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Spine Disorders

Daiki Kumaki, Yukio Nakamura, Takako Suzuki, Hiroyuki Kato
Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder. Glucocorticoids are often used for AOSD, which may induce complicating glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO). An anti-resorption drug, denosumab, has recently been approved for osteoporosis treatment in Japan. However, the drug's efficacy for GIO in AOSD is largely unknown. This retrospective, consecutive case series investigated two patients with GIO in AOSD to examine the effects of denosumab on bone metabolism. Bone turnover markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar 1-4 spine (L-BMD) and bilateral total hips (H-BMD) were followed for six months in a male patient and for twelve months in a female patient...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Takuya Nikaido, Masahiko Sumitani, Miho Sekiguchi, Shinichi Konno
OBJECTIVES: To develop screening tools for neuropathic pain caused by spinal disorders, the Spine painDETECT questionnaire (SPDQ) and its short-form version (SF-SPDQ), by modifying the Japanese version of the painDETECT questionnaire (PDQ-J), and to validate these tools. METHODS: Using data from patients with neuropathic pain caused by spinal disorders (NeP-SD) and patients with nociceptive pain caused by joint disorders (NocP) as controls, we devised a scoring system for the SPDQ by calculating weighting coefficients for nine PDQ-J items...
2018: PloS One
Bassel G Diebo, Denis Cherkalin, Cyrus M Jalai, Neil V Shah, Greg W Poorman, George A Beyer, Frank A Segreto, Virginie Lafage, Qais Naziri, Jared M Newman, William P Urban, Thomas J Errico, Frank J Schwab, Carl B Paulino, Peter G Passias
Retrospective review of National Inpatient Sample (2000-2012) revealed that 31.28% of musculoskeletal (MSK) patients were found to have in-hospital psychological burdens (PBs). Adult spinal deformity (ASD), degenerative disc disease (DDD) and lung cancer patients had highest PB-prevalence. MSK patients with PB were more often young, white females with increased Deyo index compared to no-PB patients. Patients who underwent spinal revision procedures had higher PB rates than with primary procedures; a converse trend was observed for total hip/knee arthroplasty...
June 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
Mohammad Shehata, Kareem Abdou, Kiriko Choko, Mina Matsuo, Hirofumi Nishizono, Kaoru Inokuchi
There is substantial interest in memory reconsolidation as a target for the treatment of anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, its applicability is restricted by reconsolidation-resistant boundary conditions that constrain the initial memory destabilization. In this study, we investigated whether the induction of synaptic protein degradation through autophagy modulation, a major protein degradation pathway, can enhance memory destabilization upon retrieval and whether it can be utilized to overcome these conditions...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Kazlin N Mason, John E Riski, Jamie L Perry
OBJECTIVE: Palpation is often used to identify C1, an intraoperative landmark, for placement of the pharyngoplasty. However, little is known about the relationship between the palatal plane (PP) and this cervical spine landmark across select variables. This study seeks to analyze variations in the height of velopharyngeal closure relative to C1 across differing cleft types and age groups. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Large, multidisciplinary center for craniofacial disorders...
April 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Lianne J P Sonnemans, Bela Kubat, Mathias Prokop, Willemijn M Klein
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether virtual autopsy with postmortem CT (PMCT) improves clinical diagnosis of the immediate cause of death. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: inhospital and out-of-hospital deaths over the age of 1 year in whom virtual autopsy with PMCT and conventional autopsy were performed. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: forensic cases, postmortal organ donors and cases with incomplete scanning procedures...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Heeren Makanji, Andrew J Schoenfeld, Amandeep Bhalla, Christopher M Bono
PURPOSE: Lumbar fusion for degenerative disorders is among the most common spine surgical procedures performed. The purpose of this study was to analyze fusion, complications, and clinical success for lumbar fusion performed with various surgical techniques as reported in the literature from 2000 to 2015 and compare with previous critical analysis of outcomes from 1980 to 2000. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature to identify all studies of adult lumbar fusion for degenerative disorders published between January 1, 2000, and August 31, 2015, was performed adhering to PRISMA guidelines...
March 15, 2018: European Spine Journal
Kyriakos Paraskeva, Dimitrios Giakoumettis, Ioannis Nikas, George Georgoulis, George Sfakianos, Marios S Themistocleous
INTRODUCTION: Neck pain and torticollis are common symptoms in the pediatric population that rarely requires further investigation. However, in case symptoms persist, then a more meticulously approach should be considered. Underlying conditions such as infections, neck injury, autoimmune disorders or even cervical spine cancer should be excluded from diagnosis. Cervical spine cancer is a rare neurosurgical entity in the pediatric population and even rarer is atlantoaxial Ewing's sarcoma...
March 3, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Cordula Netzer, Pascal Distel, Uwe Wolfram, Hans Deyhle, Gregory F Jost, Stefan Schären, Jeroen Geurts
Facet joint osteoarthritis is a prominent feature of degenerative spine disorders, highly prevalent in ageing populations, and considered a major cause for chronic lower back pain. Since there is no targeted pharmacological therapy, clinical management of disease includes analgesic or surgical treatment. The specific cellular, molecular, and structural changes underpinning facet joint osteoarthritis remain largely elusive. The aim of this study was to determine osteoarthritis-related structural alterations in cortical and trabecular subchondral bone compartments...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shingo Onda, Masahiro Kanayama, Tomoyuki Hashimoto, Fumihiro Oha, Akira Iwata, Masaru Tanaka, Kazuo Kaneko
PURPOSE: To compare peri-operative complication rates in ≥ 85-year-old patients who underwent decompression surgery with or without instrumented fusion for degenerative disorders. METHODS: This study involved 907 patients who underwent lumbar spine surgery for degenerative disorders between January 2006 and June 2012. Of these, 33 patients (3.6% of the entire population) were over 85 years of age (85-94 years). Decompression-alone and instrumentation groups were compared in terms of comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA)-physical status (PS) class, peri-operative complications, and Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores...
March 13, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Tae-Yong Choi, Seung-Hyun Lee, Yoon-Jung Kim, Jae Ryul Bae, Kwang Min Lee, Youhwa Jo, Soo-Jeong Kim, A-Ram Lee, Sekyu Choi, La-Mee Choi, Sunhoe Bang, Mi-Ryoung Song, Jongkyeong Chung, Kyung Jin Lee, Sung Hyun Kim, Chul-Seung Park, Se-Young Choi
Mutations in the cereblon ( CRBN ) gene cause human intellectual disability, one of the most common cognitive disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of CRBN -related intellectual disability remain poorly understood. We investigated the role of CRBN in synaptic function and animal behavior using male mouse and Drosophila models. Crbn knockout (KO) mice showed normal brain and spine morphology as well as intact synaptic plasticity; however, they also exhibited decreases in synaptic transmission and presynaptic release probability exclusively in excitatory synapses...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Zhi-Fang Deng, Hui-Ling Zheng, Jian-Guo Chen, Yi Luo, Jun-Feng Xu, Gang Zhao, Jia-Jing Lu, Hou-Hong Li, Shuang-Qi Gao, Deng-Zheng Zhang, Ling-Qiang Zhu, Yong-Hui Zhang, Fang Wang
β-Catenin has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD), which is associated with synaptic plasticity and dendritic arborization. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small noncoding RNAs containing about 22 nucleotides and involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological process, but their roles in MDD remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the expression and function of miRNAs in the mouse model of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS). The regulation of β-catenin by selected miRNA was validated by silico prediction, target gene luciferase reporter assay, and transfection experiment in neurons...
March 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Lifu Sheng, Iryna Leshchyns'ka, Vladimir Sytnyk
The neural cell adhesion molecule 2 (NCAM2) is encoded by a gene on chromosome 21 in humans. NCAM2 accumulates in synapses, but its role in regulation of synapse formation remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that an increase in NCAM2 levels results in increased instability of dendritic protrusions and reduced conversion of protrusions to dendritic spines in mouse cortical neurons. NCAM2 overexpression induces an increase in the frequency of submembrane Ca2+ spikes localized in individual dendritic protrusions and promotes propagation of submembrane Ca2+ spikes over segments of dendrites or the whole dendritic tree...
March 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Jéssica Araújo Figueira, Fábio Roberto de Souza Batista, Karina Rosso, Vanessa Cristina Veltrini, Angelo José Pavan
Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS), also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder with high penetrance and variable expressivity. The classic triad originally described by Gorlin and Goltz in 1960 is composed of multiple nevoid basal cell carcinomas (NBCCs), odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) in the jaws and bifid ribs. in 1977, this triad was modified by Rayner et al, and to GGS diagnosis, the OKCs had to appear in combination with calcification of the cerebellar falx or palmar and plantar pits...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
(no author information available yet)
Abstracts of the 2018 AANS/CNS Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves Annual Meeting.
March 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
M Martinez-Morga, M P Quesada-Rico, C Bueno, S Martinez
AIM: To know the neural processes linked to the activity of brain circuits in order to understand the consequences of their dysfunction and their role in the development of neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). DEVELOPMENT: The activity of neuronal circuits is the neurobiological basis of behavior and mental activity (emotions, memory and thoughts). The processes of differentiation of neural cells and the formation of circuits by synaptic contacts between neurons (synaptogenesis) occur in the central nervous system during the late stages of prenatal development and the first months after birth...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Dariusz Czaprowski, Łukasz Stoliński, Marcin Tyrakowski, Mateusz Kozinoga, Tomasz Kotwicki
Background: The physiological sagittal spinal curvature represents a typical feature of good body posture in the sagittal plane. The cervical and the lumbar spine are curved anteriorly (lordosis), while the thoracic segment is curved posteriorly (kyphosis). The pelvis is inclined anteriorly, and the lower limbs' joints remain in a neutral position. However, there are many deviations from the optimal body alignment.The aim of this paper is to present the most common types of non-structural misalignments of the body posture in the sagittal plane...
2018: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Chia-Sheng Pai, Pranao K Sharma, Hsien-Ting Huang, Srivaishnavi Loganathan, Heng Lin, Yu-Luan Hsu, Sarayut Phasuk, Ingrid Y Liu
The genetic and molecular basis underlying fear memory formation is a key theme in anxiety disorder research. Because activating transcription factor 3 ( ATF3 ) is induced under stress conditions and is highly expressed in the hippocampus, we hypothesize that ATF3 plays a role in fear memory formation. We used fear conditioning and various other paradigms to test Atf3 knockout mice and study the role of ATF3 in processing fear memory. The results demonstrated that the lack of ATF3 specifically enhanced the expression of fear memory, which was indicated by a higher incidence of the freeze response after fear conditioning, whereas the occurrence of spatial memory including Morris Water Maze and radial arm maze remained unchanged...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Fenghua Chen, Jibrin Danladi, Maryam Ardalan, Betina Elfving, Heidi K Müller, Gregers Wegener, Connie Sanchez, Jens R Nyengaard
Background: Preclinical studies have indicated that antidepressant effect of vortioxetine involves increased synaptic plasticity and promotion of spine maturation. Mitochondria dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiological basis of major depressive disorder. Taking into consideration that vortioxetine increases spine number and dendritic branching in hippocampus CA1 faster than fluoxetine, we hypothesize that new spines induced by vortioxetine can rapidly form functional synapses by mitochondrial support, accompanied by increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-signaling...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Monique Richter, María Luciana Negro-Demontel, Daniela Blanco-Ocampo, Eliseo Taranto, Natalia Lago, Hugo Peluffo
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability and is a risk factor for the later development of neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Many models of TBI have been developed, but their further refinement and a more detailed long-term follow-up is needed. We have used the Thy1-YFP-H transgenic mouse line and the parallel rod floor test to produce an unbiased and robust method for the evaluation of the multiple effects of a validated model of controlled cortical injury...
February 21, 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
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