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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287537/visualization-of-cell-cycle-variations-and-determination-of-nucleation-in-postnatal-cardiomyocytes
#1
Alexandra Raulf, Nadine Voeltz, Daniel Korzus, Bernd K Fleischmann, Michael Hesse
Cardiomyocytes are prone to variations of the cell cycle, such as endoreduplication (continuing rounds of DNA synthesis without karyokinesis and cytokinesis) and acytokinetic mitosis (karyokinesis but no cytokinesis). Such atypical cell cycle variations result in polyploid and multinucleated cells rather than in cell division. Therefore, to determine cardiac turnover and regeneration, it is of crucial importance to correctly identify cardiomyocyte nuclei, the number of nuclei per cell, and their cell cycle status...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285997/ccm-3-promotes-c-%C3%A2-elegans-germline-development-by-regulating-vesicle-trafficking-cytokinesis-and-polarity
#2
Swati Pal, Benjamin Lant, Bin Yu, Ruilin Tian, Jiefei Tong, Jonathan R Krieger, Michael F Moran, Anne-Claude Gingras, W Brent Derry
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular defects of the CNS that arise from loss of integrity of the endothelial cells lining blood capillaries, causing leakage of blood into the brain [1]. This results in headaches, seizures, and/or hemorrhagic stroke, depending on the location of the lesion. CCM affects 0.5% of the population and follows an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern caused by mutations in one of the three genes: CCM1 (gene name KRIT1), CCM2 (also known as malcavernin or OSM), and CCM3 (gene name PDCD10) [2, 3], with the earliest onset and most severe prognosis occurring in CCM3 patients [4]...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285996/a-sterile-20-family-kinase-and-its-co-factor-ccm-3-regulate-contractile-ring-proteins-on-germline-intercellular-bridges
#3
Kathryn Rehain-Bell, Andrew Love, Michael E Werner, Ian MacLeod, John R Yates, Amy Shaub Maddox
Germ cells in most animals are connected by intercellular bridges, actin-based rings that form stable cytoplasmic connections between cells promoting communication and coordination [1]. Moreover, these connections are required for fertility [1, 2]. Intercellular bridges are proposed to arise from stabilization of the cytokinetic ring during incomplete cytokinesis [1]. Paradoxically, proteins that promote closure of cytokinetic rings are enriched on stably open intercellular bridges [1, 3, 4]. Given this inconsistency, the mechanism of intercellular bridge stabilization is unclear...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278125/laboratory-validation-of-an-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-detection-of-ractopamine-clenbuterol-and-salbutamol-in-bovine-and-swine-muscle-at-sub-%C3%AE-g-kg-regulatory-limits
#4
Rodrigo H M M Granja, Karine V G Reche, Fabio M Giannotti, João K G de Souza, Sarita P G Ferrari, André Danioti Dos Santos, Amarylis C B A Wanschel, Alessandro G Salerno
Ractopamine (RAC), is a β-adrenergic agonist increasingly used in the swine and cattle industry. This compound redirects nutrients to favor leanness rather than fat deposition, improves growth and carcass traits gaining higher economic benefit to producers. Countries around the world are split over whether to allow the use of RAC, in meat production. Clenbuterol (CLB) and Salbutamol (SLB) are anillinic and phenolic β-agonists, respectively, with the same capacity of producing economic benefits for the meat sector...
February 28, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222102/anln-truncation-causes-a-familial-fatal-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-dalmatian-dogs
#5
Saila Holopainen, Marjo K Hytönen, Pernilla Syrjä, Meharji Arumilli, Anna-Kaisa Järvinen, Minna Rajamäki, Hannes Lohi
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the leading cause of death in critical care medicine. The syndrome is typified by an exaggerated inflammatory response within the lungs. ARDS has been reported in many species, including dogs. We have previously reported a fatal familial juvenile respiratory disease accompanied by occasional unilateral renal aplasia and hydrocephalus, in Dalmatian dogs. The condition with a suggested recessive mode of inheritance resembles acute exacerbation of usual interstitial pneumonia in man...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162898/sin-dependent-dissociation-of-the-sad-kinase-cdr2-from-the-cell-cortex-resets-the-division-plane
#6
Sergio A Rincon, Miguel Estravis, Florent Dingli, Damarys Loew, Phong T Tran, Anne Paoletti
Proper division plane positioning is crucial for faithful chromosome segregation but also influences cell size, position, or fate [1]. In fission yeast, medial division is controlled through negative signaling by the cell tips during interphase and positive signaling by the centrally placed nucleus at mitotic entry [2-4]: the cell geometry network (CGN), controlled by the inhibitory cortical gradient of the DYRK kinase Pom1 emanating from the cell tips, first promotes the medial localization of cytokinetic ring precursors organized by the SAD kinase Cdr2 to pre-define the division plane [5-8]; then, massive nuclear export of the anillin-like protein Mid1 at mitosis entry confirms or readjusts the division plane according to nuclear position and triggers the assembly of a medial contractile ring [5, 9-11]...
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147230/multimodal-and-polymorphic-interactions-between-anillin-and-actin-their-implications-for-cytokinesis
#7
Silvana Jananji, Cristina Risi, Indeewari K S Lindamulage, Louis-Philippe Picard, Robert Van Sciver, Guillaume Laflamme, Abe Albaghjati, Gilles R X Hickson, Benjamin H Kwok, Vitold E Galkin
Cytokinesis of animal cells requires the assembly of a contractile ring, which promotes daughter cell splitting. Anillin is a conserved scaffold protein involved in organizing the structural components of the contractile ring including filamentous actin (F-actin), myosin, and septins and in forming the subsequent midbody ring. Like other metazoan homologs, Drosophila anillin contains a conserved domain that can bind and bundle F-actin, but the importance and molecular details of its interaction with F-actin remain unclear...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107513/the-zebrafish-anillin-egfp-reporter-marks-late-dividing-retinal-precursors-and-stem-cells-entering-neuronal-lineages
#8
Meret Cepero Malo, Anne-Laure Duchemin, Luca Guglielmi, Eva Patzel, Saadettin Sel, Gerd U Auffarth, Matthias Carl, Lucia Poggi
Monitoring cycling behaviours of stem and somatic cells in the living animal is a powerful tool to better understand tissue development and homeostasis. The tg(anillin:anillin-eGFP) transgenic line carries the full-length zebrafish F-actin binding protein Anillin fused to eGFP from a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing Anillin cis-regulatory sequences. Here we report the suitability of the Anillin-eGFP reporter as a direct indicator of cycling cells in the late embryonic and post-embryonic retina...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081137/anillin-phosphorylation-controls-timely-membrane-association-and-successful-cytokinesis
#9
Hyunjung Kim, James M Johnson, Robert F Lera, Sarang Brahma, Mark E Burkard
During cytokinesis, a contractile ring generates the constricting force to divide a cell into two daughters. This ring is composed of filamentous actin and the motor protein myosin, along with additional structural and regulatory proteins, including anillin. Anillin is a required scaffold protein that links the actomyosin ring to membrane and its organizer, RhoA. However, the molecular basis for timely action of anillin at cytokinesis remains obscure. Here, we find that phosphorylation regulates efficient recruitment of human anillin to the equatorial membrane...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065310/analysis-of-postcytokinetic-roles-of-cytokinetic-components-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
Y Chai, D Tian, W Li, G Ou
Cytokinesis requires the interplay between the cytoskeleton and plasma membrane. Emerging evidence indicates that some cytokinetic components are essential for the postcytokinetic events such as epithelium organization and neural development. We have recently developed live cell imaging and conditional knockout techniques to visualize cytokinetic proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans Q neuroblasts and separate their postcytokinetic functions from cytokinetic ones. Here we describe how the fluorescent reporter strains and conditional knockout C...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988679/a-taxonomic-review-of-the-anilline-genus-i-zeanillus-i-jeannel-coleoptera-carabidae-bembidiini-of-new-zealand-with-descriptions-of-seven-new-species-re-classification-of-the-species-and-notes-on-their-biogeography-and-evolution
#11
Igor M Sokolov
Based upon external features of adults of the genus Zeanillus ten species are recognized, seven of which are new to science. Because of significant morphological differences, all species are arranged in four subgenera: the nominotypical subgenus Zeanillus, including Z. phyllobius (Broun), Z. punctigerus (Broun), and Z. nunni, new species (New Zealand, South Island, Otago, Trotters George); the monobasic subgenus Brounanillus, new subgenus, including Z. pallidus (Broun); the monobasic subgenus Nunnanillus, new subgenus, including Z...
November 20, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863473/anln-is-a-prognostic-biomarker-independent-of-ki-67-and-essential-for-cell-cycle-progression-in-primary-breast-cancer
#12
Kristina Magnusson, Gabriela Gremel, Lisa Rydén, Victor Pontén, Mathias Uhlén, Anna Dimberg, Karin Jirström, Fredrik Pontén
BACKGROUND: Anillin (ANLN), an actin-binding protein required for cytokinesis, has recently been presented as part of a prognostic marker panel in breast cancer. The objective of the current study was to further explore the prognostic and functional value of ANLN as a single biomarker in breast cancer. METHODS: Immunohistochemical assessment of ANLN protein expression was performed in two well characterized breast cancer cohorts (n = 484) with long-term clinical follow-up data and the results were further validated at the mRNA level in a publicly available transcriptomics dataset...
November 18, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799369/-back-to-back-mechanisms-drive-actomyosin-ring-closure-during-drosophila-embryo-cleavage
#13
Zenghui Xue, Anna Marie Sokac
Contraction of actomyosin rings during cytokinesis is typically attributed to actin filaments sliding toward each other via Myosin-2 motor activity. However, rings constrict in some cells in the absence of Myosin-2 activity. Thus, ring closure uses Myosin-2-dependent and -independent mechanisms. But what the Myosin-2-independent mechanisms are, and to what extent they are sufficient to drive closure, remains unclear. During cleavage in Drosophila melanogaster embryos, actomyosin rings constrict in two sequential and mechanistically distinct phases...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647921/molecular-organization-of-cytokinesis-nodes-and-contractile-rings-by-super-resolution-fluorescence-microscopy-of-live-fission-yeast
#14
Caroline Laplante, Fang Huang, Irene R Tebbs, Joerg Bewersdorf, Thomas D Pollard
Cytokinesis in animals, fungi, and amoebas depends on the constriction of a contractile ring built from a common set of conserved proteins. Many fundamental questions remain about how these proteins organize to generate the necessary tension for cytokinesis. Using quantitative high-speed fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM), we probed this question in live fission yeast cells at unprecedented resolution. We show that nodes, protein assembly precursors to the contractile ring, are discrete structural units with stoichiometric ratios and distinct distributions of constituent proteins...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559130/transcriptome-analysis-of-tetraploid-cells-identifies-cyclin-d2-as-a-facilitator-of-adaptation-to-genome-doubling-in-the-presence-of-p53
#15
Tamara A Potapova, Christopher W Seidel, Andrew C Box, Giulia Rancati, Rong Li
Tetraploidization, or genome doubling, is a prominent event in tumorigenesis, primarily because cell division in polyploid cells is error-prone and produces aneuploid cells. This study investigates changes in gene expression evoked in acute and adapted tetraploid cells and their effect on cell-cycle progression. Acute polyploidy was generated by knockdown of the essential regulator of cytokinesis anillin, which resulted in cytokinesis failure and formation of binucleate cells, or by chemical inhibition of Aurora kinases, causing abnormal mitotic exit with formation of single cells with aberrant nuclear morphology...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508507/anillin-controls-cleavage-furrow-formation-in-the-course-of-asymmetric-division-during-mouse-oocyte-maturation
#16
So-Rim Lee, Yu-Jin Jo, Suk Namgoong, Nam-Hyung Kim
Anillin is a scaffold protein that recruits several proteins involved in cleavage furrow formation during cytokinesis. The role of anilllin in symmetric cell divisions in somatic cells has been intensively studied, yet its involvement in cleavage furrow formation is still elusive. In this study, we investigated the role of anillin in mammalian oocyte maturation and cytokinesis. We found that anillin is localized around the nucleus during the oocyte germinal-vesicle stage, and spreads to the cytoplasm after germinal vesicle breakdown...
September 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504968/septin-anillin-filaments-scaffold-central-nervous-system-myelin-to-accelerate-nerve-conduction
#17
Julia Patzig, Michelle S Erwig, Stefan Tenzer, Kathrin Kusch, Payam Dibaj, Wiebke Möbius, Sandra Goebbels, Nicole Schaeren-Wiemers, Klaus-Armin Nave, Hauke B Werner
Myelination of axons facilitates rapid impulse propagation in the nervous system. The axon/myelin-unit becomes impaired in myelin-related disorders and upon normal aging. However, the molecular cause of many pathological features, including the frequently observed myelin outfoldings, remained unknown. Using label-free quantitative proteomics, we find that the presence of myelin outfoldings correlates with a loss of cytoskeletal septins in myelin. Regulated by phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2)-levels, myelin septins (SEPT2/SEPT4/SEPT7/SEPT8) and the PI(4,5)P2-adaptor anillin form previously unrecognized filaments that extend longitudinally along myelinated axons...
2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27146115/syndapin-promotes-pseudocleavage-furrow-formation-by-actin-organization-in-the-syncytial-drosophila-embryo
#18
Aparna Sherlekar, Richa Rikhy
Coordinated membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling activities are required for membrane extension in processes such as cytokinesis and syncytial nuclear division cycles in Drosophila Pseudocleavage furrow membranes in the syncytial Drosophila blastoderm embryo show rapid extension and retraction regulated by actin-remodeling proteins. The F-BAR domain protein Syndapin (Synd) is involved in membrane tubulation, endocytosis, and, uniquely, in F-actin stability. Here we report a role for Synd in actin-regulated pseudocleavage furrow formation...
July 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27062703/overexpression-of-anillin-anln-is-correlated-with-colorectal-cancer-progression-and-poor-prognosis
#19
Guanghui Wang, Wei Shen, Long Cui, Wei Chen, Xuguang Hu, Jihong Fu
BACKGROUND: Our previous study found ANLN was over-expressed in colorectal cancer(CRC), however the role of ANLN in CRC remained unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of ANLN expression in CRC with clinical features and to determinate the prognostic significance of ANLN expression in CRC. METHODS: The ANLN expression in CRC tissue and adjacent normal colorectal mucosa were measured, the relationship between ANLN expression and clinical features as well as overall survival were analyzed...
2016: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27059155/anillin-related-protein-mid1-regulates-timely-formation-of-the-contractile-ring-in-the-fission-yeast-schizosaccharomyces-japonicus
#20
Tsuyoshi Yasuda, Masak Takaine, Osamu Numata, Kentaro Nakano
In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Sp), Mid1/Dmf1 plays an important role in positioning the division site by inducing formation of the contractile ring (CR). Mid1, emanating from the nucleus located in the cell center, forms a dozen of nodes in the middle cell cortex ahead of mitosis, and actin filaments and myosin II accumulated at each node interact and assemble the CR in metaphase. Curiously, in another fission yeast S. japonicus (Sj), CR formation begins after nuclear segregation in late anaphase...
June 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
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