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Geographically weighted regression

J Coakley, P Bridgen, J Mueller, J Douwes, A 't Mannetje
A national survey was conducted in 2011-2013 to assess serum concentrations of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in adult New Zealanders. Participants were randomly selected from the 2010 Electoral Roll within 64 demographic strata according to 4 age groups, 4 geographic regions, 2 ethnic groups (Māori/non-Māori) and sex. Eligible participants (n = 734; response rate of contacted individuals = 37%) donated up to 30 mL of blood, after which serum was pooled (49 pools for BFRs, 63 pools for PFASs) according to demographic strata...
May 31, 2018: Chemosphere
Xiaoyan Li, Limin Yang, Yongxing Ren, Huiying Li, Zongming Wang
The Changchun⁻Jilin Economic Zone (CJEZ) is one of the most rapidly developing areas in Northeast China, as well as one of the famous golden maize belts in the world. This is a case study to assess the impacts of urban sprawl on soil resources using remote sensing imagery and geographic spatial analysis methods. The common urbanization intensity index (CUII), soil quality index, and soil landscape metrics were calculated to reflect urbanization and the response of soil resource. Results showed that the area of soil sealing changed from 112,460 ha in 2000 to 139,233 ha in 2015, and in the rural region, the area occupied by urbanization nearly kept balance with the area of rural residential expansion...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jing Chen, Chunshan Zhou, Shaojian Wang, Jincan Hu
Air pollution contributes significantly to premature death in China. However, only a limited number of studies have identified the potential determinants of population exposure to PM2.5 from a socioeconomic perspective. This paper analyses the socioeconomic determinants of population exposure at the city level in China. We first estimated population exposure to PM2.5 by integrating high resolution spatial distribution maps of PM2.5 concentrations and population density, using data for 2013. Then, geographically weighted regression (GWR) modeling was undertaken to explore the strength and direction of relationships between the selected socioeconomic factors and population exposure...
June 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Colleen R Miller, Christopher E Latimer, Benjamin Zuckerberg
Allen's rule predicts that homeotherms inhabiting cooler climates will have smaller appendages, while those inhabiting warmer climates will have larger appendages relative to body size. Birds' bills tend to be larger at lower latitudes, but few studies have tested whether modern climate change and urbanization affect bill size. Our study explored whether bill size in a wide-ranging bird would be larger in warmer, drier regions and increase with rising temperatures. Furthermore, we predicted that bill size would be larger in densely populated areas, due to urban heat island effects and the higher concentration of supplementary foods...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Stella K Kang, Miao Jiang, Richard Duszak, Samantha L Heller, Danny R Hughes, Linda Moy
Purpose To retrospectively assess whether there is an association between screening mammography and the use of a variety of preventive services in women who are enrolled in Medicare. Materials and Methods U.S. Medicare claims from 2010 to 2014 Research Identifiable Files were reviewed to retrospectively identify a group of women who underwent screening mammography and a control group without screening mammography in 2012. The screened group was divided into positive versus negative results at screening, and the positive subgroup was divided into false-positive and true-positive findings...
June 5, 2018: Radiology
Ridhima Kapoor, Colby Ayers, Alexis Visotcky, Peter Mason, Jacquelyn Kulinski
The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a predictor of cardiovascular events, mortality and functional status. Some studies have noted a higher prevalence of peripheral artery disease in females compared to males. Differences in height might account for these observed sex differences, but findings are conflicting. The 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cohort includes participants from 15 geographic locations, selected annually to represent the general population. Sample-weighted multivariable linear and logistic regression modeling was performed with ABI as the dependent variable and height and sex as primary exposure variables of interest...
June 1, 2018: Vascular Medicine
Cai Deng, Wanchang Zhang
As the backland of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the river source region is highly sensitive to changes in global climate. Air temperature estimation using remote sensing satellite provides a new way of conducting studies in the field of climate change study. A geographically weighted regression model was applied to estimate synchronic air temperature from 2001 to 2015 using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometry (MODIS) data. The results were R2  = 0.913 and RMSE = 2.47 °C, which confirmed the feasibility of the estimation...
May 30, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Abolghasem Siyadatpanah, Mehdi Sharif, Ahmad Daryani, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Mohammad Hasan Kohansal, Saeed Barzegari, Abdol Sattar Pagheh, Shirzad Gholami
Giardia lamblia is the most prevalent intestinal parasites of humans in Iran and other in the world although information on geographical distribution of giardiasis plays significant role in identifying communities at high risk, little attention has been paid to study human giardiasis using geographical information system. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine temporal and spatial patterns of human giardiasis distribution to identify possible high risk areas and seasons in northern Iran. A total of 4788 people referred to health centers in the Mazandaran Province of northern Iran were surveyed January to December 2015...
June 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Fang Xia, Liyin Qu, Ting Wang, Lili Luo, Han Chen, Randy A Dahlgren, Minghua Zhang, Kun Mei, Hong Huang
Heavy metal pollution of aquatic environments in rapidly developing industrial regions is of considerable global concern due to its potential to cause serious harm to aquatic ecosystems and human health. This study assessed heavy metal contamination of sediments in a highly industrialized urban watershed of eastern China containing several historically unregulated manufacturing enterprises. Total concentrations and solid-phase fractionation of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd were investigated for 39 river sediments using multivariate statistical analysis and geographically weighted regression (GWR) methods to quantitatively examine the relationship between land use and heavy metal pollution at the watershed scale...
May 16, 2018: Chemosphere
Purnima Menon, Derek Headey, Rasmi Avula, Phuong Hong Nguyen
India accounts for approximately one third of the world's total population of stunted preschoolers. Addressing global undernutrition, therefore, requires an understanding of the determinants of stunting across India's diverse states and districts. We created a district-level aggregate data set from the recently released 2015-2016 National and Family Health Survey, which covered 601,509 households in 640 districts. We used mapping and descriptive analyses to understand spatial differences in distribution of stunting...
May 23, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Emmanuel Olorunleke Adewuyi, Asa Auta, Vishnu Khanal, Olasunkanmi David Bamidele, Cynthia Pomaa Akuoko, Kazeem Adefemi, Samson Joseph Tapshak, Yun Zhao
INTRODUCTION: Antenatal care (ANC) is a major public health intervention aimed at ensuring safe pregnancy outcomes. In Nigeria, the recommended minimum of four times ANC attendance is underutilized. This study investigates the prevalence and factors associated with underutilization of ANC services with a focus on the differences between rural and urban residences in Nigeria. METHODS: We analyzed the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey dataset with adjustment for the sampling weight and the cluster design of the survey...
2018: PloS One
René Höhn, Stefan Nickels, Alexander K Schuster, Philipp S Wild, Thomas Münzel, Karl J Lackner, Irene Schmidtmann, Manfred Beutel, Norbert Pfeiffer
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of glaucoma according to the International Society for Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology (ISGEO) classification in an adult German cohort. METHODS: The Gutenberg Health Study is a population-based, prospective cohort study in the Rhine-Main Region in mid-western Germany with a total of 15,010 participants. In this study, the first 5000 subjects with an age range between 35 and 74 years were included. Optic disk pictures were obtained by a non-mydriatic fundus camera (Visucam™) and analyzed using the Visupac™ software...
May 17, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Carlos Mena, Cesar Sepúlveda, Eduardo Fuentes, Yony Ormazábal, Iván Palomo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the primary cause of death and disability in de world, and the detection of populations at risk as well as localization of vulnerable areas is essential for adequate epidemiological management. Techniques developed for spatial analysis, among them geographical information systems and spatial statistics, such as cluster detection and spatial correlation, are useful for the study of the distribution of the CVDs. These techniques, enabling recognition of events at different geographical levels of study (e...
May 7, 2018: Geospatial Health
Andreia Oliveira, Joana Araújo, Milton Severo, Daniela Correia, Elisabete Ramos, Duarte Torres, Carla Lopes
BACKGROUND: This study includes, for the first time, estimates of general and abdominal obesity prevalence for all ages of the Portuguese population, using common standardized methodologies. Results are compared by sex, age groups, educational level and geographical regions. METHODS: Participants were a representative sample of the Portuguese population aged between 3 months and 84 years of age (n = 6553), enrolled in the National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2015-2016...
May 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
Cheng Chen, Pengcheng Xun, Leslie A McClure, John Brockman, Leslie MacDonald, Mary Cushman, Jianwen Cai, Lisa Kamendulis, Jason Mackey, Ka He
BACKGROUND: Although biologically plausible, epidemiological evidence linking exposure to methylmercury with increased risk of ischemic stroke is limited. The effects of methylmercury may be modified by selenium, which is an anti-oxidant that often co-exists with mercury in fish. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between serum mercury levels with the incidence of ischemic stroke and to explore the possible effect modifications by serum selenium levels and demographic and geographic factors...
May 4, 2018: Environment International
Qucheng Deng, Yongping Wei, Yan Zhao, Xuerong Han, Juan Yin
Despite a number of longevity indicators having been used in previous longevity studies, few studies have critically evaluated whether these indicators are suitable to assess the regional longevity level. In addition, an increasing number of studies have attempted to determine the influence of socioeconomic and natural factors on regional longevity, but only certain factors were considered. This study aims to bridge this gap by determining the relationship between the 7 longevity indicators and selecting 24 natural and socioeconomic indicators in 109 selected counties and urban districts in Guangxi, China...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tzai-Hung Wen, Ching-Shun Hsu, Ming-Che Hu
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a vector-borne infectious disease that is transmitted by contact between vector mosquitoes and susceptible hosts. The literature has addressed the issue on quantifying the effect of individual mobility on dengue transmission. However, there are methodological concerns in the spatial regression model configuration for examining the effect of intercity-scale human mobility on dengue diffusion. The purposes of the study are to investigate the influence of neighborhood structures on intercity epidemic progression from pre-epidemic to epidemic periods and to compare definitions of different neighborhood structures for interpreting the spread of dengue epidemics...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Lyu Feng Chen, Guo Ping Zhu
Based on Antarctic krill fishery and marine environmental data collected by scientific observers, using geographically weighted regression (GWR) model, we analyzed the effects of the factors with spatial attributes, i.e., depth of krill swarm (DKS) and distance from fishing position to shore (DTS), and sea surface temperature (SST), on the spatial distribution of fishing ground in the northern South Shetland Islands. The results showed that there was no significant aggregation in spatial distribution of catch per unit fishing effort (CPUE)...
March 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Elizabeth E Halvorson, Timothy R Peters, Joseph A Skelton, Cynthia Suerken, Beverly M Snively, Katherine A Poehling
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity was an independent risk factor for severe disease in hospitalized adults during the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza season. Few studies have investigated the association between weight and severity of acute respiratory illnesses in children or in adults seeking care in the emergency department (ED) during other winter respiratory seasons. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We prospectively and systematically enrolled patients ≥2 years of age who presented to the ED or inpatient setting in a single geographic region with fever/acute respiratory illness over four consecutive winter respiratory seasons (2010-2014)...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Wei Ouyang, Bing Gao, Hongguang Cheng, Zengchao Hao, Ni Wu
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) pollution exposure has an adverse impact on public health, and some vulnerable social groups suffer from unfair exposure. Few studies have been conducted to estimate and to compare the exposure and inequality of different residential demographics at multiple time scales. This study assessed the exposures level of age and education subgroups on the whole city and the exposure inequalities of these subgroups within a concentration interval area for PM2.5 pollution at multiple time scales in Beijing in 2015...
April 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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