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Geographically weighted regression

David L Joyce, Brian D Lahr, Lyle D Joyce, Sudhir S Kushwaha, Richard C Daly
Wait times have increased for patients approved for heart transplants. We reviewed United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data for 14,242 patients listed for isolated heart transplant (2009-2013) to develop a risk score model for timing left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation in bridge-to-transplant patients. We used a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model with subsequent bootstrap resampling for internal validation to develop a scoring system that combined risk factors, weighted by the corresponding regression coefficients, to define an individual's risk score...
October 18, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Yi Huang, Mark Rosenberg, Lingli Hou, Mengjin Hu
Human longevity is influenced by environment and nutrition. We considered environmental and nutritional factors relating to longevity in Chinese cities. We found higher 85+/65+ distribution ratios, indicating enhanced longevity, in the coastal and southern regions of China. These areas also featured higher humidity, low standard deviation of monthly temperature, higher levels of selenium (Se) distribution in soil, and greater sea fish consumption. Moderate climate is more conducive to longevity, however, there is no significant difference in longevity between different sub-climatic types within moderate climate; the relation between humidity and longevity is not always positive, the relation between altitude and longevity is not always negative...
October 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Eric E Smith, Jeffrey L Saver, Margueritte Cox, Li Liang, Roland A Matsouaka, Ying Xian, Deepak L Bhatt, Gregg C Fonarow, Lee H Schwamm
Background -Beginning in December 2014, a series of pivotal trials showed that endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) was highly effective, prompting calls to reorganize stroke systems of care. However, there are few data on how these trials influenced the frequency of EVT in clinical practice. We used data from the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke program to determine how the frequency of EVT changed in U.S. practice. Methods -We analyzed prospectively collected data from a cohort of 2,437,975 ischemic stroke patients admitted to 2,222 participating hospitals between April 2003 and the third quarter (Q3) 2016...
October 5, 2017: Circulation
Hagai Levine, Niels Jørgensen, Anderson Martino-Andrade, Jaime Mendiola, Dan Weksler-Derri, Irina Mindlis, Rachel Pinotti, Shanna H Swan
BACKGROUND: Reported declines in sperm counts remain controversial today and recent trends are unknown. A definitive meta-analysis is critical given the predictive value of sperm count for fertility, morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To provide a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of recent trends in sperm counts as measured by sperm concentration (SC) and total sperm count (TSC), and their modification by fertility and geographic group...
July 25, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
Felix A Ogbo, John Eastwood, Andrew Page, Oniovo Efe-Aluta, Chukwudi Anago-Amanze, Eshioramhe A Kadiri, Ifegwu K Ifegwu, Sue Woolfenden, Kingsley E Agho
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to examine the impact of sociodemographic and health-service factors on breast-feeding in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries with high diarrhoea mortality. DESIGN: The study used the most recent and pooled Demographic and Health Survey data sets collected in nine SSA countries with high diarrhoea mortality. Multivariate logistic regression models that adjusted for cluster and sampling weights were used to investigate the association between sociodemographic and health-service factors and breast-feeding in SSA countries...
October 5, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Lei Yu, Xiao-Ling Zeng, Ming-Liang Cheng, Guo-Zhen Yang, Bi Wang, Zi-Wen Xiao, Xin Luo, Bao-Fang Zhang, De-Wei Xiao, Shuai Zhang, Hua-Juan Liu, Ya-Xin Hu, Hou-Kang Lei, Qin-Fen Li, Zheng-Rong Wang
Pregnancies complicated by pre-gestational diabetes (PGD) are associated with a higher rate of adverse outcomes, including an increased rage of preterm delivery, pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, caesarean section, perinatal mortality, stillbirth, shoulder dystocia, macrosomia, small for gestational age, large for gestational age, low birth weight, neonatal hypoglycemia, neonatal death, low Apgar score, NICU admission, jaundice and respiratory distress. In the past two decades, numerous reports have been published regarding associations between PGD and risk of adverse outcomes...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
Wade N Harrison, Jared R Wasserman, David C Goodman
OBJECTIVE: To characterize geographic variation in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission rates across the entire birth cohort and evaluate the relationship between regional bed supply and NICU admission rates. STUDY DESIGN: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study. 2013 US birth certificate and 2012 American Hospital Association data were used to assign newborns and NICU beds to neonatal intensive care regions. Descriptive statistics of admission rates were calculated across neonatal intensive care regions...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
Shivani A Patel, Preet K Dhillon, Dimple Kondal, Panniyammakal Jeemon, Kashvi Kahol, Sathya Prakash Manimunda, Anil J Purty, Ajit Deshpande, P C Negi, Sulaiman Ladhani, Gurudayal Singh Toteja, Vikram Patel, Dorairaj Prabhakaran
BACKGROUND: The household is a potentially important but understudied unit of analysis and intervention in chronic disease research. We sought to estimate the association between living with someone with a chronic condition and one's own chronic condition status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of population-based household- and individual-level data collected in 4 socioculturally and geographically diverse settings across rural and urban India in 2013 and 2014...
September 2017: PLoS Medicine
Giovanni Mario Pes, Gabrio Bassotti, Maria Pina Dore
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most diffuse malignancy in the world. In Southern Europe, the incidence and prevalence are lower than in most Western countries, although some hot spots of increased risk are emerging. In Sardinia, the cancer rate has risen steeply in the last years. Among risk factors for CRC, genomic homozygosity has been postulated. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency has been hypothesized to decrease CRC risk. In Sardinians, this disorder has a frequency of 12-24% due to selection by past malaria...
September 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Raphael J Nawrotzki, Maryia Bakhtsiyarava
Research often assumes that, in rural areas of developing countries, adverse climatic conditions increase (climate driver mechanism) rather than reduce (climate inhibitor mechanism) migration, and that the impact of climate on migration is moderated by changes in agricultural productivity (agricultural pathway). Using representative census data in combination with high-resolution climate data derived from the novel Terra Populus system, we explore the climate-migration relationship in rural Burkina Faso and Senegal...
May 2017: Population, Space and Place
Sidra Goldman-Mellor, Kristina Allen, Mark S Kaplan
Adolescent suicide rates exhibit stark geographic disparities, with rates highest in rural areas. The causes of this disparity remain unclear. We investigated whether adolescent nonfatal suicidal ideation and attempt-leading risk factors for suicide-demonstrate the same rural/urban disparity. Using adolescent data from the 2011-2014 waves of the population-representative California Health Interview Survey (CHIS; N = 4,616), we estimated associations between residence in a rural area and suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, as well as access to psychological care...
September 21, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Sanni Yaya, Ghose Bishwajit, Michael Ekholuenetale, Vaibhav Shah, Bernard Kadio, Ogochukwu Udenigwe
INTRODUCTION: Although ANC services are increasingly available to women in low and middle-income countries, their inadequate use persists. This suggests a misalignment between aims of the services and maternal beliefs and circumstances. Owing to the dearth of studies examining the timing and adequacy of content of care, this current study aims to investigate the timing and frequency of ANC visits in Ethiopia. METHODS: Data was obtained from the nationally representative 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) which used a two-stage cluster sampling design to provide estimates for the health and demographic variables of interest for the country...
2017: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. METHODS: We estimated prevalence and incidence for 328 diseases and injuries and 2982 sequelae, their non-fatal consequences...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
Aidi Li, Xing Tan, Wei Wu, Hongbin Liu, Jie Zhu
Knowledge about the spatial distribution of active-layer (AL) soil thickness is indispensable for ecological modeling, precision agriculture, and land resource management. However, it is difficult to obtain the details on AL soil thickness by using conventional soil survey method. In this research, the objective is to investigate the possibility and accuracy of mapping the spatial distribution of AL soil thickness through random forest (RF) model by using terrain variables at a small watershed scale. A total of 1113 soil samples collected from the slope fields were randomly divided into calibration (770 soil samples) and validation (343 soil samples) sets...
2017: PloS One
Paula Nilda Fergnani, Adriana Ruggiero
The latitudinal diversity gradient has been considered a consequence of a shift in the impact of abiotic and biotic factors that limit species distributions from the poles to the equator, thus influencing species richness variation. It has also been considered the outcome of evolutionary processes that vary over geographical space. We used six South American mammal groups to test the association of environmental and evolutionary factors and the ecological structuring of mammal assemblages with spatial variation in taxonomic richness (TR), at a spatial resolution of 110 km x 110 km, at tropical and extra-tropical latitudes...
2017: PloS One
Ryan W Gan, Bonne Ford, William Lassman, Gabriele Pfister, Ambarish Vaidyanathan, Emily Fischer, John Volckens, Jeffrey R Pierce, Sheryl Magzamen
Climate forecasts predict an increase in frequency and intensity of wildfires. Associations between health outcomes and population exposure to smoke from Washington 2012 wildfires were compared using surface monitors, chemical-weather models, and a novel method blending three exposure information sources. The association between smoke particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and cardiopulmonary hospital admissions occurring in Washington from 1 July to 31 October 2012 was evaluated using a time-stratified case-crossover design...
March 2017: Geohealth
Javier Molina-García, Ana Queralt, Marc A Adams, Terry L Conway, James F Sallis
The study aim was to examine associations of neighborhood built environment and neighborhood socio-economic status (SES) with multiple physical activity (PA) behaviors, sedentary time, and obesity indicators among adolescents. Cross-sectional study of 325 adolescents aged 14-18years recruited from schools in Valencia, Spain. Participants' home neighborhoods were classified according to walkability and SES levels. Walkability was defined as an index of three built environment characteristics (i.e., residential density, land use mix, and street connectivity) based on geographic information system data...
August 31, 2017: Preventive Medicine
Donna R Rivera, Lisa Gallicchio, Jeremy Brown, Benmei Liu, Demetrios N Kyriacou, Nonniekaye Shelburne
Importance: The emergency department (ED) is used to manage cancer-related complications among the 15.5 million people living with cancer in the United States. However, ED utilization patterns by the population of US adults with cancer have not been previously evaluated or described in published literature. Objective: To estimate the proportion of US ED visits made by adults with a cancer diagnosis, understand the clinical presentation of adult patients with cancer in the ED, and examine factors related to inpatient admission within this population...
October 12, 2017: JAMA Oncology
Yonglin Zhong, Yudan Sun, Mingfeng Xu, Yi Zhang, Yongqiang Wang, Zhiyao Su
We used geographically weighted regression to investigate the relationship between biodiversity and the spatial stability of forest productivity (SSFP) in a subtropical mountain forest. We examined the effect of elevation on this relationship and on its spatial non-stationarity. We found that higher woody plant diversity reduced SSPF. Higher woody plant diversity strengthened the asynchrony of species responses to spatial heterogeneity of forest habitats, which contributed to SSFP, but reduced two factors that enhanced SSFP: species dominance and the spatial stability of the dominant species...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Reena H Doshi, Vivian H Alfonso, Patrick Mukadi, Nicole A Hoff, Sue Gerber, Ado Bwaka, Stephen G Higgins, Brian Cowell, Guillaume Ngoie Mwamba, Emile Okitolonda, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Anne W Rimoin
BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes both varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles) and is associated with significant global morbidity. Most epidemiological data on VZV come from high-come countries and to date there are limited data on the burden of VZV in Africa. METHODS: We assessed the seroprevalence of VZV antibodies among children in the Democratic Republic of Congo in collaboration with the 2013-2014 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS)...
August 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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