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Julia Bohlius, Caroline Foster, Gita Naidu, Mazvita Sengayi, Anna Turkova
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adults living with HIV have an increased risk of malignancy yet there is little data for adolescents and young adults. We reviewed recently published cancer epidemiology, treatment, and outcome data for adolescents and young adults living with HIV (AYALHIV) aged 10 to less than 25 years between 2016 and 2017. RECENT FINDINGS: AYALHIV are at increased risk of developing cancer compared to their uninfected peers. Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma occur most frequently with variation by geographical region...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Eliane Rohner, Michael Grabik, Thomy Tonia, Peter Jüni, Frank Pétavy, Francesco Pignatti, Julia Bohlius
Since 2010, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has provided access to clinical study reports (CSRs). We requested CSRs for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in cancer patients from EMA and identified RCT publications with literature searches. We assessed CSR availability and completeness, the impact of unreported and unpublished data obtained from CSRs on the effects of ESAs on quality of life (QoL) of cancer patients, and discrepancies between data reported in the public domain and in CSRs...
2017: PloS One
M M Sengayi, D Kielkowski, M Egger, L Dreosti, J Bohlius
BACKGROUND: When South Africa (SA) implemented its antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in 2004, the model for treating HIV-positive Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) patients shifted from symptomatic palliation to potential cure. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate survival and changes over time in AIDS-KS patients treated at a tertiary academic hospital oncology unit (the Steve Biko Academic Hospital medical oncology unit) in Pretoria, SA, in the context of ART availability in SA. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of electronic and paper records of KS patients who accessed cancer care between May 2004 and September 2012...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Aggrey Semeere, Esther Freeman, Megan Wenger, David Glidden, Mwebesa Bwana, Micheal Kanyesigye, Fredrick Chite Asirwa, Elyne Rotich, Naftali Busakhala, Emmanuel Oga, Elima Jedy-Agba, Vivian Kwaghe, Kenneth Iregbu, Clement Adebamowo, Antoine Jaquet, Francois Dabis, Sam Phiri, Julia Bohlius, Matthias Egger, Constantin T Yiannoutsos, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Jeffrey Martin
BACKGROUND: Throughout most of sub-Saharan Africa (and, indeed, most resource-limited areas), lack of death registries prohibits linkage of cancer diagnoses and precludes the most expeditious approach to determining cancer survival. Instead, estimation of cancer survival often uses clinical records, which have some mortality data but are replete with patients who are lost to follow-up (LTFU), some of which may be caused by undocumented death. The end result is that accurate estimation of cancer survival is rarely performed...
September 2, 2017: BMC Cancer
(no author information available yet)
Background: We compared Kaposi sarcoma (KS) risk in adults who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) across the Asia-Pacific, South Africa, Europe, Latin, and North America. Methods: We included cohort data of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive adults who started ART after 1995 within the framework of 2 large collaborations of observational HIV cohorts. We present incidence rates and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs). Results: We included 208140 patients from 57 countries...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Eliane Rohner, Mazvita Sengayi, Bridgette Goeieman, Pamela Michelow, Cynthia Firnhaber, Mhairi Maskew, Julia Bohlius
Data on invasive cervical cancer (ICC) incidence in HIV-positive women and the effect of cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. We estimated i) ICC incidence rates in women (≥18 years) who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the Themba Lethu Clinic (TLC) in Johannesburg, South Africa, between 2004 and 2011 and ii) the effect of a Pap-based screening program. We included 10,640 women; median age at ART initiation: 35 years [interquartile range (IQR) 30-42], median CD4 count at ART initiation: 113 cells/µL (IQR 46-184)...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Elvira Singh, Gita Naidu, Mary-Ann Davies, Julia Bohlius
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-infected children are at an increased risk of developing cancer. Many of the cancers in HIV-infected children are linked to immunosuppression and oncogenic coinfections. Worldwide most HIV-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa, but cancer data for this population are scarce. In this article, we review the current literature on the epidemiology and prevention of cancer in HIV-infected children. RECENT FINDINGS: Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the risk of developing cancer in HIV-infected children...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Mazvita Sengayi, Adrian Spoerri, Matthias Egger, Danuta Kielkowski, Tamaryn Crankshaw, Christie Cloete, Janet Giddy, Julia Bohlius
The surveillance of HIV-related cancers in South Africa is hampered by the lack of systematic collection of cancer diagnoses in HIV cohorts and the absence of HIV status in cancer registries. To improve cancer ascertainment and estimate cancer incidence, we linked records of adults (aged ≥ 16 years) on antiretroviral treatment (ART) enrolled at Sinikithemba HIV clinic, McCord Hospital in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) with the cancer records of public laboratories in KZN province using probabilistic record linkage (PRL) methods...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Lorin Begré, Eliane Rohner, Sam M Mbulaiteye, Matthias Egger, Julia Bohlius
All forms of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) are more common in men than in women. It is unknown if this is due to a higher prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), the underlying cause of KS, in men compared to women. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the association between HHV-8 seropositivity and gender in the general population. Studies in selected populations like for example, blood donors, hospital patients and men who have sex with men were excluded. We searched Medline and Embase from January 1994 to February 2015...
August 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Julia Bohlius, Nicola Maxwell, Adrian Spoerri, Rosalind Wainwright, Shobna Sawry, Janet Poole, Brian Eley, Hans Prozesky, Helena Rabie, Daniela Garone, Karl-Günter Technau, Mhairi Maskew, Mary-Ann Davies, Alan Davidson, D Cristina Stefan, Matthias Egger
BACKGROUND: Little is known on the risk of cancer in HIV-positive children in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined incidence and risk factors of AIDS-defining and other cancers in pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in South Africa. METHODS: We linked the records of 5 ART programs in Johannesburg and Cape Town to those of pediatric oncology units, based on name and surname, date of birth, folder and civil identification numbers. We calculated incidence rates and obtained hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) from Cox regression models including ART, sex, age and degree of immunodeficiency...
June 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Esther Freeman, Aggrey Semeere, Megan Wenger, Mwebesa Bwana, F Chite Asirwa, Naftali Busakhala, Emmanuel Oga, Elima Jedy-Agba, Vivian Kwaghe, Kenneth Iregbu, Antoine Jaquet, Francois Dabis, Habakkuk Azinyui Yumo, Jean Claude Dusingize, David Bangsberg, Kathryn Anastos, Sam Phiri, Julia Bohlius, Matthias Egger, Constantin Yiannoutsos, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Jeffrey Martin
BACKGROUND: Survival after diagnosis is a fundamental concern in cancer epidemiology. In resource-rich settings, ambient clinical databases, municipal data and cancer registries make survival estimation in real-world populations relatively straightforward. In resource-poor settings, given the deficiencies in a variety of health-related data systems, it is less clear how well we can determine cancer survival from ambient data. METHODS: We addressed this issue in sub-Saharan Africa for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a cancer for which incidence has exploded with the HIV epidemic but for which survival in the region may be changing with the recent advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
February 6, 2016: BMC Cancer
Nicole Skoetz, Julia Bohlius, Andreas Engert, Ina Monsef, Oliver Blank, Jörg-Janne Vehreschild
BACKGROUND: Febrile neutropenia (FN) and other infectious complications are some of the most serious treatment-related toxicities of chemotherapy for cancer, with a mortality rate of 2% to 21%. The two main types of prophylactic regimens are granulocyte (macrophage) colony-stimulating factors (G(M)-CSF) and antibiotics, frequently quinolones or cotrimoxazole. Current guidelines recommend the use of colony-stimulating factors when the risk of febrile neutropenia is above 20%, but they do not mention the use of antibiotics...
December 21, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jenell S Coleman, Michelle S Cespedes, Susan Cu-Uvin, Rose J Kosgei, May Maloba, Jean Anderson, Timothy Wilkin, Antoine Jaquet, Julia Bohlius, Kathryn Anastos, Kara Wools-Kaloustian
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 85% of cervical cancer cases and deaths occur in resource-constrained countries where best practices for prevention, particularly for women with HIV infection, still need to be developed. The aim of this study was to assess cervical cancer prevention capacity in select HIV clinics located in resource-constrained countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of sub-Saharan African sites of 4 National Institutes of Health-funded HIV/AIDS networks was conducted...
January 2016: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
Grit Sommer, Micol E Gianinazzi, Rahel Kuonen, Julia Bohlius, Dagmar l'Allemand, Michael Hauschild, Primus-Eugen Mullis, Claudia E Kuehni
BACKGROUND: Since recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) became available in 1985, the spectrum of indications has broadened and the number of treated patients increased. However, long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after childhood rhGH treatment has rarely been documented. We assessed HRQoL and its determinants in young adults treated with rhGH during childhood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this study, we retrospectively identified former rhGH patients in 11 centers of paediatric endocrinology, including university hospitals and private practices...
2015: PloS One
R C F Leonard, J L Mansi, C Keerie, A Yellowlees, S Crawford, K Benstead, R Matthew, D Adamson, S Chan, R Grieve
BACKGROUND: Guidelines on the use of haematopoietic colony-stimulating factors for patients having adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer are designed to minimise the risk of neutropaenic infection (Smith TJ, Khatcheressian J, Lyman GH et al. Update of recommendations for the use of white blood cell growth factors: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline. J Clin Oncol 2006; 3: 187-205; Aapro MS, Bohlius J, Cameron DA et al. Effect of primary prophylactic G-CSF use on systemic therapy administration for elderly breast cancer patients...
December 2015: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Eliane Rohner, Natascha Wyss, Zina Heg, Zully Faralli, Sam M Mbulaiteye, Urban Novak, Marcel Zwahlen, Matthias Egger, Julia Bohlius
HIV-infection is an important risk factor for developing Kaposi sarcoma (KS), but it is unclear whether HIV-positive persons are also at increased risk of co-infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), the infectious cause of KS. We systematically searched literature up to December 2012 and included studies reporting HHV-8 seroprevalence for HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons. We used random-effects meta-analysis to combine odds ratios (ORs) of the association between HIV and HHV-8 seropositivity and conducted random-effects meta-regression to identify sources of heterogeneity...
January 1, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Eliane Rohner, Fabio Valeri, Mhairi Maskew, Hans Prozesky, Helena Rabie, Daniela Garone, Diana Dickinson, Cleophas Chimbetete, Priscilla Lumano-Mulenga, Izukanji Sikazwe, Natascha Wyss, Kerri M Clough-Gorr, Matthias Egger, Benjamin H Chi, Julia Bohlius
BACKGROUND: The risk of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) among HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not well defined in resource-limited settings. We studied KS incidence rates and associated risk factors in children and adults on ART in Southern Africa. METHODS: We included patient data of 6 ART programs in Botswana, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We estimated KS incidence rates in patients on ART measuring time from 30 days after ART initiation to KS diagnosis, last follow-up visit, or death...
December 15, 2014: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
J Bohlius, T Tonia, E Nüesch, P Jüni, M F Fey, M Egger, J Bernhard
BACKGROUND: Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) reduce the need for red blood cell transfusions; however, they increase the risk of thromboembolic events and mortality. The impact of ESAs on quality of life (QoL) is controversial and led to different recommendations of medical societies and authorities in the USA and Europe. We aimed to critically evaluate and quantify the effects of ESAs on QoL in cancer patients. METHODS: We included data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of ESAs on QoL in cancer patients...
July 8, 2014: British Journal of Cancer
Julia Bohlius, Fabio Valeri, Mhairi Maskew, Hans Prozesky, Daniela Garone, Mazvita Sengayi, Matthew P Fox, Mary-Ann Davies, Matthias Egger
The incidence of Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) is high in South Africa but the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not well defined. We examined incidence and survival of KS in HIV-infected patients enrolled in South African ART programs. We analyzed data of three ART programs: Khayelitsha township and Tygerberg Hospital programs in Cape Town and Themba Lethu program in Johannesburg. We included patients aged >16 years. ART was defined as a regimen of at least three drugs. We estimated incidence rates of KS for patients on ART and not on ART...
December 1, 2014: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
J J Vehreschild, A Böhme, O A Cornely, C Kahl, M Karthaus, K-A Kreuzer, G Maschmeyer, S Mousset, V Ossendorf, O Penack, M J G T Vehreschild, J Bohlius
BACKGROUND: Current evidence on myelopoietic growth factors is difficult to overview for the practicing haematologist/oncologist. International guidelines are sometimes conflicting, exclude certain patient groups, or cannot directly be applied to the German health system. This guideline by the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society of Haematology and Medical Oncology (DGHO) gives evidence-based recommendations for the use of G-CSF, pegylated G-CSF, and biosimilars to prevent infectious complications in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, including those with haematological malignancies...
September 2014: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
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