Cao Ming-Qin
BACKGROUND: The spatial interplay between socioeconomic factors and tuberculosis (TB) cases contributes to the understanding of regional tuberculosis burdens. Historically, local Poisson Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) has allowed for the identification of the geographic disparities of TB cases and their relevant socioeconomic determinants, thereby forecasting local regression coefficients for the relations between the incidence of TB and its socioeconomic determinants. Therefore, the aims of this study were to: (1) identify the socioeconomic determinants of geographic disparities of smear positive TB in Xinjiang, China (2) confirm if the incidence of smear positive TB and its associated socioeconomic determinants demonstrate spatial variability (3) compare the performance of two main models: one is Ordinary Least Square Regression (OLS), and the other local GWR model...
October 6, 2016: BMC Public Health
Tianhao Zhang, Gang Liu, Zhongmin Zhu, Wei Gong, Yuxi Ji, Yusi Huang
The real-time estimation of ambient particulate matter with diameter no greater than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is currently quite limited in China. A semi-physical geographically weighted regression (GWR) model was adopted to estimate PM2.5 mass concentrations at national scale using the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Depth product fused by the Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB) algorithms, combined with meteorological parameters. The fitting results could explain over 80% of the variability in the corresponding PM2...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Xiao-Dong Song, Gan-Lin Zhang, Feng Liu, De-Cheng Li, Yu-Guo Zhao
The influence of anthropogenic activities and natural processes involved high uncertainties to the spatial variation modeling of soil available zinc (AZn) in plain river network regions. Four datasets with different sampling densities were split over the Qiaocheng district of Bozhou City, China. The difference of AZn concentrations regarding soil types was analyzed by the principal component analysis (PCA). Since the stationarity was not indicated and effective ranges of four datasets were larger than the sampling extent (about 400 m), two investigation tools, namely F3 test and stationarity index (SI), were employed to test the local non-stationarity...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Phillip Marotta
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain serious public health problems particularly in urban environments in the USA. Despite accumulating research into the role of aggregate rates of crime in shaping rates of STIs, few studies account for spatial dependence in the structure of geographical data. Using multiple spatial analysis methodologies, the following study investigated spatial patterns in community area rates of violent, drug, and property crimes and rates of infection of gonorrhea and chlamydia in 77 community areas in Chicago...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Julius R Dewald, Douglas O Fuller, Günter C Müller, John C Beier
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of Anopheles resting habitats is needed to advance outdoor malaria vector control. This study presents a technique to map locations of resting habitats using high-resolution satellite imagery (world view 2) and probabilistic Dempster-Shafer (D-S) modelling, focused on a rural village in southern Mali, West Africa where field sampling was conducted to determine outdoor habitat preferences of Anopheles gambiae, the main vector in the study area. METHODS: A combination of supervised and manual image classification was used to derive an accurate land-cover map from the satellite image that provided classes (i...
2016: Malaria Journal
Xi Tan, Fabian Camacho, Vincent D Marshall, Joseph Donohoe, Roger T Anderson, Rajesh Balkrishnan
BACKGROUND: Appalachia is a largely rural, mountainous, poor and underserved region of the United States. Adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy among Appalachian women with breast cancer is suboptimal. OBJECTIVES: To explore small-area geographic variations and clustering patterns of breast cancer patient adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy and associated factors in Appalachia. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we analyzed Medicare claims data linked with cancer registries from four Appalachian states (PA, OH, KY, and NC) in 2006-2008...
August 25, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Eric Delmelle, Michael Hagenlocher, Stefan Kienberger, Irene Casas
Dengue fever has gradually re-emerged across the global South, particularly affecting urban areas of the tropics and sub-tropics. The dynamics of dengue fever transmission are sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, as well as local demographic and socioeconomic factors. In 2010, the municipality of Cali, Colombia, experienced one of its worst outbreaks, however the outbreak was not spatially homogeneous across the city. In this paper, we evaluate the role of socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with this outbreak at the neighborhood level, using a Geographically Weighted Regression model...
September 9, 2016: Acta Tropica
Vrunda Bhavsar Desai, Xiaoyue M Guo, Linda Fan, Jason Wright, Xiao Xu
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine utilization patterns of different laparoscopic approaches in inpatient hysterectomy and identify patient and hospital characteristics associated with the selection of specific laparoscopic approaches. DESIGN: Using data from the 2007-2012 Nationwide/National Inpatient Sample (NIS), we identified adult women undergoing inpatient laparoscopic hysterectomies for non-obstetric indications based on ICD-9 codes. Benign cases were categorized based on laparoscopic approach, classified as total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH), laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH), and laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH)...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Alize J Ferrari, Emily Stockings, Jon-Paul Khoo, Holly E Erskine, Louisa Degenhardt, Theo Vos, Harvey A Whiteford
OBJECTIVES: We present the global burden of bipolar disorder based on findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013). METHODS: Data on the epidemiology of bipolar disorder were obtained from a systematic literature review and assembled using Bayesian meta-regression modelling to produce prevalence by country, age, sex and year. Years lived with disability (YLDs) were estimated by multiplying prevalence by disability weights quantifying the severity of the health loss associated with bipolar disorder...
August 2016: Bipolar Disorders
Stefania Toselli, Natascia Rinaldo, Emanuela Gualdi-Russo
Nutritional disorders are now spreading worldwide both in developed and developing countries. Body image ideals and dissatisfaction have been linked to a number of poor health outcomes, including nutritional disorders. While previous studies have offered insight into weight status and body image perception of immigrants in North America, very few studies have analysed these aspects in migrants from Africa to Europe. Our review examines the effects of the migration process on beauty ideals and body dissatisfaction in African immigrants in Europe compared to residents in their own countries...
2016: Globalization and Health
Qiang Chen, Kun Mei, Randy A Dahlgren, Ting Wang, Jian Gong, Minghua Zhang
As an important regulator of pollutants in overland flow and interflow, land use has become an essential research component for determining the relationships between surface water quality and pollution sources. This study investigated the use of ordinary least squares (OLS) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models to identify the impact of land use and population density on surface water quality in the Wen-Rui Tang River watershed of eastern China. A manual variable excluding-selecting method was explored to resolve multicollinearity issues...
August 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Mehdi Mokhtari, Mohammad Miri, Ali Nikoonahad, Ali Jalilian, Razi Naserifar, Hamid Reza Ghaffari, Farogh Kazembeigi
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the environmental factors on cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) prevalence and morbidity in Ilam province, western Iran, as a known endemic area for this disease. Accurate locations of 3237 CL patients diagnosed from 2013 to 2015, their demographic information, and data of 17 potentially predictive environmental variables (PPEVs) were prepared to be used in Geographic Information System (GIS) and Land-Use Regression (LUR) analysis. The prevalence, risk, and predictive risk maps were provided using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) model in GIS software...
November 2016: Acta Tropica
Kristina H Lewis, Kimberly A Gudzune, Heidi Fischer, Ayae Yamamoto, Deborah R Young
Our objective was to compare patients' health care experiences, related to their weight, across racial and ethnic groups. In Summer 2015, we distributed a written survey with telephone follow-up to a random sample of 5400 racially/ethnically and geographically diverse U.S. adult health plan members with overweight or obesity. The survey assessed members' perceptions of their weight-related healthcare experiences, including their perception of their primary care provider, and the type of weight management services they had been offered, or were interested in...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
César Fuentes Flores, Omar Sánchez Salinas
OBJECTIVE: Investigate the spatial distribution pattern of the homicide rate and its relation to sociodemographic features in the Benito Juárez, Coyoacán, and Cuauhtémoc districts of Mexico City in 2010. METHODS: Inferential cross-sectional study that uses spatial analysis methods to study the spatial association of the homicide rate and demographic features. Spatial association was determined through the location quotient, multiple regression analysis, and the use of geographically weighted regression...
December 2015: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Jeremiah D Schuur, Olesya Baker, Jaclyn Freshman, Michael Wilson, David M Culter
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We determine the number and location of freestanding emergency departments (EDs) across the United States and determine the population characteristics of areas where freestanding EDs are located. METHODS: We conducted a systematic inventory of US freestanding EDs. For the 3 states with the highest number of freestanding EDs, we linked demographic, insurance, and health services data, using the 5-digit ZIP code corresponding to the freestanding ED's location...
July 1, 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Sara Champlin, Michael Mackert
PURPOSE: Create a screening measure of health literacy for use with the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). DESIGN: Participants completed a paper-based survey. Items from the survey were used to construct a health literacy screening measure. SETTING: A population-based survey conducted in geographic areas of high and low minority frequency and in Central Appalachia. SUBJECTS: Two thousand nine hundred four English-speaking participants were included in this study: 66% white, 93% completed high school, mean age = 52...
March 2016: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Zhen Zhen, Zhi-ying Guo, Ying-hui Zhao, Feng-ri Li, Qing-bin Wei
Based on LiDAR data of Liangshui National Nature Reserve, digital elevation model (DEM) was constructed and both primary terrain attributes (slope, aspect, profile curvature, etc.) and secondary terrain attributes (wetness index, sediment transport index, relative stream power index, etc.) were extracted. According to the theory of soil formation, geographically weighted regression (GWR) was applied to predict soil total nitrogen (TN) of the area, and the predicted results were compared with those of three traditional interpolation methods including inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary Kriging (OK) and universal Kriging (UK)...
February 2016: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
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