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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341940/mucocele-of-the-sphenoid-sinus
#1
Karen B Djambazov, Borislav D Kitov, Christo B Zhelyazkov, Atanas N Davarski, Alexandrina R Topalova
Mucocele of the paranasal sinuses is a rare disease with slow evolution. It is a benign, encapsulated and destructive formation filled with mucous fluid and tapistrated with respiratory epithelium. Of all the paranasal sinuses, the sphenoid sinus is affected in only 1-7% of the cases. We present two cases of mucocele of the sphenoid sinus involving the posterior ethmoidal cells. We consider here their clinical presentation, use of neuroimaging in the diagnosis, surgical care and postoperative results. Both patients presented with a history of persistent headache and in addition, one of them had a paresis of the right oculomotor and abducens nerves...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341913/characterisation-of-pore-structures-of-pharmaceutical-tablets-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Daniel Markl, Alexa Strobel, Rüdiger Schlossnikl, Johan Bøtker, Prince Bawuah, Cathy Ridgway, Jukka Rantanen, Thomas Rades, Patrick Gane, Kai-Erik Peiponen, J Axel Zeitler
Traditionally, the development of a new solid dosage form is formulation-driven and less focus is put on the design of a specific microstructure for the drug delivery system. However, the compaction process particularly impacts the microstructure, or more precisely, the pore architecture in a pharmaceutical tablet. Besides the formulation, the pore structure is a major contributor to the overall performance of oral solid dosage forms as it directly affects the liquid uptake rate, which is the very first step of the dissolution process...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341741/fractional-spin-and-josephson-effect-in-time-reversal-invariant-topological-superconductors
#3
Alberto Camjayi, Liliana Arrachea, Armando Aligia, Felix von Oppen
Time-reversal-invariant topological superconducting (TRITOPS) wires are known to host a fractional spin ℏ/4 at their ends. We investigate how this fractional spin affects the Josephson current in a TRITOPS-quantum dot-TRITOPS Josephson junction, describing the wire in a model that can be tuned between a topological and a nontopological phase. We compute the equilibrium Josephson current of the full model by continuous-time Monte Carlo simulations and interpret the results within an effective low-energy theory...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341674/stochastic-and-resolvable-gravitational-waves-from-ultralight-bosons
#4
Richard Brito, Shrobana Ghosh, Enrico Barausse, Emanuele Berti, Vitor Cardoso, Irina Dvorkin, Antoine Klein, Paolo Pani
Ultralight scalar fields around spinning black holes can trigger superradiant instabilities, forming a long-lived bosonic condensate outside the horizon. We use numerical solutions of the perturbed field equations and astrophysical models of massive and stellar-mass black hole populations to compute, for the first time, the stochastic gravitational-wave background from these sources. In optimistic scenarios the background is observable by Advanced LIGO and LISA for field masses m_{s} in the range ∼[2×10^{-13},10^{-12}] and ∼5×[10^{-19},10^{-16}]  eV, respectively, and it can affect the detectability of resolvable sources...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341178/security-investment-in-contagious-networks
#5
Seyed Alireza Hasheminasab, Behrouz Tork Ladani
Security of the systems is normally interdependent in such a way that security risks of one part affect other parts and threats spread through the vulnerable links in the network. So, the risks of the systems can be mitigated through investments in the security of interconnecting links. This article takes an innovative look at the problem of security investment of nodes on their vulnerable links in a given contagious network as a game-theoretic model that can be applied to a variety of applications including information systems...
January 16, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340300/shared-mechanisms-in-the-estimation-of-self-generated-actions-and-the-prediction-of-other-s-actions-by-humans
#6
Tsuyoshi Ikegami, Gowrishankar Ganesh
The question of how humans predict outcomes of observed motor actions by others is a fundamental problem in cognitive and social neuroscience. Previous theoretical studies have suggested that the brain uses parts of the forward model (used to estimate sensory outcomes of self-generated actions) to predict outcomes of observed actions. However, this hypothesis has remained controversial due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. To address this issue, we analyzed the behavior of darts experts in an understanding learning paradigm and utilized computational modeling to examine how outcome prediction of observed actions affected the participants' ability to estimate their own actions...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339733/role-of-macromolecular-crowding-on-the-intracellular-diffusion-of-dna-binding-proteins
#7
Pinki Dey, Arnab Bhattacherjee
Recent experiments suggest that cellular crowding facilitates the target search dynamics of proteins on DNA, the mechanism of which is not yet known. By using large scale computer simulations, we show that two competing factors, namely the width of the depletion layer that separates the crowder cloud from the DNA molecule and the degree of protein-crowder crosstalk, act in harmony to affect the target search dynamics of proteins. The impacts vary from nonspecific to specific target search regime. During a nonspecific search, dynamics of a protein is only minimally affected, whereas, a significantly different behaviour is observed when the protein starts forming a specific protein-DNA complex...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339678/endarteritis-of-coarctation-of-the-aorta-diagnosed-with-pet-ct
#8
Ümit Yaşar Sinan, Burcu Dirlik Serim, Rukiye Yıldırım, Özge Çetinarslan, Mehmet Serdar Küçükoğlu
Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infectious disease that affects the endothelium of the large intrathoracic vessels, heart valves, and intra-cardiac foreign body material. A 20-year-old woman was admitted to the cardiology department with complaints of fever and palpitations. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a bicuspid aortic valve, aortic root enlargement, and aortic coarctation. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed a bicuspid aortic valve, but there was no vegetation. Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus was identified on a blood culture...
January 2018: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339580/advantages-of-soft-subdural-implants-for-the-delivery-of-electrochemical-neuromodulation-therapies-to-the-spinal-cord
#9
Marco Capogrosso, Jérôme Gandar, Nathan Greiner, Eduardo Martin Moraud, Nikolaus Wenger, Polina Shkorbatova, Pavel E Мusienko, Ivan Minev, Stephanie P Lacour, Gregoire Courtine
We recently developed soft neural interfaces enabling the delivery of electrical and chemical stimulation to the spinal cord. These stimulations restored locomotion in animal models of paralysis. Soft interfaces can be placed either below or above the dura mater. Theoretically, the subdural location combines many advantages, including increased selectivity of electrical stimulation, lower stimulation thresholds, and targeted chemical stimulation through local drug delivery. However, these advantages have not been documented, nor have their functional impact been studied in-silico or in a relevant animal model of neurological disorders using a multimodal neural interface...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339151/practical-considerations-for-obtaining-high-quality-quantitative-computed-tomography-data-of-the-skeletal-system
#10
REVIEW
Karen L Troy, W Brent Edwards
Quantitative CT (QCT) analysis involves the calculation of specific parameters such as bone volume and density from CT image data, and can be a powerful tool for understanding bone quality and quantity. However, without careful attention to detail during all steps of the acquisition and analysis process, data can be of poor- to unusable-quality. Good quality QCT for research requires meticulous attention to detail and standardization of all aspects of data collection and analysis to a degree that is uncommon in a clinical setting...
January 12, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339062/the-effect-of-humeral-tunnel-locations-on-radiographic-tunnel-changes-in-baseball-players-following-medial-ulnar-collateral-ligament-reconstruction-comparison-of-anatomic-and-nonanatomic-locations
#11
Jin-Young Park, Seok Won Chung, Jun Gyu Lee, Jae-Hyung Lee, Soo Kyung Lee, Hyun Jun Ji, Kyung-Soo Oh
BACKGROUND: There has been no study on radiologic changes after medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) reconstruction and related clinical features. METHODS: Data from 39 baseball players who underwent MUCL reconstruction were collected and analyzed. The baseball players were classified into 2 groups according to the starting point of the humeral tunnel: (1) the lower tip of the medial epicondyle (group NA, n = 21) and (2) the remnant of the MUCL (group A, n = 18)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338024/quantitative-in-vivo-mapping-of-myocardial-mitochondrial-membrane-potential
#12
Nathaniel M Alpert, Nicolas Guehl, Leon Ptaszek, Matthieu Pelletier-Galarneau, Jeremy Ruskin, Moussa C Mansour, Dustin Wooten, Chao Ma, Kazue Takahashi, Yun Zhou, Timothy M Shoup, Marc D Normandin, Georges El Fakhri
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) arises from normal function of the electron transport chain. Maintenance of ΔΨm within a narrow range is essential for mitochondrial function. Methods for in vivo measurement of ΔΨm do not exist. We use 18F-labeled tetraphenylphosphonium (18F-TPP+) to measure and map the total membrane potential, ΔΨT, as the sum of ΔΨm and cellular (ΔΨc) electrical potentials. METHODS: Eight pigs, five controls and three with a scar-like injury, were studied...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338013/dynamical-networks-of-influence-in-small-group-discussions
#13
Mehdi Moussaïd, Alejandro Noriega Campero, Abdullah Almaatouq
In many domains of life, business and management, numerous problems are addressed by small groups of individuals engaged in face-to-face discussions. While research in social psychology has a long history of studying the determinants of small group performances, the internal dynamics that govern a group discussion are not yet well understood. Here, we rely on computational methods based on network analyses and opinion dynamics to describe how individuals influence each other during a group discussion. We consider the situation in which a small group of three individuals engages in a discussion to solve an estimation task...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337562/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-in-lead-optimization-ii-rational-bioavailability-design-by-global-sensitivity-analysis-to-identify-properties-affecting-bioavailability
#14
Pankaj R Daga, Michael B Bolger, Ian Haworth, Robert Daniel Clark, Eric J Martin
When medicinal chemists need to improve oral bioavailability (%F) during lead optimization, they systematically modify compound properties mainly based on their own experience and general rules of thumb. However, at least a dozen properties can influence %F, and the difficulty of multi-parameter optimization for such complex non-linear processes grows combinatorially with the number of variables. Furthermore, strategies can be in conflict. For example, adding a polar or charged group will generally increase solubility but decrease permeability...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336865/continuous-hyperfractionated-accelerated-radiotherapy-chart-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-7-years-experience-from-nine-uk-centres
#15
P Sanganalmath, J E Lester, A G Bradshaw, T Das, C Esler, A E F Roy, E Toy, J F Lester, M Button, P Wilson, C Comins, P Atherton, R Pickles, K Foweraker, G A Walker, M Keni, M Q Hatton
AIM: Continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (CHART) remains an option to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; NICE, 2011). We have previously published treatment outcomes from 1998-2003 across five UK centres. Here we update the UK CHART experience, reporting outcomes and toxicities for patients treated between 2003 and 2009. MATERIALS AND METHODS: UK CHART centres were invited to participate in a retrospective data analysis of NSCLC patients treated with CHART from 2003 to 2009...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336085/endotracheal-tube-placement-during-computed-tomography-of-brachycephalic-dogs-alters-upper-airway-dimensional-measurements
#16
Nai-Chieh Liu, Eileen L Troconis, Matthew McMillan, Marie-Aude Genain, Lajos Kalmar, David J Price, David R Sargan, Jane F Ladlow
Computed tomography (CT) is used to document upper airway lesions in dogs with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. The presence of an endotracheal tube during CT scanning is often required for general anesthesia. We hypothesized that the endotracheal tube placement would change the soft tissue dimensions of the upper airway. The aims of this prospective, method comparison study were to evaluate the reliability of the previously reported upper airway CT measurements with endotracheal tube placement, and to propose measurements that are minimally affected by the endotracheal tube...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335929/computational-model-to-investigate-the-relative-contributions-of-different-neuromuscular-properties-of-tibialis-anterior-on-force-generated-during-ankle-dorsiflexion
#17
Ariba Siddiqi, Sridhar Poosapadi Arjunan, Dinesh Kant Kumar
This study describes a new model of the force generated by tibialis anterior muscle with three new features: single-fiber action potential, twitch force, and pennation angle. This model was used to investigate the relative effects and interaction of ten age-associated neuromuscular parameters. Regression analysis (significance level of 0.05) between the neuromuscular properties and corresponding simulated force produced at the footplate was performed. Standardized slope coefficients were computed to rank the effect of the parameters...
January 16, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335276/assigning-function-to-natural-allelic-variation-via-dynamic-modeling-of-gene-network-induction
#18
Magali Richard, Florent Chuffart, Hélène Duplus-Bottin, Fanny Pouyet, Martin Spichty, Etienne Fulcrand, Marianne Entrevan, Audrey Barthelaix, Michael Springer, Daniel Jost, Gaël Yvert
More and more natural DNA variants are being linked to physiological traits. Yet, understanding what differences they make on molecular regulations remains challenging. Important properties of gene regulatory networks can be captured by computational models. If model parameters can be "personalized" according to the genotype, their variation may then reveal how DNA variants operate in the network. Here, we combined experiments and computations to visualize natural alleles of the yeast GAL3 gene in a space of model parameters describing the galactose response network...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334919/low-birthweight-in-rural-cameroon-an-analysis-of-a-cut-off-value
#19
Valirie Ndip Agbor, Chobufo Ditah, Joel Noutakdie Tochie, Tsi Njim
BACKGROUND: Low birthweight (LBW) is a major predictor of early neonatal mortality which disproportionately affects low-income countries. WHO recommends regional definitions for LBW to prevent misclassifications and ensure appropriate care of babies with LBW. We conducted this study to define a clinical cut-off for LBW, and to determine the predictors and adverse foetal outcomes of LBW babies in a rural sub-division in Cameroon. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective register analysis of 1787 singleton deliveries in two health facilities in the Northwest Region of Cameroon...
January 15, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334561/preoperative-18f-fdg-pet-ct-in-pheochromocytomas-and-paragangliomas-allows-for-precision-surgery
#20
Pavel Nockel, Mustapha El Lakis, Apostolos Gaitanidis, Roxanne Merkel, Dhaval Patel, Naris Nilubol, Tamara Prodanov, Karel Pacak, Electron Kebebew
BACKGROUND: Fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging is recommended in patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma (PC) and paraganglioma (PGL). There are no data on whether routine preoperative F-FDG PET/CT in all patients with PC/PGL impacts surgical management. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether routine preoperative F-FDG PET/CT imaging affects the surgical management of patients with PC/PGLs...
January 12, 2018: Annals of Surgery
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