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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911487/external-inspection-of-compliance-with-standards-for-improved-healthcare-outcomes
#1
REVIEW
Gerd Flodgren, Daniela C Gonçalves-Bradley, Marie-Pascale Pomey
BACKGROUND: Inspection systems are used in healthcare to promote quality improvements (i.e. to achieve changes in organisational structures or processes, healthcare provider behaviour and patient outcomes). These systems are based on the assumption that externally promoted adherence to evidence-based standards (through inspection/assessment) will result in higher quality of healthcare. However, the benefits of external inspection in terms of organisational-, provider- and patient-level outcomes are not clear...
December 2, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911442/palmitoylation-of-caspase-6-by-hip14-regulates-its-activation
#2
Niels H Skotte, Shaun S Sanders, Roshni R Singaraja, Dagmar E Ehrnhoefer, Kuljeet Vaid, Xiaofan Qiu, Srinivasaragavan Kannan, Chandra Verma, Michael R Hayden
Caspase-6 (CASP6) has an important role in axonal degeneration during neuronal apoptosis and in the neurodegenerative diseases Alzheimer and Huntington disease. Decreasing CASP6 activity may help to restore neuronal function in these and other diseases such as stroke and ischemia, where increased CASP6 activity has been implicated. The key to finding approaches to decrease CASP6 activity is a deeper understanding of the mechanisms regulating CASP6 activation. We show that CASP6 is posttranslationally palmitoylated by the palmitoyl acyltransferase HIP14 and that the palmitoylation of CASP6 inhibits its activation...
December 2, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911438/evolutionary-convergence-in-experimental-pseudomonas-populations
#3
Peter A Lind, Andrew D Farr, Paul B Rainey
Model microbial systems provide opportunity to understand the genetic bases of ecological traits, their evolution, regulation and fitness contributions. Experimental populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens rapidly diverge in spatially structured microcosms producing a range of surface-colonising forms. Despite divergent molecular routes, wrinkly spreader (WS) niche specialist types overproduce a cellulosic polymer allowing mat formation at the air-liquid interface and access to oxygen. Given the range of ways by which cells can form mats, such phenotypic parallelism is unexpected...
December 2, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911416/the-indirect-neuron-astrocyte-coculture-assay-an-in-vitro-set-up-for-the-detailed-investigation-of-neuron-glia-interactions
#4
Christine Gottschling, Egor Dzyubenko, Maren Geissler, Andreas Faissner
Proper neuronal development and function is the prerequisite of the developing and the adult brain. However, the mechanisms underlying the highly controlled formation and maintenance of complex neuronal networks are not completely understood thus far. The open questions concerning neurons in health and disease are diverse and reaching from understanding the basic development to investigating human related pathologies, e.g., Alzheimer's disease and Schizophrenia. The most detailed analysis of neurons can be performed in vitro...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911391/a-murine-model-of-group-b-streptococcus-vaginal-colonization
#5
Kathryn A Patras, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS), is a Gram-positive, asymptomatic colonizer of the human gastrointestinal tract and vaginal tract of 10 - 30% of adults. In immune-compromised individuals, including neonates, pregnant women, and the elderly, GBS may switch to an invasive pathogen causing sepsis, arthritis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Because GBS is a leading bacterial pathogen of neonates, current prophylaxis is comprised of late gestation screening for GBS vaginal colonization and subsequent peripartum antibiotic treatment of GBS-positive mothers...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911383/parallel-measurement-of-circadian-clock-gene-expression-and-hormone-secretion-in-human-primary-cell-cultures
#6
Volodymyr Petrenko, Camille Saini, Laurent Perrin, Charna Dibner
Circadian clocks are functional in all light-sensitive organisms, allowing for an adaptation to the external world by anticipating daily environmental changes. Considerable progress in our understanding of the tight connection between the circadian clock and most aspects of physiology has been made in the field over the last decade. However, unraveling the molecular basis that underlies the function of the circadian oscillator in humans stays of highest technical challenge. Here, we provide a detailed description of an experimental approach for long-term (2-5 days) bioluminescence recording and outflow medium collection in cultured human primary cells...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911370/integrated-compensatory-responses-in-a-human-model-of-hemorrhage
#7
Victor A Convertino, Carmen Hinojosa-Laborde, Gary W Muniz, Robert Carter
Hemorrhage is the leading cause of trauma-related deaths, partly because early diagnosis of the severity of blood loss is difficult. Assessment of hemorrhaging patients is difficult because current clinical tools provide measures of vital signs that remain stable during the early stages of bleeding due to compensatory mechanisms. Consequently, there is a need to understand and measure the total integration of mechanisms that compensate for reduced circulating blood volume and how they change during ongoing progressive hemorrhage...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911366/a-multimodal-imaging-and-stimulation-based-method-of-evaluating-connectivity-related-brain-excitability-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#8
Mouhsin M Shafi, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Catherine J Chu, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Bernard S Chang
Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) is a technique that identifies connectivity between different brain regions based on correlations over time in the blood-oxygenation level dependent signal. rs-fcMRI has been applied extensively to identify abnormalities in brain connectivity in different neurologic and psychiatric diseases. However, the relationship among rs-fcMRI connectivity abnormalities, brain electrophysiology and disease state is unknown, in part because the causal significance of alterations in functional connectivity in disease pathophysiology has not been established...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911345/computing-the-influences-of-different-intraocular-pressures-on-the-human-eye-components-using-computational-fluid-structure-interaction-model
#9
Alireza Karimi, Reza Razaghi, Mahdi Navidbakhsh, Toshihiro Sera, Susumu Kudo
BACKGROUND: Intraocular Pressure (IOP) is defined as the pressure of aqueous in the eye. It has been reported that the normal range of IOP should be within the 10-20 mmHg with an average of 15.50 mmHg among the ophthalmologists. Keratoconus is an anti-inflammatory eye disorder that debilitated cornea unable to reserve the normal structure contrary to the IOP in the eye. Consequently, the cornea would bulge outward and invoke a conical shape following by distorted vision. In addition, it is known that any alterations in the structure and composition of the lens and cornea would exceed a change of the eye ball as well as the mechanical and optical properties of the eye...
November 25, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911343/pink1-parkin-and-mitochondrial-quality-control-what-can-we-learn-about-parkinson-s-disease-pathobiology
#10
Dominika Truban, Xu Hou, Thomas R Caulfield, Fabienne C Fiesel, Wolfdieter Springer
The first clinical description of Parkinson's disease (PD) will embrace its two century anniversary in 2017. For the past 30 years, mitochondrial dysfunction has been hypothesized to play a central role in the pathobiology of this devastating neurodegenerative disease. The identifications of mutations in genes encoding PINK1 (PTEN-induced kinase 1) and Parkin (E3 ubiquitin ligase) in familial PD and their functional association with mitochondrial quality control provided further support to this hypothesis. Recent research focused mainly on their key involvement in the clearance of damaged mitochondria, a process known as mitophagy...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911323/short-term-response-is-not-predictive-of%C3%A2-long-term-response-to%C3%A2-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors-in-old-age-subjects-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a%C3%A2-real-world-study
#11
Virginia Boccardi, Marta Baroni, Nicoletta Smirne, Alessandra Clodomiro, Sara Ercolani, Annalisa Longo, Carmelinda Ruggiero, Amalia C Bruni, Patrizia Mecocci
BACKGROUND: Most of clinical guidelines recommend discontinuing treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) who do not show an initial response to therapy as evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale. However, understanding the relationship between the initial response to ChEI treatment and the subsequent course of the disease is extremely important in clinical practice, but evidence is limited, particularly in the old-old population...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911316/risk-factors-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-german-primary-care-practices
#12
Louis Jacob, Jens Bohlken, Karel Kostev
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common mental disorder affecting around 16% of elderly people without dementia. MCI is considered an intermediate state between normal cognition and dementia. OBJECTIVE: To analyze risk factors for the development of MCI in German primary care practices. METHODS: In total, 3,604 MCI patients and 3,604 controls without MCI were included between January 2010 and December 2015. Several disorders potentially associated with MCI were determined...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911305/nitrosylation-of-vesicular-transporters-in-brain-of-amyloid-precursor-protein-presenilin-1-double-transgenic-mice
#13
Ying Wang, Zhu Zhou, Hua Tan, Shenghua Zhu, Yiran Wang, Yingxia Sun, Xin-Min Li, Jun-Feng Wang
Nitric oxide can attack thiol groups of cysteine residues in proteins and induce protein cysteine S-nitrosylation. Cholinergic and glutamatergic systems are dysregulated in Alzheimer's disease. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) are important in packaging acetylcholine and glutamate into vesicles, which is an important step for neurotransmission. Previously we found that VAChT and VGLUT1 can be nitrosylated and that S-nitrosylation of these transporters inhibits vesicular uptake of acetylcholine and glutamate...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911301/tau-platelets-correlate-with-regional-brain%C3%A2-atrophy-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s%C3%A2-disease
#14
Andrea Slachevsky, Leonardo Guzmán-Martínez, Carolina Delgado, Pablo Reyes, Gonzalo A Farías, Carlos Muñoz-Neira, Eduardo Bravo, Mauricio Farías, Patricia Flores, Cristian Garrido, James T Becker, Oscar L López, Ricardo B Maccioni
BACKGROUND: Intracellular neurofibrillary tangles are part of the core pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which are mainly composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to determine whether high molecular weight (HMW) or low molecular weight (LMW) tau protein levels, as well as the ratio HMW/LMW, present in platelets correlates with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) structural changes in normal and cognitively impaired subjects...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911248/international-multicenter-cohort-study-of-pediatric-brain-arteriovenous-malformations-part-1-predictors-of-hemorrhagic-presentation
#15
Dale Ding, Robert M Starke, Hideyuki Kano, David Mathieu, Paul P Huang, Caleb Feliciano, Rafael Rodriguez-Mercado, Luis Almodovar, Inga S Grills, Danilo Silva, Mahmoud Abbassy, Symeon Missios, Douglas Kondziolka, Gene H Barnett, L Dade Lunsford, Jason P Sheehan
OBJECTIVE Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are the most common cause of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage in pediatric patients (age < 18 years). Since the cumulative lifetime risk of AVM hemorrhage is considerable in children, an improved understanding of the risk factors influencing hemorrhagic presentation may aid in the management of pediatric AVMs. The aims of this first of a 2-part multicenter, retrospective cohort study are to evaluate the incidence and determine the predictors of hemorrhagic presentation in pediatric AVM patients...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911113/a-tribute-to-professor-steven-l-wechsler-1948-2016-the-man-and-the-scientist
#16
Anthony B Nesburn, Lbachir BenMohamed
Professor Steven L. Wechsler, a world-renowned eye researcher and virologist, passed away unexpectedly on June 12, 2016 at the age of 68. Many scientists came to know Professor Wechsler as a gifted researcher in the field of ocular Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) latency, reactivation, and pathogenesis. Professor Wechsler published over 150 peer-reviewed scientific papers during his career, pushing forward the frontiers of his field eye research. His colleagues would say, 'Steve literally wrote the book on herpes latency and reactivation...
December 2, 2016: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911100/mitochondria-and-iron-current-questions
#17
Bibbin T Paul, David H Manz, Frank M Torti, Suzy V Torti
Mitochondria are cellular organelles that perform numerous bioenergetic, biosynthetic, and regulatory functions and play a central role in iron metabolism. Extracellular iron is taken up by cells and transported to the mitochondria, where it is utilized for synthesis of cofactors essential to the function of enzymes involved in oxidation-reduction reactions, DNA synthesis and repair, and a variety of other cellular processes. Areas Covered: This article reviews the trafficking of iron to the mitochondria and normal mitochondrial iron metabolism, including heme synthesis and iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911099/nuclear-morphometric-findings-in-undetermined-cytology-a-possible-clue-for-prediction-of-braf-mutation-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinomas
#18
Sevdegul Mungan, Safak Ersoz, Ismail Saygin, Zeynep Sagnak, Umit Cobanoglu
PURPOSE: To investigate the possible relationship between the nuclear morphometric characteristics (nuclear perimeter, roundness, nuclear area, and nuclear shape) and BRAF mutation status in papillary thyroid carcinoma cases with a prior diagnosis of undetermined cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total thyroidectomy specimens obtained from 48 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with a prior diagnosis of undetermined cytology were included. Morphometric analysis under light microscopy included measurements of the perimeter, shape factor, nuclear area, and roundness of thyrocyte nuclei from the cytological smear preparations...
December 2, 2016: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911092/sexual-well-being-in-older-women-the-relevance-of-sexual-excitation-and-sexual-inhibition
#19
Suzanne Bell, Elke D Reissing
The aim of this study was to use the dual control model of sexual response (DCM) to investigate variation in sexual well-being among women 50 years of age and older. Data from 185 women 50 years of age and older (M = 59.46, SD = 6.96) were used to examine the relationships between sexual excitation (SE) and sexual inhibition (SI) and their lower-order factors to indicators of sexual well-being (i.e., sexual functioning, satisfaction, distress, frequency of sexual activity, and breadth of sexual behavior)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911089/don-t-say-that-to-me-opposition-to-targeting-in-weight-centric-intervention-messages
#20
Becky Robinson, Samantha Coveleski
Obesity is a global health issue. Despite well-intentioned efforts by public institutions, traditional health promotion techniques often lead to offending those most in need of weight loss. For example, when Bryn Mawr College targeted overweight students to offer a free fitness and nutrition program, it was met with accusations of fat-shaming, indicating that weight-centric messages operate in a more complex sociocultural system than many public health concerns. To better understand reactions to weight-centric health messages, college-aged women evaluated the Bryn Mawr College e-mail...
December 2, 2016: Health Communication
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