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Geographically weighted regression

Hongyan Ren, Lan Zheng, Qiaoxuan Li, Wu Yuan, Liang Lu
Dengue fever (DF) is a common and rapidly spreading vector-borne viral disease in tropical and subtropical regions. In recent years, this imported disease has posed an increasing threat to public health in China, especially in many southern cities. Although the severity of DF outbreaks in these cities is generally associated with known risk factors at various administrative levels, spatial heterogeneities of these associations remain little understood on a finer scale. In this study, the neighboring Guangzhou and Foshan (GF) cities were considered as a joint area for characterizing the spatial variations in the 2014 DF epidemic at various grid levels from 1 × 1 km² to 6 × 6 km²...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yichong Li, Limin Wang, Xiaoqi Feng, Mei Zhang, Zhengjing Huang, Qian Deng, Maigeng Zhou, Thomas Astell-Burt, Linhong Wang
OBJECTIVES: Hypertension has been the most important risk factor for disease burden in China. We aimed to conduct the first national spatial analysis of hypertension status, awareness, treatment and control in China. METHODS: Choropleth maps were used to examine the spatial patterning of hypertension, awareness, treatment and control in a nationally and provincially representative sample of 174 389 adults from the 2013 to 2014 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factors Surveillance...
January 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Fayssal Bouchemla, Olga Mikhailovna Popova, Valerey Alexandrovich Agoltsov
Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the spatial dynamic occurrence and patterns of the global spread of bluetongue (BT) disease for the period from 1996 to 2016, as well as the assessment of the risk of occurrence and its spread in 2017-2018. Materials and Methods: Outbreaks (serum samples were collected from clinically healthy as well as suspected animals in infected points) were confirmed and reported officially by veterinary departments which represent different geographical regions in the world to World Organization for Animal Health...
October 2017: Veterinary World
Tomi Akinyemiju, Justin Xavier Moore, Maria Pisu, Suzanne E Judd, Michael Goodman, James M Shikany, Virginia J Howard, Monika Safford, Susan C Gilchrist
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether metabolic health status is associated with risk of cancer mortality and whether this varies by body mass index (BMI) category. METHODS: A prospective study of 22,514 participants from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort was performed. Metabolically unhealthy status was defined as having three or more of the following: (1) elevated fasting glucose, (2) high triglycerides, (3) dyslipidemia, (4) hypertension, and (5) elevated waist circumference...
November 27, 2017: Obesity
Tawanda Manyangadze, Moses J Chimbari, Margaret Macherera, Samson Mukaratirwa
BACKGROUND: Although there has been a decline in the number of malaria cases in Zimbabwe since 2010, the disease remains the biggest public health threat in the country. Gwanda district, located in Matabeleland South Province of Zimbabwe has progressed to the malaria pre-elimination phase. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial distribution of malaria incidence at ward level for improving the planning and implementation of malaria elimination in the district. METHODS: The Poisson purely spatial model was used to detect malaria clusters and their properties, including relative risk and significance levels at ward level...
November 21, 2017: Malaria Journal
Zeng Li, Jingying Fu, Dong Jiang, Gang Lin, Donglin Dong, Xiaoxi Yan
Epidemiological studies conducted around the world have reported that the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) is closely associated with income and educational attainment. However, geographic elements should also remain a major concern in further improving child health issues, since they often play an important role in the survival environment. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the U5MR, geographic, and socioeconomic factors, and to explore the associated spatial variance of the relationship in China using the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Elizabeth H Lee, Cara H Olsen, Tracey Koehlmoos, Penny Masuoka, Ann Stewart, Jason W Bennett, James Mancuso
Despite good progress towards elimination, malaria continues to contribute substantially to the sub-Saharan African disease burden. Sustaining previous gains requires continued readiness to deliver malaria services in response to actual disease burden, which in turn contributes to health systems strengthening. This study investigates a health system innovation. We examined whether malaria prevalence, or endemicity, is a driver of health facility readiness to deliver malaria services. To estimate this association, we geo-linked cross-sectional facility survey data to endemicity data for Kenya, Namibia and Senegal...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
Alma D Guerrero, Xinkai Zhou, Paul J Chung
Objective To examine the benefits of having a medical home among Latino and Black school-aged children, both with and without special health care needs (CSHCN). Methods Data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) were analyzed to examine the associations of preventive dental and medical care, unmet dental or medical care, or missed school days with having a medical home among Latino and Black children compared to White children. Multivariate logistic regression with survey weights was used to adjust for child, parent, home, and geographic characteristics and an interaction term to estimate differences in outcomes among Black or Latino children receiving care in a medical home compared to White children with a medical home...
November 10, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Avni Gupta, Stephen T Sonis, Eric B Schneider, Alessandro Villa
BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with Medicaid, Medicare, or no insurance show poor outcomes in comparison with privately insured patients. It was hypothesized that nonprivate insurance coverage biases the selection of the treatment site to favor hospitals that are not associated with optimum treatment outcomes. This study assessed the relation between the insurance type of HNC patients and the hospital type for inpatient care. METHODS: Adult HNC patients were identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2012 and 2013)...
November 7, 2017: Cancer
Sasikiran Kandula, Daniel Hsu, Jeffrey Shaman
BACKGROUND: Limiting the adverse effects of seasonal influenza outbreaks at state or city level requires close monitoring of localized outbreaks and reliable forecasts of their progression. Whereas forecasting models for influenza or influenza-like illness (ILI) are becoming increasingly available, their applicability to localized outbreaks is limited by the nonavailability of real-time observations of the current outbreak state at local scales. Surveillance data collected by various health departments are widely accepted as the reference standard for estimating the state of outbreaks, and in the absence of surveillance data, nowcast proxies built using Web-based activities such as search engine queries, tweets, and access of health-related webpages can be useful...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Jennifer L Moss, Benmei Liu, Eric J Feuer
BACKGROUND: Breast and cervical cancer incidence vary by urbanicity, and several ecological factors could contribute to these patterns. In particular, cancer screening or other sociodemographic and health care system variables could explain geographic disparities in cancer incidence. METHODS: Governmental and research sources provided data on 612 counties in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program for rural-urban continuum code, socioeconomic status (SES) quintile, percent non-Hispanic White residents, density of primary care physicians, cancer screening, and breast and cervical cancer incidence rates (2009-2013)...
November 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Sara E Benjamin Neelon, Thomas Burgoine, John A Gallis, Pablo Monsivais
BACKGROUND: we assessed manager perceptions of food security and obesity in young children attending nurseries across England, assessing spatial differences by area-level deprivation. METHODS: we conducted an adjusted multinomial logistic regression and an adjusted geographically weighted logistic regression examining the odds of a manager perceiving obesity, food insecurity, or both as a problem among children in care measured via a mailed survey. RESULTS: 851 (54...
November 2017: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Jun Liu, Asad J Khattak, Behram Wali
Safety Performance Functions (SPFs) provide a basis for identifying locations where countermeasures can be effective. While SPFs in the Highway Safety Manual (HSM) were calibrated based on data from select states, calibration factors can be developed to localize SPFs to other states. Calibration factors typically provide a coarse adjustment-time and space stationarity of associations between crash frequencies and various factors is still assumed, implying that the SPF functional form is transferable. However, with increasing availability of statewide geo-referenced safety data, new spatial analysis methods, and increasing computational power, it is possible to relax the stationarity assumption...
October 21, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Victoria Sosa, Israel Loera
BACKGROUND: A number of biotic and abiotic factors have been proposed as drivers of geographic variation in species richness. As biotic elements, inter-specific interactions are the most widely recognized. Among abiotic factors, in particular for plants, climate and topographic variables as well as their historical variation have been correlated with species richness and endemism. In this study, we determine the extent to which the species richness and endemism of monocot geophyte species in Mesoamerica is predicted by current climate, historical climate stability and topography...
2017: PeerJ
Jun Liu, Asad J Khattak
Drivers undertaking risky behaviors at highway-rail grade crossings are often severely injured in collisions with trains. Among these behaviors, gate-violation (referring to driving around or through the gates that were activated and lowered by an approaching train) seems to be one of the most dangerous actions a driver might take at a gated crossing; it may compromise the intended safety improvement made by adding gates at crossings. This study develops a nuanced conceptual framework that uses path analysis to explore the contributing factors to gate-violation behaviors and the correlation between gate-violation behaviors and the crash consequence - the driver injury severity...
October 17, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Chloé Sieber, Martina S Ragettli, Mark Brink, Olaniyan Toyib, Roslyn Baatjies, Apolline Saucy, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie, Martin Röösli
In low- and middle-income countries, noise exposure and its negative health effects have been little explored. The present study aimed to assess the noise exposure situation in adults living in informal settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. We conducted continuous one-week outdoor noise measurements at 134 homes in four different areas. These data were used to develop a land use regression (LUR) model to predict A-weighted day-evening-night equivalent sound levels (Lden) from geographic information system (GIS) variables...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
David L Joyce, Brian D Lahr, Lyle D Joyce, Sudhir S Kushwaha, Richard C Daly
Wait times have increased for patients approved for heart transplants. We reviewed United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data for 14,242 patients listed for isolated heart transplant (2009-2013) to develop a risk score model for timing left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation in bridge-to-transplant patients. We used a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model with subsequent bootstrap resampling for internal validation to develop a scoring system that combined risk factors, weighted by the corresponding regression coefficients, to define an individual's risk score...
October 18, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Yi Huang, Mark Rosenberg, Lingli Hou, Mengjin Hu
Human longevity is influenced by environment and nutrition. We considered environmental and nutritional factors relating to longevity in Chinese cities. We found higher 85+/65+ distribution ratios, indicating enhanced longevity, in the coastal and southern regions of China. These areas also featured higher humidity, low standard deviation of monthly temperature, higher levels of selenium (Se) distribution in soil, and greater sea fish consumption. Moderate climate is more conducive to longevity, however, there is no significant difference in longevity between different sub-climatic types within moderate climate; the relation between humidity and longevity is not always positive, the relation between altitude and longevity is not always negative...
October 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Eric E Smith, Jeffrey L Saver, Margueritte Cox, Li Liang, Roland A Matsouaka, Ying Xian, Deepak L Bhatt, Gregg C Fonarow, Lee H Schwamm
Background -Beginning in December 2014, a series of pivotal trials showed that endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) was highly effective, prompting calls to reorganize stroke systems of care. However, there are few data on how these trials influenced the frequency of EVT in clinical practice. We used data from the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke program to determine how the frequency of EVT changed in U.S. practice. Methods -We analyzed prospectively collected data from a cohort of 2,437,975 ischemic stroke patients admitted to 2,222 participating hospitals between April 2003 and the third quarter (Q3) 2016...
October 5, 2017: Circulation
Hagai Levine, Niels Jørgensen, Anderson Martino-Andrade, Jaime Mendiola, Dan Weksler-Derri, Irina Mindlis, Rachel Pinotti, Shanna H Swan
BACKGROUND: Reported declines in sperm counts remain controversial today and recent trends are unknown. A definitive meta-analysis is critical given the predictive value of sperm count for fertility, morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To provide a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of recent trends in sperm counts as measured by sperm concentration (SC) and total sperm count (TSC), and their modification by fertility and geographic group...
November 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
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