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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109196/embodying-pervasive-discrimination-a-decomposition-of-sexual-orientation-inequalities-in-health-in-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study-in-northern-sweden
#1
Per E Gustafsson, Ida Linander, Paola A Mosquera
BACKGROUND: Studies from Sweden and abroad have established health inequalities between heterosexual and non-heterosexual people. Few studies have examined the underpinnings of such sexual orientation inequalities in health. To expand this literature, the present study aimed to employ decomposition analysis to explain health inequalities between people with heterosexual and non-heterosexual orientation in Sweden, a country with an international reputation for heeding the human rights of non-heterosexual people...
January 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109186/interleukin-1-as-a-mediator-of-fatigue-in-disease-a-narrative-review
#2
REVIEW
Megan E Roerink, Marieke E van der Schaaf, Charles A Dinarello, Hans Knoop, Jos W M van der Meer
Fatigue is commonly reported in a variety of illnesses, and it has major impact on quality of life. Previously, it was thought that fatigue originates in the skeletal muscles, leading to cessation of activity. However, more recently, it has become clear that the brain is the central regulator of fatigue perception. It has been suggested that pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), play a prominent role in the development of central fatigue, and several studies have been performed to elucidate the connection between inflammation and these central processes...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109168/integrated-omics-analysis-of-specialized-metabolism-in-medicinal-plants
#3
Amit Rai, Kazuki Saito, Mami Yamazaki
Medicinal plants are the rich source of highly diverse specialized metabolites with important pharmacological properties. Until recently, plant biologists were limited in their approach to explore biosynthetic pathways of these metabolites, mainly due to the scarcity of plant genomics resources. Recent advancements in the high-throughput large-scale analytical methods have enabled plant biologists to discover biosynthetic pathways for important plant-based medicinal metabolites. Reduced cost to generate omics datasets, and the development of computational tools for their analysis and integration have led to the elucidation of biosynthetic pathways of several plant origin bio-active metabolites...
January 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109121/cannabis-use-and-dating-violence-among-college-students-a-call-for-research
#4
Ryan C Shorey, Ellen Haynes, Catherine Strauss, Jeff R Temple, Gregory L Stuart
Dating violence is a serious and prevalent problem on college campuses. Although there is a robust literature documenting that alcohol use is consistently associated with increased risk for perpetrating dating violence, little research has examined the role of cannabis in dating violence perpetration. With increasing legalisation of cannabis throughout the world, it is imperative to understand what role, if any, cannabis may play in the important public health problem of dating violence. In this commentary, we discuss the current state of the research on cannabis and dating violence and suggest avenues for additional research in this area...
January 21, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109053/frogs-model-man-in-vivo-thyroid-hormone-signaling-during-development
#5
REVIEW
Laurent M Sachs, Daniel R Buchholz
Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling comprises TH transport across cell membranes, metabolism by deiodinases, and molecular mechanisms of gene regulation. Proper TH signaling is essential for normal perinatal development, most notably for neurogenesis and fetal growth. Knowledge of perinatal TH endocrinology needs improvement to provide better treatments for premature infants and endocrine diseases during gestation and to counteract effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Studies in amphibians have provided major insights to understand in-vivo mechanisms of TH signaling...
January 21, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109014/urothelial-generation-and-regeneration-in-development-injury-and-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Caihong Wang, Whitney Trotter Ross, Indira U Mysorekar
Homeostatic maintenance and repair of the urothelium upon injury are required for a functional bladder in both healthy and disease conditions. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the urothelial regenerative response is key to designing strategies for tissue repair and ultimately treatments for urologic diseases including urinary tract infections, voiding dysfunction, painful bladder syndrome and bladder cancer. In this article, we review studies on urothelial ontogeny during development and regeneration following various injury modalities...
January 20, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108985/the-th2-gene-cluster-unraveled-role-of-rhs6
#7
EDITORIAL
Cameron H Flayer, Angela Haczku
Although the transcription factors that regulate T helper (Th) type 2 cytokine production (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) are possible novel therapeutic targets, we lack a detailed understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the transcription of these cytokines. In this issue of Allergy, Hwang et al. studied the role of a specific DNA region (a cis-acting element called Rad50 hypersensitive site 6) RHS6, in the development of allergic airway inflammation. RHS6 is found in the Th2 cytokine "locus control region" but its role in activation of the IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 genes was unknown...
January 20, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108980/the-influence-of-macrophages-on-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-therapy-passive-or-aggressive-agents
#8
REVIEW
Fiona Carty, Bernard P Mahon, Karen English
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have emerged as promising cell therapies for multiple conditions based on demonstrations of their potent immunomodulatory and regenerative capacities in models of inflammatory disease. Understanding the effects of MSC on T cells has dominated the majority of work carried out in this field to date, however, recently a number of studies have shown that the therapeutic effect of MSC requires the presence of macrophages. It is timely to review the mechanisms and manner by which MSC modulate macrophage populations in order to better design MSC therapies and clinical studies...
January 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108952/transcriptional-regulators-dictate-innate-lymphoid-cell-fates
#9
REVIEW
Chao Zhong, Jinfang Zhu
Research on innate lymphoid cells (ILC) has recently been a fast paced topic of immunological research. As ILCs are able to produce signature Th cytokine, ILCs have garnered considerable attention and have been described to represent the innate counterpart of the CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells. The development and function of ILCs are precisely regulated by a network of crucial transcription factors, which are also involved in the development or differentiation of conventional natural killer (cNK) cells and T cells...
January 20, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108946/in-vivo-neuroimaging-and-behavioral-correlates-in-a-rat-model-of-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-dysfunction
#10
Robert L Barry, Nellie E Byun, M Noor Tantawy, Chase A Mackey, George H Wilson, Adam J Stark, Michael P Flom, Laura C Gee, C Chad Quarles
Adjuvant chemotherapy has been used for decades to treat cancer, and it is well known that disruptions in cognitive function and memory are common chemotherapeutic adverse effects. However, studies using neuropsychological metrics have also reported group differences in cognitive function and memory before or without chemotherapy, suggesting that complex factors obscure the true etiology of chemotherapy-induced cognitive dysfunction (CICD) in humans. Therefore, to better understand possible mechanisms of CICD, we explored the effects of CICD in rats through cognition testing using novel object recognition (NOR) and contextual fear conditioning (CFC), and through metabolic neuroimaging via [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)...
January 20, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108943/is-the-assessment-of-5-meters-of-gait-with-a-single-body-fixed-sensor-enough-to-recognize-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease-associated-gait
#11
M E Micó-Amigo, I Kingma, G S Faber, A Kunikoshi, J M T van Uem, R C van Lummel, W Maetzler, J H van Dieën
Quantitative assessment of gait in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is an important step in addressing motor symptoms and improving clinical management. Based on the assessment of only 5 meters of gait with a single body-fixed-sensor placed on the lower back, this study presents a method for the identification of step-by-step kinematic parameters in 14 healthy controls and in 28 patients at early-to-moderate stages of idiopathic PD. Differences between groups in step-by-step kinematic parameters were evaluated to understand gait impairments in the PD group...
January 20, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108917/quantitative-proteomics-analysis-reveals-the-tolerance-of-mirabilis-jalapa-l-to-petroleum-contamination
#12
Shuisen Chen, Hui Ma, Zhifu Guo, Yaping Feng, Jingwei Lin, Menghua Zhang, Ming Zhong
Petroleum is not only an important energy resource but is also a major soil pollutant. To gain better insight into the adaptability mechanism of Mirabilis jalapa to petroleum-contaminated soil, the protein profiles of M. jalapa root were investigated using label-free quantitative proteomics technique. After exposing to petroleum-contaminated soil for 24 h, 34 proteins significantly changed their protein abundance and most of the proteins increased in protein abundance (91.18%). Combined with gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses as well as data from previous studies, our results revealed that M...
January 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108914/recent-approaches-to-estimate-associations-between-source-specific-air-pollution-and-health
#13
REVIEW
Jenna R Krall, Matthew J Strickland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Estimating health effects associated with source-specific exposure is important for better understanding how pollution impacts health and for developing policies to better protect public health. Although epidemiologic studies of sources can be informative, these studies are challenging to conduct because source-specific exposures (e.g., particulate matter from vehicles) often are not directly observed and must be estimated. We reviewed recent studies that estimated associations between pollution sources and health to identify methodological developments designed to address important challenges...
January 20, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108878/stigma-and-conspiracy-beliefs-related-to-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-and-interest-in-using-prep-among-black-and-white-men-and-transgender-women-who-have-sex-with-men
#14
Lisa A Eaton, Seth C Kalichman, Devon Price, Stephanie Finneran, Aerielle Allen, Jessica Maksut
The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the US continues to persist, in particular, among race, sexual orientation, and gender minority populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), or using antiretroviral medications for HIV prevention, is an effective option, but uptake of PrEP has been slow. Sociocultural barriers to using PrEP have been largely underemphasized, yet have the potential to stall uptake and, therefore, warrant further understanding. In order to assess the relationships between potential barriers to PrEP (i...
January 20, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108847/airway-mucus-inflammation-and-remodeling-emerging-links-in-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-lung-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Zhe Zhou-Suckow, Julia Duerr, Matthias Hagner, Raman Agrawal, Marcus A Mall
Airway mucus obstruction is a hallmark of many chronic lung diseases including rare genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia, as well as common lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which have emerged as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the role of excess airway mucus in the in vivo pathogenesis of these diseases remains poorly understood. The generation of mice with airway-specific overexpression of epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC), exhibiting airway surface dehydration (mucus hyperconcentration), impaired mucociliary clearance (MCC) and mucus plugging, led to a model of muco-obstructive lung disease that shares key features of CF and COPD...
January 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108845/liver-involvement-in-congenital-disorders-of-glycosylation-cdg-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#16
REVIEW
D Marques-da-Silva, V Dos Reis Ferreira, M Monticelli, P Janeiro, P A Videira, P Witters, J Jaeken, D Cassiman
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a rapidly growing family of genetic diseases caused by defects in glycosylation. Nearly 100 CDG types are known so far. Patients present a great phenotypic diversity ranging from poly- to mono-organ/system involvement and from very mild to extremely severe presentation. In this literature review, we summarize the liver involvement reported in CDG patients. Although liver involvement is present in only a minority of the reported CDG types (22 %), it can be debilitating or even life-threatening...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108758/composition-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-gibel-carp-carassius-auratus-gibelio-varies-with-host-development
#17
Xinghao Li, Li Zhou, Yuhe Yu, Jiajia Ni, Wenjie Xu, Qingyun Yan
To understand how a bacteria-free fish gut ecosystem develops microbiota as the fish ages, we performed a 1-year study on the gut microbiota of hatchling gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Our results indicate that the gut microbial diversity increases significantly as the fish develop. The gut microbial community composition showed significant shifts corresponding to host age and appeared to shift at two time points despite consistent diet and environmental conditions, suggesting that some features of the gut microbial community may be determined by the host's development...
January 20, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108741/metabolism-toxicity-and-anticancer-activities-of-arsenic-compounds
#18
Islam Khairul, Qian Qian Wang, Yu Han Jiang, Chao Wang, Hua Naranmandura
A variety of studies indicated that inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites have paradoxical effects, namely, carcinogenic and anticancer effects. Epidemiological studies have shown that long term exposure to arsenic can increase the risk of cancers of lung, skin or bladder in man, which is probably associated with the arsenic metabolism. In fact, the enzymatic conversion of inorganic arsenic by Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) to mono- and dimethylated arsenic species has long been considered as a major route for detoxification...
January 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108736/long-non-coding-rnas-a-rising-biotarget-in-colorectal-cancer
#19
Jian Luo, Jian Qu, Dong-Kai Wu, Zhi-Li Lu, Yue-Sheng Sun, Qiang Qu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common gastrointestinal cancer, with a high incidence and high mortality. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the development, invasion and metastasis, early diagnosis, prognosis, the chemoresistance and radioresistance of CRC through interference with mRNA activity, directly combining with proteins to regulate their activity or alter their localization, influencing downstream gene expression by inhibiting RNA polymerase and regulating gene expression as competing endogenous RNAs...
January 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108697/understanding-and-manipulating-meiotic-recombination-in-plants
#20
Christophe Lambing, F Christopher H Franklin, Chung-Ju Rachel Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
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