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Burden of disease of injury

M Amber Sajjad, Kara L Holloway, Mark A Kotowicz, Patricia M Livingston, Mustafa Khasraw, Sharon Hakkennes, Trisha L Dunning, Susan Brumby, Richard S Page, Daryl Pedler, Alasdair Sutherland, Svetha Venkatesh, Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, Lana J Williams, Julie A Pasco
Background: An increasing burden of chronic disease and associated health service delivery is expected due to the ageing Australian population. Injuries also affect health and wellbeing and have a long-term impact on health service utilisation. There is a lack of comprehensive data on disease and injury in rural and regional areas of Australia. The aim of the Ageing, Chronic Disease and Injury study is to compile data from various sources to better describe the patterns of chronic disease and injury across western Victoria...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Public Health Research
Mohammad Y Yakoob, Renata Micha, Shahab Khatibzadeh, Gitanjali M Singh, Peilin Shi, Habibul Ahsan, Nagalla Balakrishna, Ginnela N V Brahmam, Yu Chen, Ashkan Afshin, Saman Fahimi, Goodarz Danaei, John W Powles, Majid Ezzati, Dariush Mozaffarian
OBJECTIVES: To quantify cardiovascular disease and diabetes deaths attributable to dietary and metabolic risks by country, age, sex, and time in South Asian countries. METHODS: We used the 2010 Global Burden of Disease national surveys to characterize risk factor levels by age and sex. We derived etiological effects of risk factors-disease endpoints, by age, from meta-analyses. We defined optimal levels. We combined these inputs with cause-specific mortality rates to compute population-attributable fractions as a percentage of total cardiometabolic deaths...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Richard Q Loi, Kelly M Leyden, Akshara Balachandra, Vedang Uttarwar, Donald J Hagler, Brianna M Paul, Anders M Dale, Nathan S White, Carrie R McDonald
OBJECTIVE: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become a popular tool for delineating the location and extent of white matter injury in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, DTI yields nonspecific measures that are confounded by changes occurring within both the intracellular and extracellular environments. This study investigated whether an advanced diffusion method, restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) could provide a more robust measure of white matter injury in TLE relative to DTI due to RSI's ability to separate intraaxonal diffusion (i...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsia
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 provides an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence for risk factor exposure and the attributable burden of disease. By providing national and subnational assessments spanning the past 25 years, this study can inform debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. METHODS: We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate attributable deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and trends in exposure by age group, sex, year, and geography for 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and monitor progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We aimed to provide updated HALE and DALYs for geographies worldwide and evaluate how disease burden changes with development...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Peishan Ning, David C Schwebel, Helai Huang, Li Li, Jun Li, Guoqing Hu
We aimed to examine progress in global road injury mortality since the initiation of Global Plan for the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020. We examined annual percent changes in age-adjusted road traffic mortality using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Association between changes in road traffic mortality and legislative efforts in individual nations was explored using data from Global Status Reports on Road Safety 2013 and 2015. We found that global age-adjusted mortality, both overall and for user-specific road traffic injuries, decreased significantly between 2010 and 2013 (annual percent change in rates range from -1...
2016: PloS One
Amir Lebaschi, Xiang-Hua Deng, Jianchun Zong, Guang-Ting Cong, Camila B Carballo, Zoe M Album, Christopher Camp, Scott A Rodeo
Rotator cuff (RC) injuries represent a significant source of pain, functional impairment, and morbidity. The large disease burden of RC pathologies necessitates rapid development of research methodologies to treat these conditions. Given their ability to model anatomic, biomechanical, cellular, and molecular aspects of the human RC, animal models have played an indispensable role in reducing injury burden and advancing this field of research for many years. The development of animal models in the musculoskeletal (MSK) research arena is uniquely different from that in other fields in that the similarity of macrostructures and functions is as critical to replicate as cellular and molecular functions...
October 10, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Héctor Gómez-Dantés, Nancy Fullman, Héctor Lamadrid-Figueroa, Lucero Cahuana-Hurtado, Blair Darney, Leticia Avila-Burgos, Ricardo Correa-Rotter, Juan A Rivera, Simon Barquera, Eduardo González-Pier, Tania Aburto-Soto, Elga Filipa Amorin de Castro, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Ana C Basto-Abreu, Carolina Batis, Guilherme Borges, Ismael Campos-Nonato, Julio C Campuzano-Rincón, Alejandra de Jesús Cantoral-Preciado, Alejandra G Contreras-Manzano, Lucia Cuevas-Nasu, Vanessa V de la Cruz-Gongora, Jose L Diaz-Ortega, María de Lourdes García-García, Armando Garcia-Guerra, Teresita González de Cossío, Luz D González-Castell, Ileana Heredia-Pi, Marta C Hijar-Medina, Alejandra Jauregui, Aida Jimenez-Corona, Nancy Lopez-Olmedo, Carlos Magis-Rodríguez, Catalina Medina-Garcia, Maria E Medina-Mora, Fabiola Mejia-Rodriguez, Julio C Montañez, Pablo Montero, Alejandra Montoya, Grea L Moreno-Banda, Andrea Pedroza-Tobías, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Amado D Quezada, Vesta L Richardson-López-Collada, Horacio Riojas-Rodríguez, Maria J Ríos Blancas, Christian Razo-Garcia, Martha P Romero Mendoza, Tania G Sánchez-Pimienta, Luz M Sánchez-Romero, Astrid Schilmann, Edson Servan-Mori, Teresa Shamah-Levy, Martha M Téllez-Rojo, José L Texcalac-Sangrador, Haidong Wang, Theo Vos, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Mohsen Naghavi, Alan D Lopez, Christopher J L Murray, Rafael Lozano
BACKGROUND: Child and maternal health outcomes have notably improved in Mexico since 1990, whereas rising adult mortality rates defy traditional epidemiological transition models in which decreased death rates occur across all ages. These trends suggest Mexico is experiencing a more complex, dissonant health transition than historically observed. Enduring inequalities between states further emphasise the need for more detailed health assessments over time. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2013 (GBD 2013) provides the comprehensive, comparable framework through which such national and subnational analyses can occur...
October 5, 2016: Lancet
Yan Zhu, Hongxia Liu, Min Zhang, Grace L Guo
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) worldwide has increased at an alarming rate, which will likely result in enormous medical and economic burden. NAFLD presents as a spectrum of liver diseases ranging from simple steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A comprehensive understanding of the mechanism(s) of NAFLD-to-NASH transition remains elusive with various genetic and environmental susceptibility factors possibly involved...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Yuki Sato, Akiko Mii, Yoko Hamazaki, Harumi Fujita, Hirosuke Nakata, Kyoko Masuda, Shingo Nishiyama, Shinsuke Shibuya, Hironori Haga, Osamu Ogawa, Akira Shimizu, Shuh Narumiya, Tsuneyasu Kaisho, Makoto Arita, Masashi Yanagisawa, Masayuki Miyasaka, Kumar Sharma, Nagahiro Minato, Hiroshi Kawamoto, Motoko Yanagita
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common clinical condition defined as a rapid decline in kidney function. AKI is a global health burden, estimated to cause 2 million deaths annually worldwide. Unlike AKI in the young, which is reversible, AKI in the elderly often leads to end-stage renal disease, and the mechanism that prevents kidney repair in the elderly is unclear. Here we demonstrate that aged but not young mice developed multiple tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs) in the kidney after AKI. TLT size was associated with impaired renal function and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and homeostatic chemokines, indicating a possible contribution of TLTs to sustained inflammation after injury...
July 21, 2016: JCI Insight
Débora Lanznaster, Tharine Dal-Cim, Tetsadê C B Piermartiri, Carla I Tasca
Guanosine is a purine nucleoside with important functions in cell metabolism and a protective role in response to degenerative diseases or injury. The past decade has seen major advances in identifying the modulatory role of extracellular action of guanosine in the central nervous system (CNS). Evidence from rodent and cell models show a number of neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of guanosine preventing deleterious consequences of seizures, spinal cord injury, pain, mood disorders and aging-related diseases, such as ischemia, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
Allison R Kaup, Carrie Peltz, Kimbra Kenney, Joel H Kramer, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Kristine Yaffe
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the neuropsychological profile of lifetime traumatic brain injury (TBI) in older Veterans. METHODS: Participants were 169 older Veterans [mean age=79.1 years (range, 51-97 years), 89% male, 92% Caucasian], 88 with lifetime TBI and 81 without TBI, living in Veterans' retirement homes in independent residence. TBI history was ascertained with the Ohio State TBI Identification Method structured interview. Cognition was assessed with neuropsychological tests: Raw scores were converted to Z-scores compared to age-corrected normative data and combined into five domain composite Z-scores (attention/working memory, learning/memory, language, processing speed, executive functioning)...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Inoka K Suraweera, Supun D Wijesinghe, Sameera J Senanayaka, Hemantha D B Herath, T B Ananda Jayalal
BACKGROUND: Work-related diseases and occupational accidents affect a significant number of workers globally. The majority of these diseases and accidents are reported from developing countries; and a large percentage of the workforce in developing countries is estimated to be employed in small-scale industries. Sri Lanka is no exception. These workers are exposed to occupational hazards and are at a great risk of developing work- related diseases and injuries. OBJECTIVE: To identify occupational health issues faced by small-scale industry workers in Sri Lanka...
September 28, 2016: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Elisabeth Rataj, Katharina Kunzweiler, Susan Garthus-Niegel
BACKGROUND: Due to climate change, extreme weather events have an incremental impact on human health. Injuries and mental health disorders are a particular burden of disease, which is broadly investigated in high income countries. Most distressed populations are, however, those in developing countries. Therefore, this study investigates mental and physical health impacts arising from extreme weather events in these populations. METHOD: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), injury [primary outcomes], anxiety and depressive disorders [secondary outcomes], caused by weather extremes were systematically analyzed in people of developing countries...
September 29, 2016: BMC Public Health
Thomas R Coughlin, Oran D Kennedy
Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common musculoskeletal disease in the United States, is characterized by cartilage breakdown, pain, and restricted movement. Post-traumatic OA (PTOA) occurs subsequent to traumatic joint injury, such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, and makes up 12% of the overall disease burden, with healthcare costs of approximately $3 billion/year. The current paradigm for PTOA is based on the observation that joint injury affects multiple tissues, all of which may contribute to subsequent joint failure...
September 26, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Bindu Kalesan, Janice Weinberg, Sandro Galea
INTRODUCTION: The overall burden of gun violence death and injury in the US is now well understood. However, no study has shown the extent to which gun violence is associated with the individual lives of Americans. METHODS: We used fatal and non-fatal gun injury rates in 2013 from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) and generally accepted estimates about the size of an American's social network to determine the likelihood that any given person will know someone in their personal social network who is a victim of gun violence during their lifetime...
September 22, 2016: Preventive Medicine
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015). METHODS: We applied statistical methods to systematically compiled data to estimate the performance of 33 health-related SDG indicators for 188 countries from 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Emily Earl-Royal, Elinore J Kaufman, Jesse Y Hsu, Douglas J Wiebe, Patrick M Reilly, Daniel N Holena
BACKGROUND: Failure to rescue (FTR: the conditional probability of death after complication) has been studied in trauma cohorts, but the impact of age and preexisting conditions (PECs) on risk of FTR is not well known. We assessed the relationship between age and PECs on the risk of experiencing serious adverse events (SAEs) subsequent FTR in trauma patients with the hypothesis that increased comorbidity burden and age would be associated with increased FTR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis at an urban level 1 trauma center in Pennsylvania...
October 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
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