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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701347/a-casein-kinase-1-prevents-expulsion-of-the-oocyte-meiotic-spindle-into-a-polar-body-by-regulating-cortical-contractility
#1
Jonathan R Flynn, Francis J McNally
During female meiosis, haploid eggs are generated from diploid oocytes. This reduction in chromosome number occurs through two highly asymmetric cell divisions resulting in one large egg and two small polar bodies. Unlike mitosis, where an actomyosin contractile ring forms between the sets of segregating chromosomes, the meiotic contractile ring forms on the cortex adjacent to one spindle pole, then ingresses down the length of the spindle to position itself at the exact midpoint between the two sets of segregating chromosomes...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701343/let-99-functions-in-the-astral-furrowing-pathway-where-it-is-required-for-myosin-enrichment-in-the-contractile-ring
#2
Kari L Price, Lesilee S Rose
The anaphase spindle determines the position of the cytokinesis furrow, such that the contractile ring assembles in an equatorial zone between the two spindle poles. Contractile ring formation is mediated by RhoA activation at the equator by the centralspindlin complex and midzone microtubules. Astral microtubules also inhibit RhoA accumulation at the poles. In the C. elegans one-cell embryo, the astral microtubule dependent pathway requires anillin, NOP-1 and LET-99. LET-99 is well characterized for generating the asymmetric cortical localization of the Gα-dependent force-generating complex that positions the spindle during asymmetric division...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624807/regulation-of-actin-binding-protein-anln-by-antitumor-mir-217-inhibits-cancer-cell-aggressiveness-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#3
Tetsuya Idichi, Naohiko Seki, Hiroshi Kurahara, Keiichi Yonemori, Yusaku Osako, Takayuki Arai, Atsushi Okato, Yoshiaki Kita, Takaaki Arigami, Yuko Mataki, Yuko Kijima, Kosei Maemura, Shoji Natsugoe
Analysis of our microRNA (miRNA) expression signature of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) revealed that microRNA-217 (miR-217) was significantly reduced in cancer tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor roles of miR-217 in PDAC cells and to identify miR-217-mediated molecular pathways involved in PDAC aggressiveness. The expression levels of miR-217 were significantly reduced in PDAC clinical specimens. Ectopic expression of miR-217 significantly suppressed cancer cell migration and invasion...
May 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600503/transcriptome-sequencing-identifies-anln-as-a-promising-prognostic-biomarker-in-bladder-urothelial-carcinoma
#4
Shuxiong Zeng, Xiaowen Yu, Chong Ma, Ruixiang Song, Zhensheng Zhang, Xiaoyuan Zi, Xin Chen, Yang Wang, Yongwei Yu, Junjie Zhao, Rongchao Wei, Yinghao Sun, Chuanliang Xu
The prognosis of bladder urothelial carcinoma (BLCA) varies greatly even for patients with similar pathological characteristics. We conducted transcriptome sequencing on ten pairs of BLCA samples and adjacent normal tissues to identify differentially expressed genes. Anillin (ANLN) was identified as a transcript that was significantly up-regulated in BLCA samples compared with normal tissues. Prognostic power of candidate gene was studied using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry on 40 and 209 patients, respectively...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539404/analysis-of-interphase-node-proteins-in-fission-yeast-by-quantitative-and-super-resolution-fluorescence-microscopy
#5
Matthew Akamatsu, Yu Lin, Joerg Bewersdorf, Thomas D Pollard
We used quantitative confocal microscopy and FPALM super resolution microscopy of live fission yeast to investigate the structures and assembly of two types of interphase nodes, multiprotein complexes associated with the plasma membrane that merge together and mature into the precursors of the cytokinetic contractile ring. During the long G2 phase of the cell cycle seven different interphase node proteins maintain constant concentrations as they accumulate in proportion to cell volume. During mitosis the total numbers of type 1 node proteins (cell cycle kinases Cdr1p, Cdr2p, Wee1p, and anillin Mid1p) are constant even when the nodes disassemble...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516085/analysis-of-septin-reorganization-at-cytokinesis-using-polarized-fluorescence-microscopy
#6
Molly McQuilken, Maximilian S Jentzsch, Amitabh Verma, Shalin B Mehta, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Amy S Gladfelter
Septins are conserved filament-forming proteins that act in diverse cellular processes. They closely associate with membranes and, in some systems, components of the cytoskeleton. It is not well understood how filaments assemble into higher-order structures in vivo or how they are remodeled throughout the cell cycle. In the budding yeast S. cerevisiae, septins are found through most of the cell cycle in an hourglass organization at the mother-bud neck until cytokinesis when the collar splits into two rings that disassemble prior to the next cell cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287537/visualization-of-cell-cycle-variations-and-determination-of-nucleation-in-postnatal-cardiomyocytes
#7
Alexandra Raulf, Nadine Voeltz, Daniel Korzus, Bernd K Fleischmann, Michael Hesse
Cardiomyocytes are prone to variations of the cell cycle, such as endoreduplication (continuing rounds of DNA synthesis without karyokinesis and cytokinesis) and acytokinetic mitosis (karyokinesis but no cytokinesis). Such atypical cell cycle variations result in polyploid and multinucleated cells rather than in cell division. Therefore, to determine cardiac turnover and regeneration, it is of crucial importance to correctly identify cardiomyocyte nuclei, the number of nuclei per cell, and their cell cycle status...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285997/ccm-3-promotes-c-%C3%A2-elegans-germline-development-by-regulating-vesicle-trafficking-cytokinesis-and-polarity
#8
Swati Pal, Benjamin Lant, Bin Yu, Ruilin Tian, Jiefei Tong, Jonathan R Krieger, Michael F Moran, Anne-Claude Gingras, W Brent Derry
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular defects of the CNS that arise from loss of integrity of the endothelial cells lining blood capillaries, causing leakage of blood into the brain [1]. This results in headaches, seizures, and/or hemorrhagic stroke, depending on the location of the lesion. CCM affects 0.5% of the population and follows an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern caused by mutations in one of the three genes: CCM1 (gene name KRIT1), CCM2 (also known as malcavernin or OSM), and CCM3 (gene name PDCD10) [2, 3], with the earliest onset and most severe prognosis occurring in CCM3 patients [4]...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285996/a-sterile-20-family-kinase-and-its-co-factor-ccm-3-regulate-contractile-ring-proteins-on-germline-intercellular-bridges
#9
Kathryn Rehain-Bell, Andrew Love, Michael E Werner, Ian MacLeod, John R Yates, Amy Shaub Maddox
Germ cells in most animals are connected by intercellular bridges, actin-based rings that form stable cytoplasmic connections between cells promoting communication and coordination [1]. Moreover, these connections are required for fertility [1, 2]. Intercellular bridges are proposed to arise from stabilization of the cytokinetic ring during incomplete cytokinesis [1]. Paradoxically, proteins that promote closure of cytokinetic rings are enriched on stably open intercellular bridges [1, 3, 4]. Given this inconsistency, the mechanism of intercellular bridge stabilization is unclear...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278125/laboratory-validation-of-an-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-detection-of-ractopamine-clenbuterol-and-salbutamol-in-bovine-and-swine-muscle-at-sub-%C3%AE-g%C3%A2-kg-1-regulatory-limits
#10
Alfredo M Montes Nino, Rodrigo H M M Granja, Karine V G Reche, Fabio M Giannotti, João K G de Souza, Sarita P G Ferrari, André D Dos Santos, Amarylis C B A Wanschel, Alessandro G Salerno
Ractopamine (RAC), is a β-adrenergic agonist increasingly used in the swine and cattle industry. This compound redirects nutrients to favour leanness rather than fat deposition, improves growth and carcass traits gaining higher economic benefit to producers. Countries around the world are split over whether to allow the use of RAC in meat production. Clenbuterol (CLB) and salbutamol (SLB) are anillinic and phenolic β-agonists, respectively, with the same capacity of producing economic benefits for the meat sector...
May 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222102/anln-truncation-causes-a-familial-fatal-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-dalmatian-dogs
#11
Saila Holopainen, Marjo K Hytönen, Pernilla Syrjä, Meharji Arumilli, Anna-Kaisa Järvinen, Minna Rajamäki, Hannes Lohi
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the leading cause of death in critical care medicine. The syndrome is typified by an exaggerated inflammatory response within the lungs. ARDS has been reported in many species, including dogs. We have previously reported a fatal familial juvenile respiratory disease accompanied by occasional unilateral renal aplasia and hydrocephalus, in Dalmatian dogs. The condition with a suggested recessive mode of inheritance resembles acute exacerbation of usual interstitial pneumonia in man...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162898/sin-dependent-dissociation-of-the-sad-kinase-cdr2-from-the-cell-cortex-resets-the-division-plane
#12
Sergio A Rincon, Miguel Estravis, Florent Dingli, Damarys Loew, Phong T Tran, Anne Paoletti
Proper division plane positioning is crucial for faithful chromosome segregation but also influences cell size, position, or fate [1]. In fission yeast, medial division is controlled through negative signaling by the cell tips during interphase and positive signaling by the centrally placed nucleus at mitotic entry [2-4]: the cell geometry network (CGN), controlled by the inhibitory cortical gradient of the DYRK kinase Pom1 emanating from the cell tips, first promotes the medial localization of cytokinetic ring precursors organized by the SAD kinase Cdr2 to pre-define the division plane [5-8]; then, massive nuclear export of the anillin-like protein Mid1 at mitosis entry confirms or readjusts the division plane according to nuclear position and triggers the assembly of a medial contractile ring [5, 9-11]...
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147230/multimodal-and-polymorphic-interactions-between-anillin-and-actin-their-implications-for-cytokinesis
#13
Silvana Jananji, Cristina Risi, Indeewari K S Lindamulage, Louis-Philippe Picard, Robert Van Sciver, Guillaume Laflamme, Abe Albaghjati, Gilles R X Hickson, Benjamin H Kwok, Vitold E Galkin
Cytokinesis of animal cells requires the assembly of a contractile ring, which promotes daughter cell splitting. Anillin is a conserved scaffold protein involved in organizing the structural components of the contractile ring including filamentous actin (F-actin), myosin, and septins and in forming the subsequent midbody ring. Like other metazoan homologs, Drosophila anillin contains a conserved domain that can bind and bundle F-actin, but the importance and molecular details of its interaction with F-actin remain unclear...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107513/the-zebrafish-anillin-egfp-reporter-marks-late-dividing-retinal-precursors-and-stem-cells-entering-neuronal-lineages
#14
Meret Cepero Malo, Anne-Laure Duchemin, Luca Guglielmi, Eva Patzel, Saadettin Sel, Gerd U Auffarth, Matthias Carl, Lucia Poggi
Monitoring cycling behaviours of stem and somatic cells in the living animal is a powerful tool to better understand tissue development and homeostasis. The tg(anillin:anillin-eGFP) transgenic line carries the full-length zebrafish F-actin binding protein Anillin fused to eGFP from a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing Anillin cis-regulatory sequences. Here we report the suitability of the Anillin-eGFP reporter as a direct indicator of cycling cells in the late embryonic and post-embryonic retina...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081137/anillin-phosphorylation-controls-timely-membrane-association-and-successful-cytokinesis
#15
Hyunjung Kim, James M Johnson, Robert F Lera, Sarang Brahma, Mark E Burkard
During cytokinesis, a contractile ring generates the constricting force to divide a cell into two daughters. This ring is composed of filamentous actin and the motor protein myosin, along with additional structural and regulatory proteins, including anillin. Anillin is a required scaffold protein that links the actomyosin ring to membrane and its organizer, RhoA. However, the molecular basis for timely action of anillin at cytokinesis remains obscure. Here, we find that phosphorylation regulates efficient recruitment of human anillin to the equatorial membrane...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065310/analysis-of-postcytokinetic-roles-of-cytokinetic-components-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Y Chai, D Tian, W Li, G Ou
Cytokinesis requires the interplay between the cytoskeleton and plasma membrane. Emerging evidence indicates that some cytokinetic components are essential for the postcytokinetic events such as epithelium organization and neural development. We have recently developed live cell imaging and conditional knockout techniques to visualize cytokinetic proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans Q neuroblasts and separate their postcytokinetic functions from cytokinetic ones. Here we describe how the fluorescent reporter strains and conditional knockout C...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988679/a-taxonomic-review-of-the-anilline-genus-i-zeanillus-i-jeannel-coleoptera-carabidae-bembidiini-of-new-zealand-with-descriptions-of-seven-new-species-re-classification-of-the-species-and-notes-on-their-biogeography-and-evolution
#17
Igor M Sokolov
Based upon external features of adults of the genus Zeanillus ten species are recognized, seven of which are new to science. Because of significant morphological differences, all species are arranged in four subgenera: the nominotypical subgenus Zeanillus, including Z. phyllobius (Broun), Z. punctigerus (Broun), and Z. nunni, new species (New Zealand, South Island, Otago, Trotters George); the monobasic subgenus Brounanillus, new subgenus, including Z. pallidus (Broun); the monobasic subgenus Nunnanillus, new subgenus, including Z...
November 20, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863473/anln-is-a-prognostic-biomarker-independent-of-ki-67-and-essential-for-cell-cycle-progression-in-primary-breast-cancer
#18
Kristina Magnusson, Gabriela Gremel, Lisa Rydén, Victor Pontén, Mathias Uhlén, Anna Dimberg, Karin Jirström, Fredrik Pontén
BACKGROUND: Anillin (ANLN), an actin-binding protein required for cytokinesis, has recently been presented as part of a prognostic marker panel in breast cancer. The objective of the current study was to further explore the prognostic and functional value of ANLN as a single biomarker in breast cancer. METHODS: Immunohistochemical assessment of ANLN protein expression was performed in two well characterized breast cancer cohorts (n = 484) with long-term clinical follow-up data and the results were further validated at the mRNA level in a publicly available transcriptomics dataset...
November 18, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799369/-back-to-back-mechanisms-drive-actomyosin-ring-closure-during-drosophila-embryo-cleavage
#19
Zenghui Xue, Anna Marie Sokac
Contraction of actomyosin rings during cytokinesis is typically attributed to actin filaments sliding toward each other via Myosin-2 motor activity. However, rings constrict in some cells in the absence of Myosin-2 activity. Thus, ring closure uses Myosin-2-dependent and -independent mechanisms. But what the Myosin-2-independent mechanisms are, and to what extent they are sufficient to drive closure, remains unclear. During cleavage in Drosophila melanogaster embryos, actomyosin rings constrict in two sequential and mechanistically distinct phases...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647921/molecular-organization-of-cytokinesis-nodes-and-contractile-rings-by-super-resolution-fluorescence-microscopy-of-live-fission-yeast
#20
Caroline Laplante, Fang Huang, Irene R Tebbs, Joerg Bewersdorf, Thomas D Pollard
Cytokinesis in animals, fungi, and amoebas depends on the constriction of a contractile ring built from a common set of conserved proteins. Many fundamental questions remain about how these proteins organize to generate the necessary tension for cytokinesis. Using quantitative high-speed fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM), we probed this question in live fission yeast cells at unprecedented resolution. We show that nodes, protein assembly precursors to the contractile ring, are discrete structural units with stoichiometric ratios and distinct distributions of constituent proteins...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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