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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787037/effects-of-perinatal-exposure-to-dibutyltin-chloride-on-fat-and-glucose-metabolism-in-mice-and-molecular-mechanisms-in-vitro
#1
Raquel Chamorro-García, Bassem M Shoucri, Sigal Willner, Heidi Käch, Amanda Janesick, Bruce Blumberg
BACKGROUND: The organotin dibutyltin (DBT) is used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, in construction materials, and in medical devices. Previous animal studies showed detrimental effects of DBT during in utero development at relatively high doses, but little was known about the effects of DBT exposure at environmentally relevant doses on endpoints such as obesity and metabolic disease. OBJECTIVES: We tested the potential obesogenic effects of DBT using in vitro and in vivo models...
May 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787036/reflections-of-a-black-african-insider-researcher
#2
Isaac Tuffour
BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of literature providing reflective accounts and critical examination of the challenges faced by insider researchers. However, there is little research about the specific challenges that black African insider nurse researchers face. AIM: To reflect on the complexities black African insider nurse researchers face in the context of research sites, participants and the interpretation of data. DISCUSSION: Insider researchers are susceptible to various entanglements and dilemmas...
May 22, 2018: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786958/variability-in-student-perceptions-of-mistreatment
#3
Samantha Ellis, Joel Purkiss, Emily Abdoler, Amanda Opaskar, Rajesh S Mangrulkar, Joseph C Kolars, Sally A Santen
BACKGROUND: As medical schools strive to improve the learning environment, it is important to understand medical students' perceptions of mistreatment. The purpose of this study was to explore student interpretations of previously reported mistreatment incidents to better understand how they conceptualise the interactions. METHODS: Medical students were presented with case scenarios of previously reported instances of mistreatment and asked to indicate their agreement as to whether the scenarios demonstrated mistreatment, using a five-point Likert scale (1, strongly disagree; 5, strongly agree)...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786947/does-general-experience-affect-self-assessment
#4
Parisa Rezaiefar, Kelly Forse, Joseph K Burns, Sharon Johnston, Elizabeth Muggah, Claire Kendall, Douglas Archibald
BACKGROUND: The assessment of clinical competence is critical in medical education. Understanding the effect of general experience on a physician's self-assessment would help design more effective curricula and evaluations of procedural skills in postgraduate training and continuing professional development (CPD). In this observational study, we assessed the effect of general experience on the correlation between confidence and competence amongst experienced clinicians (ECs) and postgraduate trainees (PGTs) when learning an office-based procedure in pessary care...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786902/engineered-metalloenzymes-with-non-canonical-coordination-environments
#5
Takahiro Hayashi, Donald Hilvert, Anthony P Green
Nature employs a limited number of genetically encoded, metal coordinating residues to create metalloenzymes with diverse structures and functions. Engineered components of the cellular translation machinery can now be exploited to genetically encode non-canonical ligands with user-defined electronic and structural properties. This ability to efficiently install 'chemically programmed' ligands into proteins can provide powerful chemical probes of metalloenzyme mechanisms and presents excellent opportunities to create metalloprotein catalysts with augmented properties and novel activities...
May 22, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786900/avian-demographic-responses-to-drought-and-fire-a-community-level-perspective
#6
James F Saracco, Stephen M Fettig, George L San Miguel, David W Mehlman, Steven K Albert
Drought stress is an important consideration for wildlife in arid and semi-arid regions under climate change. Drought can impact plant and animal populations directly, through effects on their physiology, as well as indirectly through effects on vegetation productivity and resource availability, and by creating conditions conducive to secondary disturbance, such as wildfire. We implemented a novel approach to understanding community-level demographic responses of birds and their habitats to these stressors in the context of climate change at 14 study sites in the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States...
May 22, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786895/deep-brain-stimulation-treated-dystonia-trajectory-via-status-dystonicus
#7
Elodie Nerrant, Victoria Gonzalez, Christophe Milesi, Xavier Vasques, Diane Ruge, Thomas Roujeau, Isabel De Antonio Rubio, Fabienne Cyprien, Emilie Chan Seng, Diane Demailly, Agathe Roubertie, Alain Boularan, Fréderic Greco, Pierre-François Perrigault, Gilles Cambonie, Philippe Coubes, Laura Cif
BACKGROUND: Status dystonicus (SD) is a life-threatening condition. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In a dystonia cohort who developed status dystonicus, we analyzed demographics, background dystonia phenomenology and complexity, trajectory previous to-, via status dystonicus episodes, and evolution following them. RESULTS: Over 20 years, 40 of 328 dystonia patients who were receiving DBS developed 58 status dystonicus episodes. Dystonia was of pediatric onset (95%), frequently complex, and had additional cognitive and pyramidal impairment (62%) and MRI alterations (82...
May 22, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786880/metagenomic-study-of-bacterial-microbiota-in-persistent-endodontic-infections-using-next-generation-sequencing
#8
G Sánchez-Sanhueza, H Bello-Toledo, G González-Rocha, A T Gonçalves, V Valenzuela, C Gallardo-Escárate
AIM: To determine the bacterial microbiota in root canals associated with persistent apical periodontitis and their relationship with the clinical characteristics of patients using next-generation sequencing (NGS). METHODOLOGY: Bacterial samples from root canals associated with teeth having persistent apical periodontitis were taken from 24 patients undergoing root canal retreatment. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and V3-V4 variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified...
May 22, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786830/blue-light-filtering-intraocular-lenses-iols-for-protecting-macular-health
#9
REVIEW
Laura E Downie, Ljoudmila Busija, Peter R Keller
BACKGROUND: An intraocular lens (IOL) is a synthetic lens that is surgically implanted within the eye following removal of the crystalline lens, during cataract surgery. While all modern IOLs attenuate the transmission of ultra-violet (UV) light, some IOLs, called blue-blocking or blue-light filtering IOLs, also reduce short-wavelength visible light transmission. The rationale for blue-light filtering IOLs derives primarily from cell culture and animal studies, which suggest that short-wavelength visible light can induce retinal photoxicity...
May 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786779/dnmt3a-controls-mir-200b-in-cardiac-fibroblast-autophagy-and-cardiac-fibrosis
#10
Xu-Dong Zhao, Run-He Qin, Jing-Jing Yang, Sheng-Song Xu, Hui Tao, Xuan-Sheng Ding, Kai-Hu Shi
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: Regulation of microRNA gene expression by DNA methylation may represent a key mechanism to drive cardiac fibrosis progression. Cardiac fibroblast autophagy is the primary source of cardiac fibrosis, but the mechanisms underlying this process are incompletely understood. Here we found that DNMT3A suppression of the microRNA-200b (miR-200b) through pathway leads to cardiac fibroblast autophagy in cardiac fibrosis. METHODS: To understand the impact of DNMT3A on miR-200b at cardiac fibrosis, the rat cardiac fibrosis model was established via the abdominal aortic coarctation...
May 21, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786777/the-biomechanics-of-the-inter-lamellar-matrix-and-the-lamellae-during-progression-to-lumbar-disc-herniation-which-is-the-weakest-structure
#11
Javad Tavakoli, Dhara B Amin, Brian J C Freeman, John J Costi
While microstructural observations have improved our understanding of possible pathways of herniation progression, no studies have measured the mechanical failure properties of the inter-lamellar matrix (ILM), nor of the adjacent lamellae during progression to herniation. The aim of this study was to employ multiscale, biomechanical and microstructural techniques to evaluate the effects of progressive induced herniation on the ILM and lamellae in control, pre-herniated and herniated discs (N = 7), using 2 year-old ovine spines...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786776/a-framework-for-image-based-modeling-of-acute-myocardial-ischemia-using-intramurally-recorded-extracellular-potentials
#12
Brett M Burton, Kedar K Aras, Wilson W Good, Jess D Tate, Brian Zenger, Rob S MacLeod
The biophysical basis for electrocardiographic evaluation of myocardial ischemia stems from the notion that ischemic tissues develop, with relative uniformity, along the endocardial aspects of the heart. These injured regions of subendocardial tissue give rise to intramural currents that lead to ST segment deflections within electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings. The concept of subendocardial ischemic regions is often used in clinical practice, providing a simple and intuitive description of ischemic injury; however, such a model grossly oversimplifies the presentation of ischemic disease-inadvertently leading to errors in ECG-based diagnoses...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786716/unexpected-protonation-state-of-glu197-discovered-from-simulations-of-tacrine-in-butyrylcholinesterase
#13
Xiao Wan, Yuan Yao, Lei Fang, Junjun Liu
Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) has been actively involved in drug discoveries from many fields for decades. In the crystal structure of the BChE-tacrine complex, there is an unanticipated formyl-proline molecule resolved very close to tacrine, raising an essential question on how reliable it is to apply the binding pose in a crystal structure to analyze related experimental observations, in which no formyl-proline is actually involved. In this study, by performing a series of 100 ns molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that it is safe to employ the structural information from this crystal structure to analyze related experimental observations...
May 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786695/the-asthma-mobile-health-study-smartphone-data-collected-using-researchkit
#14
Yu-Feng Yvonne Chan, Brian M Bot, Micol Zweig, Nicole Tignor, Weiping Ma, Christine Suver, Rafhael Cedeno, Erick R Scott, Steven Gregory Hershman, Eric E Schadt, Pei Wang
Widespread adoption of smart mobile platforms coupled with a growing ecosystem of sensors including passive location tracking and the ability to leverage external data sources create an opportunity to generate an unprecedented depth of data on individuals. Mobile health technologies could be utilized for chronic disease management as well as research to advance our understanding of common diseases, such as asthma. We conducted a prospective observational asthma study to assess the feasibility of this type of approach, clinical characteristics of cohorts recruited via a mobile platform, the validity of data collected, user retention patterns, and user data sharing preferences...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786689/gridded-birth-and-pregnancy-datasets-for-africa-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#15
W H M James, N Tejedor-Garavito, S E Hanspal, A Campbell-Sutton, G M Hornby, C Pezzulo, K Nilsen, A Sorichetta, C W Ruktanonchai, A Carioli, D Kerr, Z Matthews, A J Tatem
Understanding the fine scale spatial distribution of births and pregnancies is crucial for informing planning decisions related to public health. This is especially important in lower income countries where infectious disease is a major concern for pregnant women and new-borns, as highlighted by the recent Zika virus epidemic. Despite this, the spatial detail of basic data on the numbers and distribution of births and pregnancies is often of a coarse resolution and difficult to obtain, with no co-ordination between countries and organisations to create one consistent set of subnational estimates...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786666/dopamine-receptor-subtypes-differentially-regulate-autophagy
#16
Dongmei Wang, Xinmiao Ji, Juanjuan Liu, Zhiyuan Li, Xin Zhang
Some dopamine receptor subtypes were reported to participate in autophagy regulation, but their exact functions and mechanisms are still unclear. Here we found that dopamine receptors D2 and D3 (D2-like family) are positive regulators of autophagy, while dopamine receptors D1 and D5 (D1-like family) are negative regulators. Furthermore, dopamine and ammonia, the two reported endogenous ligands of dopamine receptors, both can induce dopamine receptor internalization and degradation. In addition, we found that AKT (protein kinase B)-mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) and AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) pathways are involved in DRD3 (dopamine receptor D3) regulated autophagy...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786654/a-comparative-study-of-oral-health-status-between-international-and-japanese-university-student-patients-in-japan
#17
Ai Ohsato, Masanobu Abe, Kazumi Ohkubo, Hidemi Yoshimasu, Liang Zong, Kazuto Hoshi, Tsuyoshi Takato, Shintaro Yanagimoto, Kazuhiko Yamamoto
Background: The number of international students enrolled in universities in Japan is increasing. To provide better oral care services for international students, we have to understand their oral environment and dental health behaviors. However, few studies have investigated the oral health status of international university students. The object of the present study was to clarify the current oral status of international university students. Methods: The subjects were students who visited the dental department at the University of Tokyo's Health Services Center between April 2012 and March 2013...
May 22, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786640/vitamin-d-in-vascular-calcification-a-double-edged-sword
#18
REVIEW
Jeffrey Wang, Jimmy J Zhou, Graham R Robertson, Vincent W Lee
Vascular calcification (VC) as a manifestation of perturbed mineral balance, is associated with aging, diabetes and kidney dysfunction, as well as poorer patient outcomes. Due to the current limited understanding of the pathophysiology of vascular calcification, the development of effective preventative and therapeutic strategies remains a significant clinical challenge. Recent evidence suggests that traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and dyslipidaemia, fail to account for clinical observations of vascular calcification...
May 22, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786634/virophages-and-their-interactions-with-giant-viruses-and-host-cells
#19
REVIEW
Haitham Sobhy
Virophages are small dsDNA viruses that were first isolated in association with some giant viruses (GVs), and then found in metagenomics samples. They encode about 20⁻34 proteins. Some virophages share protein similarity with Maverick/Polinton transposons or are considered as a provirophage, whereas about half of the protein's repertoire remain of unknown function. In this review, we aim to highlight the current understanding of the biology of virophages, as well as their interactions with giant viruses and host cells...
May 22, 2018: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786632/influences-of-playing-position-and-quality-of-opposition-on-standardized-relative-distance-covered-in-domestic-women-s-field-hockey-implications-for-coaches
#20
Don Vinson, Nicola Gerrett, David V B James
Vinson, D, Gerrett, N, and James, DVB. Influences of playing position and quality of opposition on standardized relative distance covered in domestic women's field hockey: Implications for coaches. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1770-1777, 2018-The purpose of this study was to compare the standardized relative distance covered by the various playing positions (defenders, midfielders, and forwards) against different quality of opponents in domestic women's field hockey. Data were collected from 13 individuals competing for 1 team in the English Premier League across an 18-game season...
June 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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