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Caroline Laplante, Fang Huang, Irene R Tebbs, Joerg Bewersdorf, Thomas D Pollard
Cytokinesis in animals, fungi, and amoebas depends on the constriction of a contractile ring built from a common set of conserved proteins. Many fundamental questions remain about how these proteins organize to generate the necessary tension for cytokinesis. Using quantitative high-speed fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM), we probed this question in live fission yeast cells at unprecedented resolution. We show that nodes, protein assembly precursors to the contractile ring, are discrete structural units with stoichiometric ratios and distinct distributions of constituent proteins...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tamara A Potapova, Christopher W Seidel, Andrew C Box, Giulia Rancati, Rong Li
Tetraploidization, or genome doubling, is a prominent event in tumorigenesis, primarily because cell division in polyploid cells is error-prone and produces aneuploid cells. This study investigates changes in gene expression evoked in acute and adapted tetraploid cells and their effect on cell-cycle progression. Acute polyploidy was generated by knockdown of the essential regulator of cytokinesis anillin, which resulted in cytokinesis failure and formation of binucleate cells, or by chemical inhibition of Aurora kinases, causing abnormal mitotic exit with formation of single cells with aberrant nuclear morphology...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
So-Rim Lee, Yu-Jin Jo, Suk Namgoong, Nam-Hyung Kim
Anillin is a scaffold protein that recruits several proteins involved in cleavage furrow formation during cytokinesis. The role of anilllin in symmetric cell divisions in somatic cells has been intensively studied, yet its involvement in cleavage furrow formation is still elusive. In this study, we investigated the role of anillin in mammalian oocyte maturation and cytokinesis. We found that anillin is localized around the nucleus during the oocyte germinal-vesicle stage, and spreads to the cytoplasm after germinal vesicle breakdown...
September 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Julia Patzig, Michelle S Erwig, Stefan Tenzer, Kathrin Kusch, Payam Dibaj, Wiebke Möbius, Sandra Goebbels, Nicole Schaeren-Wiemers, Klaus-Armin Nave, Hauke B Werner
Myelination of axons facilitates rapid impulse propagation in the nervous system. The axon/myelin-unit becomes impaired in myelin-related disorders and upon normal aging. However, the molecular cause of many pathological features, including the frequently observed myelin outfoldings, remained unknown. Using label-free quantitative proteomics, we find that the presence of myelin outfoldings correlates with a loss of cytoskeletal septins in myelin. Regulated by phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2)-levels, myelin septins (SEPT2/SEPT4/SEPT7/SEPT8) and the PI(4,5)P2-adaptor anillin form previously unrecognized filaments that extend longitudinally along myelinated axons...
2016: ELife
Aparna Sherlekar, Richa Rikhy
Coordinated membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling activities are required for membrane extension in processes such as cytokinesis and syncytial nuclear division cycles in Drosophila Pseudocleavage furrow membranes in the syncytial Drosophila blastoderm embryo show rapid extension and retraction regulated by actin-remodeling proteins. The F-BAR domain protein Syndapin (Synd) is involved in membrane tubulation, endocytosis, and, uniquely, in F-actin stability. Here we report a role for Synd in actin-regulated pseudocleavage furrow formation...
July 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Guanghui Wang, Wei Shen, Long Cui, Wei Chen, Xuguang Hu, Jihong Fu
BACKGROUND: Our previous study found ANLN was over-expressed in colorectal cancer(CRC), however the role of ANLN in CRC remained unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of ANLN expression in CRC with clinical features and to determinate the prognostic significance of ANLN expression in CRC. METHODS: The ANLN expression in CRC tissue and adjacent normal colorectal mucosa were measured, the relationship between ANLN expression and clinical features as well as overall survival were analyzed...
2016: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
Tsuyoshi Yasuda, Masak Takaine, Osamu Numata, Kentaro Nakano
In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Sp), Mid1/Dmf1 plays an important role in positioning the division site by inducing formation of the contractile ring (CR). Mid1, emanating from the nucleus located in the cell center, forms a dozen of nodes in the middle cell cortex ahead of mitosis, and actin filaments and myosin II accumulated at each node interact and assemble the CR in metaphase. Curiously, in another fission yeast S. japonicus (Sj), CR formation begins after nuclear segregation in late anaphase...
June 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Duyen Amy Bui, Wendy Lee, Anne E White, J Wade Harper, Ron C J Schackmann, Michael Overholtzer, Laura M Selfors, Joan S Brugge
YAP is a transcriptional coactivator that controls organ expansion and differentiation and is inhibited by the Hippo pathway in cells in interphase. Here, we demonstrated that, during mitosis, YAP localized to the midbody and spindle, subcellular structures that are involved in cytokinesis, the process by which contraction of the cytoskeleton produces two daughter cells. Furthermore, YAP was phosphorylated by CDK1, a kinase that promotes cell cycle progression. Knockdown of YAP by shRNA or expression of a nonphosphorylatable form of YAP delayed the separation of daughter cells (called abscission) and induced a cytokinesis phenotype associated with increased contractile force, membrane blebbing and bulges, and abnormal spindle orientation...
March 1, 2016: Science Signaling
Beatriz Araujo Cortez, Paula Rezende-Teixeira, Sambra Redick, Stephen Doxsey, Glaucia Maria Machado-Santelli
Chrysotile, like other types of asbestos, has been associated with mesothelioma, lung cancer and asbestosis. However, the cellular abnormalities induced by these fibers involved in cancer development have not been elucidated yet. Previous works show that chrysotile fibers induce features of cancer cells, such as aneuploidy, multinucleation and multipolar mitosis. In the present study, normal and cancer derived human cell lines were treated with chrysotile and the cellular and molecular mechanisms related to generation of aneuploid cells was elucidated...
February 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Ryota Uehara, Tomoko Kamasaki, Shota Hiruma, Ina Poser, Kinya Yoda, Junichiro Yajima, Daniel W Gerlich, Gohta Goshima
During anaphase, distinct populations of microtubules (MTs) form by either centrosome-dependent or augmin-dependent nucleation. It remains largely unknown whether these different MT populations contribute distinct functions to cytokinesis. Here we show that augmin-dependent MTs are required for the progression of both furrow ingression and abscission. Augmin depletion reduced the accumulation of anillin, a contractile ring regulator at the cell equator, yet centrosomal MTs were sufficient to mediate RhoA activation at the furrow...
March 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Shawn N Jordan, Tim Davies, Yelena Zhuravlev, Julien Dumont, Mimi Shirasu-Hiza, Julie C Canman
Cytokinesis, the physical division of one cell into two, is thought to be fundamentally similar in most animal cell divisions and driven by the constriction of a contractile ring positioned and controlled solely by the mitotic spindle. During asymmetric cell divisions, the core polarity machinery (partitioning defective [PAR] proteins) controls the unequal inheritance of key cell fate determinants. Here, we show that in asymmetrically dividing Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, the cortical PAR proteins (including the small guanosine triphosphatase CDC-42) have an active role in regulating recruitment of a critical component of the contractile ring, filamentous actin (F-actin)...
January 4, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
Pranav Ullal, Nathan A McDonald, Jun-Song Chen, Libera Lo Presti, Rachel H Roberts-Galbraith, Kathleen L Gould, Sophie G Martin
Division site positioning is critical for both symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions. In many organisms, positive and negative signals cooperate to position the contractile actin ring for cytokinesis. In rod-shaped fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells, division at midcell is achieved through positive Mid1/anillin-dependent signaling emanating from the central nucleus and negative signals from the dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase family kinase Pom1 at the cell poles. In this study, we show that Pom1 directly phosphorylates the F-BAR protein Cdc15, a central component of the cytokinetic ring...
November 9, 2015: Journal of Cell Biology
Shumin Wang, Yingxi Mo, Kaoru Midorikawa, Zhe Zhang, Guangwu Huang, Ning Ma, Weilin Zhao, Yusuke Hiraku, Shinji Oikawa, Mariko Murata
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy with poor prognosis that is endemic to Southeast Asia. We profiled microRNAs (miRNAs) of NPCs using microarrays and confirmed the results by quantitative RT-PCR. The results revealed that seven miRNAs were significantly up-regulated, and six miRNAs were down-regulated, in NPC tissues relative to noncancerous nasopharyngeal epithelia (NNE). Expression of miR-497 was also significantly reduced in the plasma of NPC patients relative to the plasma of noncancerous control patients...
November 3, 2015: Oncotarget
Rana Amini, Nicolas T Chartier, Jean-Claude Labbé
At the end of mitosis, cells typically complete their division with cytokinesis. In certain tissues however, incomplete cytokinesis can give rise to cells that remain connected by intercellular bridges, thus forming a syncytium. Examples include the germline of many species, from fruitfly to humans, yet the mechanisms regulating syncytial formation and maintenance is unclear, and the biological relevance of syncytial organization remains largely speculative. To better understand these processes, we recently used the germline of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for syncytium development...
January 2015: Worm
Anne Pacquelet, Perrine Uhart, Jean-Pierre Tassan, Grégoire Michaux
During asymmetric cell division, the mitotic spindle and polarized myosin can both determine the position of the cytokinetic furrow. However, how cells coordinate signals from the spindle and myosin to ensure that cleavage occurs through the spindle midzone is unknown. Here, we identify a novel pathway that is essential to inhibit myosin and coordinate furrow and spindle positions during asymmetric division. In Caenorhabditis elegans one-cell embryos, myosin localizes at the anterior cortex whereas the mitotic spindle localizes toward the posterior...
September 28, 2015: Journal of Cell Biology
Ying Gu, Snezhana Oliferenko
Cytokinesis must be regulated in time and space in order to preserve genome integrity during cell proliferation and to allow daughter cells to adopt distinct fates and geometries during differentiation. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been a popular model organism for understanding spatiotemporal regulation of cytokinesis in a symmetrically dividing cell. Recent work on another member of the same genus, Schisozaccharomyces japonicus, suggests that S. pombe may have evolved an unusual division site placement mechanism based on a recently duplicated anillin paralog...
December 2015: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Fengwei An, Zhiqiang Zhang, Ming Xia
The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) primary tumor development through the identification of key genes using bioinformatics approaches. Using the GSE53819 microarray dataset, acquired from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened out between NPC primary tumor and control samples, followed by hierarchical clustering analysis. The Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes database was utilized to build a protein‑protein interaction network to identify key node proteins...
October 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
Peir-In Liang, Wan Tzu Chen, Chien-Feng Li, Ching-Chia Li, Wei-Ming Li, Chun-Nung Huang, Hsin-Chih Yeh, Hung-Lung Ke, Wen-Jeng Wu, Chee-Yin Chai
BACKGROUND: The protein anillin (ANLN) has important roles in cell cytokinesis. Until now, no studies have evaluated the role of ANLN expression in a large cohort of patients with urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UCUT). METHODS: This study analysed 156 cases of primary localised UCUT. Pathological slides were reviewed and clinical findings were collected. An immunohistochemical study was performed and the cytoplasmic and nuclear staining results of UCUT were recorded...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Mercè Guzmán-Vendrell, Sergio A Rincon, Florent Dingli, Damarys Loew, Anne Paoletti
Cell growth and division are tightly coordinated to maintain cell size constant during successive cell cycles. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the SAD kinase Cdr2 regulates the cell size at division and the positioning of the division plane. Cdr2 forms nodes on the medial cortex containing factors that constitute an inhibitory pathway for Wee1. This pathway is regulated by polar gradients of the DYRK kinase Pom1, and involves a direct inhibitor of Wee1, the SAD kinase Cdr1. Cdr2 also interacts with the anillin Mid1, which defines the division plane, and with additional components of the medial cortical nodes, including Blt1, which participate in the mitotic-promoting and cytokinetic functions of nodes...
August 1, 2015: Journal of Cell Science
Kathryn Rehain, Amy Shaub Maddox
Establishment of a neuronal system requires proper regulation of the F-actin-rich leading edges of migrating neurons and neurite growth cones. A new study shows that RhoG signals through the multi-domain protein anillin to stabilize F-actin in these structures.
May 18, 2015: Current Biology: CB
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