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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103632/global-health-and-emergency-care-defining-clinical-research-priorities
#1
Bhakti Hansoti, Adam R Aluisio, Meagan A Barry, Kevin Davey, Brian A Lentz, Payal Modi, Jennifer A Newberry, Melissa H Patel, Tricia A Smith, Alexandra M Vinograd, Adam C Levine
OBJECTIVES: Despite recent strides in the development of Global Emergency Medicine (EM), the field continues to lag in applying a scientific approach to identifying critical knowledge gaps and advancing evidence-based solutions to clinical and public health problems seen in emergency departments worldwide. Here, progress on the Global EM research agenda created at the 2013 Academic Emergency Medicine Global Health and Emergency Care Consensus Conference is evaluated and critical areas for future development in emergency care research internationally are identified...
January 19, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101838/renal-consequences-of-preterm-birth
#2
REVIEW
Amelie Stritzke, Sumesh Thomas, Harish Amin, Christoph Fusch, Abhay Lodha
BACKGROUND: The developmental origin of health and disease concept identifies the brain, cardiovascular, liver, and kidney systems as targets of fetal adverse programming with adult consequences. As the limits of viability in premature infants have been pushed to lower gestational ages, the long-term impact of prematurity on kidneys still remains a significant burden during hospital stay and beyond. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to summarize available evidence, mechanisms, and short- and long-term renal consequences of prematurity and identify nephroprotective strategies and areas of uncertainty...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090081/metabolic-reprogramming-and-tolerance-during-sepsis-induced-aki
#3
REVIEW
Hernando Gómez, John A Kellum, Claudio Ronco
The host defence against infection is an adaptive response in which several mechanisms are deployed to decrease the pathogen load, limit tissue injury and restore homeostasis. In the past few years new evidence has suggested that the ability of the immune system to limit the microbial burden - termed resistance - might not be the only defence mechanism. In fact, the capacity of the host to decrease its own susceptibility to inflammation- induced tissue damage - termed tolerance - might be as important as resistance in determining the outcome of the infection...
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088326/acute-kidney-injury-due-to-tropical-infectious-diseases-and-animal-venoms-a-tale-of-2-continents
#4
REVIEW
Emmanuel A Burdmann, Vivekanand Jha
South and Southeast Asia and Latin American together comprise 46 countries and are home to approximately 40% of the world population. The sociopolitical and economic heterogeneity, tropical climate, and malady transitions characteristic of the region strongly influence disease behavior and health care delivery. Acute kidney injury epidemiology mirrors these inequalities. In addition to hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in tertiary care centers, these countries face a large preventable burden of community-acquired acute kidney injury secondary to tropical infectious diseases or animal venoms, affecting previously healthy young individuals...
January 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065700/integrating-supportive-care-principles-into-dialysis-decision-making-a-primer-for-palliative-medicine-providers
#5
Alvin H Moss
Despite advances in pre-dialysis care and dialysis technology, patients with advanced chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease continue to experience multiple comorbidities, a high symptom burden, a shortened life expectancy and substantial physical, emotional, and spiritual suffering. Patients with acute kidney injury and end-stage renal disease, especially if they are older, often undergo prolonged hospitalizations, greater use of intensive medical treatment, and limited survival. Unfortunately, most nephrologists are not trained to conduct shared decision-making conversations to elicit patients' values, preferences, and goals for treatment and address their patients' multifactorial suffering...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062619/beyond-natriuretic-peptides-for-diagnosis-and-management-of-heart-failure
#6
REVIEW
Nasrien E Ibrahim, James L Januzzi
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome with an enormous societal burden in terms of cost and morbidity and mortality. Natriuretic peptide (NP) testing is now widely used to support diagnosis, prognostication, and management of patients with HF, but NPs come with limitations, including vulnerability to the presence of obesity, atrial fibrillation, and renal dysfunction, for example. Beyond the NPs, novel biomarkers may supplement traditional clinical and laboratory testing to improve understanding of the complex disease process of HF, and possibly to personalize care for those affected through better individual phenotyping...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051192/global-warming-and-its-health-impact
#7
Antonella Rossati
Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients...
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045676/therapeutic-potential-of-flavonoids-in-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Peng Zhang, Christian Hölscher, Xun Ma
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a catastrophic event that can profoundly affect a patient's life, with far-reaching social and economic effects. A consequential sequence of SCI is the significant neurological or psychological deficit, which obviously contributes to the overall burden of this condition. To date, there is no effective treatment for SCI. Therefore, developing novel therapeutic strategies for SCI is highly prioritized. Flavonoids, one of the most numerous and ubiquitous groups of plant metabolites, are the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine such as Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang Qin) or Ginkgo biloba (Ying Xin)...
January 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029455/management-of-burn-injuries-in-the-wilderness-lessons-from-low-resource-settings
#9
REVIEW
Cindy C Bitter, Timothy B Erickson
Burns are a common source of injuries worldwide, with a high burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries. Burns also account for 2%-8% of wilderness injuries. Although many are minor, the potential for serious morbidity and mortality exists, and standard treatments used in high-resource settings are not readily available in the backcountry. A literature review was performed to find evidence from low-resource settings that supports alternative or improvised therapies that may be adapted to care of burns in the wilderness...
October 28, 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005421/is-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-an-accelerated-aging-disease
#10
William MacNee
Aging is one of the most important risk factors for most chronic diseases. The worldwide increase in life expectancy has been accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of age-related diseases that result in significant morbidity and mortality and place an enormous burden on healthcare and resources. Aging is a progressive degeneration of the tissues that has a negative impact on the structure and function of vital organs. The lung ages, resulting in decreased function and reduced capacity to respond to environmental stresses and injury...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002085/rates-and-predictors-of-injury-in-a-population-based-cohort-of-people-living-with-hiv
#11
Hasina Samji, Wendy Zhang, Oghenowede Eyawo, Shahab Jabbari, Guillaume Colley, Zachary Tanner, Mark Hull, Julio S G Montaner, Robert S Hogg
OBJECTIVES: Injuries are responsible for 10% of the global burden of disease; however, the epidemiology of injury among people living with HIV (PLHIV) has not been well elucidated. This study seeks to characterize rates and predictors of injury among PLHIV compared to the general population in British Columbia (BC), Canada. DESIGN: A population-based dataset was created via linkage between the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS and PopulationDataBC. METHODS: PLHIV aged 20 years and older were compared to a random 10% sample of the adult general population...
January 14, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994921/the-burden-of-premature-mortality-in-turkey-in-2001-and-2008
#12
Burcu Tokuç, Serap Ayhan, Gamze Varol Saraçoğlu
BACKGROUND: Standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL) is a measure that is used to evaluate losses due to premature deaths. AIMS: The present study provides an analysis of premature mortality in Turkey for the years 2001 and 2008 and supplies evidence for making policies and setting health agendas over the long term. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study calculated SEYLL by gender, age group and causes of death in Turkey in 2014...
November 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987541/developing-treatments-for-chronic-kidney-disease-in-the-21st-century
#13
REVIEW
Matthew D Breyer, Katalin Susztak
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a lethal and rapidly increasing burden on society. Despite this, there are relatively few therapies in development for the treatment of CKD. Several recent costly phase 3 trials have failed to provide improved renal outcomes, diminishing interest in pharmaceutical investment. Furthermore, poor patient, physician, and payer awareness of CKD as a diagnosis has contributed to slow trial enrollment and successful implementation of these trials. Nevertheless, several therapeutics remain in development for the treatment of CKD, including mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists, sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, anti-inflammatory drugs, and drugs that mitigate oxidative injury...
November 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986419/epilepsy-in-the-tropics-emerging-etiologies
#14
Jaime Carrizosa Moog, Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Chong Tin Tan
Epilepsy is considered by the World Health Organization a public health priority with more than 50 million human beings affected by the disease. More than 80% of persons with epilepsy live in low and middle income countries and most of them in tropical areas. Several emerging, re-emerging and neglected diseases are symptomatic etiologies that jointly contribute to the enormous global burden of epilepsy. Besides the clinical strengths to reduce diagnostic and treatment gaps, other strategies in social, economic, cultural, educational and health policies are needed to prevent and treat appropriately vulnerable and affected persons with epilepsy...
December 6, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984252/perioperative-complications-of-spinal-metastases-surgery
#15
Panya Luksanapruksa, Jacob M Buchowski, Lukas P Zebala, Christopher K Kepler, Weerasak Singhatanadgige, David B Bumpass
The incidence of symptomatic spinal metastasis has increased due to treatment improvements and longer patient survival. More patients with spinal tumors are choosing operative treatment with an associated increased rate of perioperative complications. Operative metastatic disease treatment complication rates have also increased with overall rates ranging from 5.3% to 76.20%. The common surgical-related complications are iatrogenic dural injury and wound complications. The most common postoperative medical complications are delirium, pneumonia, and deep vein thrombosis...
February 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974396/an-emerging-epidemic-cancer-and-heart-failure
#16
REVIEW
Paaladinesh Thavendiranathan, Mark T Nolan
Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of mortality globally. Cardiovascular complications of cancer therapy significantly contribute to the global burden of cardiovascular disease. Heart failure (HF) in particular is a relatively common and life-threatening complication. The increased risk is driven by the shared risk factors for cancer and HF, the direct impact of cancer therapy on the heart, an existing care gap in the cardiac care of patients with cancer and the increasing population of adult cancer survivors...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965951/person-and-people-centered-integrated-health-care-for-alcohol-dependence-whether-it-is-real-in-the-present-moment
#17
REVIEW
Mirjana Jovanovic, Marko Antunovic
Alcohol continues to occupy a leading position in Europe as a popular substance of abuse. According to WHO sources together with cigarette smoking and obesity, alcohol is a major cause of preventable diseases. Harmful use of alcohol is one of the main factors contributing to premature deaths and disability and has a major impact on public health. The consequences of alcohol use on human health are enormous. Additionally, alcohol use can have harmful effects that do not directly affect person who consumes alcohol (e...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955711/hcv-co-infection-and-markers-of-liver-injury-and-fibrosis-among-hiv-positive-childbearing-women-in-ukraine-results-from-a-cohort-study
#18
Heather Bailey, Nataliya Nizova, Violeta Martsynovska, Alla Volokha, Ruslan Malyuta, Mario Cortina-Borja, Claire Thorne
BACKGROUND: Ukraine's injecting drug use-driven HIV epidemic is among the most severe in Europe with high burden of HCV co-infection. HIV/HCV co-infected individuals are at elevated risk of HCV-related morbidity, but little is known about burden of liver disease and associated factors in the HIV-positive population in Ukraine, particularly among women. METHODS: Characteristics of 2050 HIV-positive women enrolled into the Ukrainian Study of HIV-infected Childbearing Women were described by HCV serostatus...
December 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941934/the-global-burden-of-chronic-kidney-disease-estimates-variability-and-pitfalls
#19
REVIEW
Richard J Glassock, David G Warnock, Pierre Delanaye
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is currently defined by abnormalities of kidney structure or function assessed using a matrix of variables - including glomerular filtration rate (GFR), thresholds of albuminuria and duration of injury - and is considered by many to be a common disorder globally. However, estimates of CKD prevalence vary widely, both within and between countries. The reasons for these variations are manifold, and include true regional differences in CKD prevalence, vagaries of using estimated GFR (eGFR) for identifying CKD, issues relating to the use of set GFR thresholds to define CKD in elderly populations, and concerns regarding the use of one-off testing for assessment of eGFR or albuminuria to define the prevalence of CKD in large-scale epidemiological studies...
February 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935914/road-traffic-accident-and-its-characteristics-in-kathmandu-valley
#20
L Huang, K P Adhikary, B P Choulagai, N Wang, A K Poudyal, S R Onta
INTRODUCTION: Road traffic accident is alarming in Nepal. The objective of this research is to find out the characteristics of RTA in central part of Nepal. METHODS: A prospective descriptive study was taken from 1 August 2014 to 31 July 2015. Data were collected from postmortem department and nine hospitals in Kathmandu Valley. Inventory sheets with targeted variables for secondary sources were created. RESULTS: A total of 3461 morbidity cases from hospitals and 265 mortality cases from postmortem department were included in this study...
July 2016: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
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