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Police Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903954/gender-policing-during-childhood-and-the-psychological-well-being-of-young-adult-sexual-minority-men-in-the-united-states
#1
José A Bauermeister, Daniel Connochie, Laura Jadwin-Cakmak, Steven Meanley
Hegemonic masculinities (i.e., sets of socially accepted masculine behaviors and beliefs within a given time and culture) may affect the well-being of sexual minority men, yet quantitative relationships between these masculinities and well-being remain largely unexplored. Using data from a national cross-sectional survey of young sexual minority men (N = 1,484; ages 18-24 years), the current study examined the relationship between parental gender policing during childhood and adolescence and subsequent substance use and psychological distress...
November 29, 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852878/working-hours-and-common-mental-disorders-in-english-police-officers
#2
J Houdmont, R Randall
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of evidence on working hours and their psychological correlates in police officers of the federated ranks in England. AIMS: An exploratory study to establish the extent to which a sample of English police officers worked long hours and the association between long working hours and common mental disorder (CMD). METHODS: Officers of the federated ranks (constable, sergeant, inspector) from two English county forces completed a questionnaire to report their typical weekly working hours and symptoms of CMD...
November 16, 2016: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834166/prevalence-demographic-variation-and-psychological-correlates-of-exposure-to-police-victimisation-in-four-us-cities
#3
J E DeVylder, H Y Oh, B Nam, T L Sharpe, M Lehmann, B G Link
: Aims Victimisation by the police is purported to be widespread in cities in the USA, but there is limited data on police-public encounters from community samples. This is partly due to an absence of measures for assessing police violence exposure from the standpoint of civilians. As such, the demographic distribution and mental health correlates of police victimisation are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to present community-based prevalence estimates of positive policing and police victimisation based on assessment with two novel measures, and to test the hypotheses that (1) exposure to police victimisation would vary across demographic groups and (2) would be associated with depression and psychological distress...
November 11, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791306/psychological-distress-following-crime-victimization-an-exploratory-study-from-an-agency-perspective
#4
M J J Kunst, N N Koster
Deficits in recognition of suffering play a significant role in the etiology of psychological distress in crime victims. However, given the preliminary status of the literature, it seems necessary to take other factors into account as well. Starting from an agency perspective, this study explored three such factors: negative self-attributions, peritraumatic distress, and early posttraumatic emotions. More specifically, this study explored whether the association between recognition deficits and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms observed in other studies could be replicated and, if so, whether this association was mediated by negative self-attributions and would decrease in strength when taking into account the adverse roles of peritraumatic distress and early posttraumatic emotions...
October 28, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777782/self-resilience-as-a-protective-factor-against-development-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-in-police-officers
#5
Jong-Ku Lee, Hyeon-Gyeong Choi, Jae-Yeop Kim, Juhyun Nam, Hee-Tae Kang, Sang-Baek Koh, Sung-Soo Oh
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to check whether self-resilience, one of the characteristics known to affect the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after experiencing traumatic events, could serve as a protective factor for police officers whose occupational factors are corrected. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in which 112 male police officers in Gangwon Province participated. They visited the Wonju Severance Christian Hospital Occupational Environment Center for medical check-ups from June to December 2015...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623834/-cocaine-characteristics-and-addiction
#6
REVIEW
Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok, Robert Pudlo, Magdalena Jarząb, Agnieszka Szymlak
Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used...
2016: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604615/perceived-and-objectively-measured-neighborhood-violence-and-adolescent-psychological-distress
#7
Sidra Goldman-Mellor, Claire Margerison-Zilko, Kristina Allen, Magdalena Cerda
Prior research examining links between neighborhood violence and mental health has not been able to establish whether it is perceived levels of neighborhood violence, or actual levels of violent crime, that matter most for adolescents' psychological well-being. In this study, we ascertained both perceived neighborhood safety and objectively-measured neighborhood-level violent crime (using a novel geospatial index of police-reported crime incidents) for 4464 adolescent respondents from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2011-2014)...
October 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561118/sexual-abuse-in-cameroon-a-four-year-old-girl-victim-of-rape-in-buea-case-study
#8
John Chishugi, Trixy Franke
A young girl was brought to the emergency unit after suffering sexual abuse by an older male. Additional abuses against women and girls include physical beating, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, breast ironing, widow's rites, psychological abuse, and discrimination in education, finance, employment, and legal access. Cameroon has adopted strategies aimed at eliminating violence against women, including ratification of international policies, penal codes, and support of local and international efforts that promote women; however, many of the laws remain in name only and are rarely enforced, given women's lack of financial access to quality lawyers and an unsympathetic male-dominated police force...
August 2016: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558762/culture-and-comorbidity-intimate-partner-violence-as-a-common-risk-factor-for-maternal-mental-illness-and-reproductive-health-problems-among-former-child-soldiers-in-nepal
#9
Brandon A Kohrt, Christine Bourey
Our objective was to elucidate how culture influences internal (psychological), external (social), institutional (structural), and health care (medical) processes, which, taken together, create differential risk of comorbidity across contexts. To develop a conceptual model, we conducted qualitative research with 13 female child soldiers in Nepal. Participants gave open-ended responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) vignettes (marital rape, emotional abuse, violence during pregnancy). Twelve participants (92%) endorsed personal responses (remaining silent, enduring violence, forgiving the husband)...
August 25, 2016: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542945/experiences-of-mothers-of-sexually-abused-children-in-north-west-province-post-disclosure
#10
Gaboipolelwe M Masilo, Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence against children is increasing at an alarming rate in South Africa. In 2010 the South African Police Service (SAPS) reported 21 538 rape cases of children under 18 years. In the North-West province (NWP) 5039 incidents of rape cases were reported in 2009. Mothers often experience emotional pain following child sexual abuse disclosure. It is seldom acknowledged that these mothers experience trauma and need support, post disclosure. The researcher has no known evidence of research conducted on the experiences of these mothers in NWP...
2016: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454195/the-effects-of-perceived-phenotypic-racial-stereotypicality-and-social-identity-threat-on-racial-minorities-attitudes-about-police
#11
Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, J Katherine Lee, Brian Renauer, Kris Henning, Greg Stewart
This study examines the role of perceived phenotypic racial stereotypicality and race-based social identity threat on racial minorities' trust and cooperation with police. We hypothesize that in police interactions, racial minorities' phenotypic racial stereotypicality may increase race-based social identity threat, which will lead to distrust and decreased participation with police. Racial minorities (Blacks, Latinos, Native Americans, and multi-racials) and Whites from a representative random sample of city residents were surveyed about policing attitudes...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414008/building-resilience-in-an-urban-police-department
#12
Sandra L Ramey, Yelena Perkhounkova, Maria Hein, Sophia Chung, Warren D Franke, Amanda A Anderson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine a resilience training intervention that impacts autonomic responses to stress and improves cardiovascular risk, psychological, and physiological outcomes in police. METHODS: Officers [(n = 38) 22 to 54 years] modified emotional and physical responses to stress using self-regulation. Measurements include psychological and physiological measures [eg, heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure, C-reactive protein)] obtained at three time intervals...
August 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402581/characteristics-and-post-decision-attitudes-of-non-reporting-sexual-violence-victims
#13
Manon Ceelen, Tina Dorn, Flora S van Huis, Udo J L Reijnders
Although the physical and psychological consequences of sexual violence can be severe, many victims do not report the violence to the police force. The current study examined the characteristics and the post-decisional attitude of the non-reporting sexual violence victims. In total, 287 victims of sexual violence completed an anonymous online questionnaire that assessed characteristics of the violence, whether or not the crime was reported, reasons for not reporting, and aspects that would have convinced non-reporters to report in retrospect...
July 10, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402432/memory-distrust-syndrome-confabulation-and-false-confession
#14
Gisli Gudjonsson
There are three types of false confessions: 'voluntary', 'pressured-compliant' and 'pressured-internalized'. On the basis of case studies, in the early 1980s Gudjonsson and MacKeith coined the term 'memory distrust syndrome (MDS)' to describe a condition where people develop profound distrust of their memory and become susceptible to relying on external cues and suggestions from others. Memory distrust can, under certain circumstances, lead to a false confession, particularly of the pressured-internalized type, described as 'confabulation'...
June 24, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257532/resilience-training-program-reduces-physiological-and-psychological-stress-in-police-officers
#15
Rollin McCraty, Mike Atkinson
Research suggests that police work is among the most stressful occupations in the world and officers typically suffer a variety of physiological, psychological, and behavioral effects and symptoms. Officers operating under severe or chronic stress are likely to be at greater risk of error, accidents, and overreactions that can compromise their performance, jeopardize public safety, and pose significant liability costs to the organization. Therefore, this study explored the nature and degree of physiological activation typically experienced of officers on the job and the impact of the Coherence Advantage resilience and performance enhancement training on a group of police officers from Santa Clara County, California...
November 2012: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245844/validation-of-the-german-version-of-the-insomnia-severity-index-in-adolescents-young-adults-and-adult-workers-results-from-three-cross-sectional-studies
#16
Markus Gerber, Christin Lang, Sakari Lemola, Flora Colledge, Nadeem Kalak, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Uwe Pühse, Serge Brand
BACKGROUND: A variety of objective and subjective methods exist to assess insomnia. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) was developed to provide a brief self-report instrument useful to assess people's perception of sleep complaints. The ISI was developed in English, and has been translated into several languages including German. Surprisingly, the psychometric properties of the German version have not been evaluated, although the ISI is often used with German-speaking populations. METHODS: The psychometric properties of the ISI are tested in three independent samples: 1475 adolescents, 862 university students, and 533 police and emergency response service officers...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242560/reactance-to-transgressors-why-authorities-deliver-harsher-penalties-when-the-social-context-elicits-expectations-of-leniency
#17
Celia Moore, Lamar Pierce
This paper combines experimental and field data to examine how authorities with discretion over how rules are enforced penalize transgressors when the social context of the transgression elicits expectations of leniency. Specifically, we test how transgressors are punished when it is their birthday: a day that triggers expectations of lenient treatment. First, in three scenario studies we explore individuals' intuitions about how they would behave and expect to be treated if they transgressed on their birthdays, as well as how they would imagine penalizing a birthday transgressor...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216591/-restorative-justice-neither-care-nor-repression-the-case-study-of-louis-a-multi-recidivist-neither-dangerous-nor-sick
#18
E Dieu, J Vandevoorde, A Hirschelmann
OBJECTIVES: The proposed criminological hypothesis is that the restorative justice approach would allow offenders to recognize the victims with more empathic feelings, assuming a decreasing effect on the needs and risks of recidivism (Griffiths and Murdoch, 2007). Authors of aggravated robbery raise several psychological issues (i.e. incomprehension of the causes of their act, euphemistic labelling and moral disengagement, lack of empathy) that the restorative program proposes to work through scriptwriting of personal histories, better comprehension of the conflict in the past and exchanges focused on the personal and social consequences of the acts (emotional chain)...
May 20, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27210578/legal-professionals-and-witness-statements-from-people-with-a-suspected-mental-health-diagnosis
#19
Paula Reavey, Rachel Wilcock, Steven D Brown, Richard Batty, Serina Fuller
Individuals with mental health problems are considered to be part of a group labeled 'vulnerable' in forensic psychology literature and the legal system more generally. In producing witness statements, there are numerous guidelines in the UK, designed to facilitate the production of reliable and valid accounts by those deemed to be vulnerable witnesses. And yet, it is not entirely clear how mental health impacts on reliability and validity within the judicial system, partly due to the diversity of those who present with mental health difficulties...
May 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197709/posttraumatic-growth-in-relation-to-the-frequency-and-severity-of-traumatic-experiences-among-police-officers-in-small-to-midsize-departments
#20
Brian A Chopko, Patrick A Palmieri, Richard E Adams
The Critical Incident History Questionnaire (CIHQ) measures, through multiple measurement methods, the severity and frequency of traumatic events experienced by law enforcement officers. We, however, found no studies utilizing the CIHQ to examine posttraumatic growth (PTG) as measured by the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. The purpose of this brief report was to assess the strength and direction of the relationships between PTG with trauma frequency, trauma severity, and health variables, including subjective traumatic stress, relationship stress, nontraumatic work stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, and alcohol use among law enforcement officers (N = 193) from small and midsize agencies...
May 18, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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