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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502950/equatorial-assembly-of-the-cell-division-actomyosin-ring-in-the-absence-of-cytokinetic-spatial-cues
#1
Tzer Chyn Lim, Tomoyuki Hatano, Anton Kamnev, Mohan K Balasubramanian, Ting Gang Chew
The position of the division site dictates the size and fate of daughter cells in many organisms. In animal cells, division-site placement involves overlapping mechanisms, including signaling from the central spindle microtubules, astral microtubules, and spindle poles and through polar contractions [1-3]. In fission yeast, division-site positioning requires overlapping mechanisms involving the anillin-related protein Mid1 and the tip complex (comprising the Kelch-repeat protein Tea1, the Dyrk-kinase Pom1, and the SH3-domain protein Tea4) [4-11]...
February 22, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417260/visualization-of-endothelial-cell-cycle-dynamics-in-mouse-using-the-flt-1-egfp-anillin-system
#2
Katia Herz, Alexandra Becker, Chenyue Shi, Masatsugo Ema, Satoru Takahashi, Michael Potente, Michael Hesse, Bernd K Fleischmann, Daniela Wenzel
Endothelial cell proliferation is a key process during vascular growth but its kinetics could only be assessed in vitro or ex vivo so far. To enable the monitoring and quantification of cell cycle kinetics in vivo, we have generated transgenic mice expressing an eGFP-anillin construct under control of the endothelial-specific Flt-1 promoter. This construct labels the nuclei of endothelial cells in late G1, S and G2 phase and changes its localization during the different stages of M phase, thereby enabling the monitoring of EC proliferation and cytokinesis...
February 7, 2018: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396461/the-anillin-related-int1-protein-and-the-sep7-septin-collaborate-to-maintain-cellular-ploidy-in-candida-albicans
#3
Sara Orellana-Muñoz, Encarnación Dueñas-Santero, Yolanda Arnáiz-Pita, Francisco Del Rey, Jaime Correa-Bordes, Carlos R Vázquez de Aldana
Variation in cell ploidy is a common feature of Candida albicans clinical isolates that are resistant to the antifungal drug fluconazole. Here, we report that the anillin-related protein Int1 interacts with septins for coupling cytokinesis with nuclear segregation. Loss of Int1 results in a rapid disassembly of duplicated septin rings from the bud neck at the onset of actomyosin ring contraction. Strikingly, this has no major impact on cytokinesis and septum formation. However, Int1 genetically interacts with the Sep7 septin, maintaining the diffusion barrier at the bud neck and guarantying a faithful nuclear segregation...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282285/cross-linkers-both-drive-and-brake-cytoskeletal-remodeling-and-furrowing-in-cytokinesis
#4
Carlos Patino Descovich, Daniel B Cortes, Sean Ryan, Jazmine Nash, Li Zhang, Paul S Maddox, Francois Nedelec, Amy Shaub Maddox
Cell shape changes such as cytokinesis are driven by the actomyosin contractile cytoskeleton. The molecular rearrangements that bring about contractility in nonmuscle cells are currently debated. Specifically, both filament sliding by myosin motors, as well as cytoskeletal cross-linking by myosins and nonmotor cross-linkers, are thought to promote contractility. Here we examined how the abundance of motor and nonmotor cross-linkers affects the speed of cytokinetic furrowing. We built a minimal model to simulate contractile dynamics in the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote cytokinetic ring...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274368/knockdown-of-anillin-actin-binding-protein-blocks-cytokinesis-in-hepatocytes-and-reduces-liver-tumor-development-in-mice-without-affecting-regeneration
#5
Shuyuan Zhang, Liem H Nguyen, Kejin Zhou, Ho-Chou Tu, Alfica Sehgal, Ibrahim Nassour, Lin Li, Purva Gopal, Joshua Goodman, Amit G Singal, Adam Yopp, Yu Zhang, Daniel J Siegwart, Hao Zhu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cytokinesis can fail during normal postnatal liver development, leading to polyploid hepatocytes. We investigated whether inhibiting cytokinesis in the liver slows tumor growth without compromising the health of normal hepatocytes. We inhibited cytokinesis in cancer cells by knocking down ANLN, a cytoskeletal scaffolding protein that regulates cytokinesis and might promote tumorigenesis, in mice with liver disease. METHODS: We analyzed clinical and gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, Oncomine, PrognoScan, and a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue microarray...
December 21, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262371/asymmetric-flows-in-the-intercellular-membrane-during-cytokinesis
#6
Vidya V Menon, S S Soumya, Amal Agarwal, Sundar R Naganathan, Mandar M Inamdar, Anirban Sain
Eukaryotic cells undergo shape changes during their division and growth. This involves flow of material both in the cell membrane and in the cytoskeletal layer beneath the membrane. Such flows result in redistribution of phospholipid at the cell surface and actomyosin in the cortex. Here we focus on the growth of the intercellular surface during cell division in a Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. The growth of this surface leads to the formation of a double-layer of separating membranes between the two daughter cells...
December 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167382/kinesin-6-kif20b-is-required-for-efficient-cytokinetic-furrowing-and-timely-abscission-in-human-cells
#7
Kerstin M Janisch, Katrina C McNeely, Joseph M Dardick, Samuel H Lim, Noelle D Dwyer
Cytokinesis requires the cooperation of many cytoskeletal and membrane regulators. Most of the major players required for cytokinesis are known, but the temporal regulation and adaptations for different cell types are less understood. KIF20B (previously called MPHOSPH1 or MPP1) is a member of the Kinesin-6 family, which also includes the better-known members KIF23/MKLP1 and KIF20A/MKLP2. Previously, we showed that mouse Kif20b is involved in cerebral cortex growth and midbody organization of neural stem cells...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146911/cytokinesis-requires-localized-%C3%AE-actin-filament-production-by-an-actin-isoform-specific-nucleator
#8
A Chen, P D Arora, C A McCulloch, A Wilde
Cytokinesis is initiated by the localized assembly of the contractile ring, a dynamic actomyosin structure that generates a membrane furrow between the segregating chromosomal masses to divide a cell into two. Here we show that the stabilization and organization of the cytokinetic furrow is specifically dependent on localized β-actin filament assembly at the site of cytokinesis. β-actin filaments are assembled directly at the furrow by an anillin-dependent pathway that enhances RhoA-dependent activation of the formin DIAPH3, an actin nucleator...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074566/actomyosin-contractility-regulators-stabilize-the-cytoplasmic-bridge-between-the-two-primordial-germ-cells-during-c-elegans-embryogenesis
#9
Eugénie Goupil, Rana Amini, David H Hall, Jean-Claude Labbé
Stable cytoplasmic bridges arise from failed cytokinesis, the last step of cell division, and are a key feature of syncytial architectures in the germ line of most metazoans. Whereas the C. elegans germ line is syncytial, its formation remains poorly understood. We found that the germline precursor blastomere, P4, fails cytokinesis, leaving a stable cytoplasmic bridge between the two daughter cells, Z2 and Z3 Depletion of several regulators of actomyosin contractility resulted in a regression of the membrane partition between Z2 and Z3, indicating that they are required to stabilize the cytoplasmic bridge...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983631/integrated-analysis-reveals-candidate-genes-and-transcription-factors-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#10
Baiwang Chen, Shuhong Gao, Changwei Ji, Ge Song
Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common type of non‑small cell lung cancer in Asia. Therefore, it is important to improve understanding of the underlying transcriptional regulatory mechanisms involved. The present study aimed to identify potential candidate genes and transcription factors (TFs) associated with the disease. Four gene expression profiles were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which included 141 lung adenocarcinoma patients and 191 healthy controls. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened out and functional annotation was performed...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931593/active-ran-regulates-anillin-function-during-cytokinesis
#11
Daniel Beaudet, Tara Akhshi, Julia Phillipp, Christopher Law, Alisa Piekny
Cytokinesis cleaves a cell into two daughters at the end of mitosis, and must be spatially coordinated with chromosome segregation to prevent aneuploidy. The dogma is that the mitotic spindle governs the assembly and constriction of an actomyosin ring. Here, we reveal a function for active Ran in spatially restricting the ring. Our model is that during anaphase, "free" importins, whose gradient inversely correlates with active Ran and chromatin position, function as a molecular ruler for the recruitment and localization of anillin, a contractile protein and a crucial regulator of cytokinesis...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881803/regulation-of-actin-binding-protein-anln-by-antitumor-mir-217-inhibits-cancer-cell-aggressiveness-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#12
Tetsuya Idichi, Naohiko Seki, Hiroshi Kurahara, Keiichi Yonemori, Yusaku Osako, Takayuki Arai, Atsushi Okato, Yoshiaki Kita, Takaaki Arigami, Yuko Mataki, Yuko Kijima, Kosei Maemura, Shoji Natsugoe
Analysis of our microRNA (miRNA) expression signature of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) revealed that microRNA-217 (miR-217) was significantly reduced in cancer tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor roles of miR-217 in PDAC cells and to identify miR-217-mediated molecular pathways involved in PDAC aggressiveness. The expression levels of miR-217 were significantly reduced in PDAC clinical specimens. Ectopic expression of miR-217 significantly suppressed cancer cell migration and invasion...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701347/a-casein-kinase-1-prevents-expulsion-of-the-oocyte-meiotic-spindle-into-a-polar-body-by-regulating-cortical-contractility
#13
Jonathan R Flynn, Francis J McNally
During female meiosis, haploid eggs are generated from diploid oocytes. This reduction in chromosome number occurs through two highly asymmetric cell divisions, resulting in one large egg and two small polar bodies. Unlike mitosis, where an actomyosin contractile ring forms between the sets of segregating chromosomes, the meiotic contractile ring forms on the cortex adjacent to one spindle pole, then ingresses down the length of the spindle to position itself at the exact midpoint between the two sets of segregating chromosomes...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701343/let-99-functions-in-the-astral-furrowing-pathway-where-it-is-required-for-myosin-enrichment-in-the-contractile-ring
#14
Kari L Price, Lesilee S Rose
The anaphase spindle determines the position of the cytokinesis furrow, such that the contractile ring assembles in an equatorial zone between the two spindle poles. Contractile ring formation is mediated by RhoA activation at the equator by the centralspindlin complex and midzone microtubules. Astral microtubules also inhibit RhoA accumulation at the poles. In the Caenorhabditis elegans one-cell embryo, the astral microtubule-dependent pathway requires anillin, NOP-1, and LET-99. LET-99 is well characterized for generating the asymmetric cortical localization of the Gα-dependent force-generating complex that positions the spindle during asymmetric division...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624807/regulation-of-actin-binding-protein-anln-by-antitumor-mir-217-inhibits-cancer-cell-aggressiveness-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#15
Tetsuya Idichi, Naohiko Seki, Hiroshi Kurahara, Keiichi Yonemori, Yusaku Osako, Takayuki Arai, Atsushi Okato, Yoshiaki Kita, Takaaki Arigami, Yuko Mataki, Yuko Kijima, Kosei Maemura, Shoji Natsugoe
Analysis of our microRNA (miRNA) expression signature of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) revealed that microRNA-217 (miR-217) was significantly reduced in cancer tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor roles of miR-217 in PDAC cells and to identify miR-217-mediated molecular pathways involved in PDAC aggressiveness. The expression levels of miR-217 were significantly reduced in PDAC clinical specimens. Ectopic expression of miR-217 significantly suppressed cancer cell migration and invasion...
May 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600503/transcriptome-sequencing-identifies-anln-as-a-promising-prognostic-biomarker-in-bladder-urothelial-carcinoma
#16
Shuxiong Zeng, Xiaowen Yu, Chong Ma, Ruixiang Song, Zhensheng Zhang, Xiaoyuan Zi, Xin Chen, Yang Wang, Yongwei Yu, Junjie Zhao, Rongchao Wei, Yinghao Sun, Chuanliang Xu
The prognosis of bladder urothelial carcinoma (BLCA) varies greatly even for patients with similar pathological characteristics. We conducted transcriptome sequencing on ten pairs of BLCA samples and adjacent normal tissues to identify differentially expressed genes. Anillin (ANLN) was identified as a transcript that was significantly up-regulated in BLCA samples compared with normal tissues. Prognostic power of candidate gene was studied using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry on 40 and 209 patients, respectively...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539404/analysis-of-interphase-node-proteins-in-fission-yeast-by-quantitative-and-superresolution-fluorescence-microscopy
#17
Matthew Akamatsu, Yu Lin, Joerg Bewersdorf, Thomas D Pollard
We used quantitative confocal microscopy and FPALM superresolution microscopy of live fission yeast to investigate the structures and assembly of two types of interphase nodes-multiprotein complexes associated with the plasma membrane that merge together and mature into the precursors of the cytokinetic contractile ring. During the long G2 phase of the cell cycle, seven different interphase node proteins maintain constant concentrations as they accumulate in proportion to cell volume. During mitosis, the total numbers of type 1 node proteins (cell cycle kinases Cdr1p, Cdr2p, Wee1p, and anillin Mid1p) are constant even when the nodes disassemble...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516085/analysis-of-septin-reorganization-at-cytokinesis-using-polarized-fluorescence-microscopy
#18
Molly McQuilken, Maximilian S Jentzsch, Amitabh Verma, Shalin B Mehta, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Amy S Gladfelter
Septins are conserved filament-forming proteins that act in diverse cellular processes. They closely associate with membranes and, in some systems, components of the cytoskeleton. It is not well understood how filaments assemble into higher-order structures in vivo or how they are remodeled throughout the cell cycle. In the budding yeast S. cerevisiae, septins are found through most of the cell cycle in an hourglass organization at the mother-bud neck until cytokinesis when the collar splits into two rings that disassemble prior to the next cell cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287537/visualization-of-cell-cycle-variations-and-determination-of-nucleation-in-postnatal-cardiomyocytes
#19
Alexandra Raulf, Nadine Voeltz, Daniel Korzus, Bernd K Fleischmann, Michael Hesse
Cardiomyocytes are prone to variations of the cell cycle, such as endoreduplication (continuing rounds of DNA synthesis without karyokinesis and cytokinesis) and acytokinetic mitosis (karyokinesis but no cytokinesis). Such atypical cell cycle variations result in polyploid and multinucleated cells rather than in cell division. Therefore, to determine cardiac turnover and regeneration, it is of crucial importance to correctly identify cardiomyocyte nuclei, the number of nuclei per cell, and their cell cycle status...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285997/ccm-3-promotes-c-%C3%A2-elegans-germline-development-by-regulating-vesicle-trafficking-cytokinesis-and-polarity
#20
Swati Pal, Benjamin Lant, Bin Yu, Ruilin Tian, Jiefei Tong, Jonathan R Krieger, Michael F Moran, Anne-Claude Gingras, W Brent Derry
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular defects of the CNS that arise from loss of integrity of the endothelial cells lining blood capillaries, causing leakage of blood into the brain [1]. This results in headaches, seizures, and/or hemorrhagic stroke, depending on the location of the lesion. CCM affects 0.5% of the population and follows an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern caused by mutations in one of the three genes: CCM1 (gene name KRIT1), CCM2 (also known as malcavernin or OSM), and CCM3 (gene name PDCD10) [2, 3], with the earliest onset and most severe prognosis occurring in CCM3 patients [4]...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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