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Police Psychology

Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok, Robert Pudlo, Magdalena Jarząb, Agnieszka Szymlak
Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used...
2016: Medycyna Pracy
Sidra Goldman-Mellor, Claire Margerison-Zilko, Kristina Allen, Magdalena Cerda
Prior research examining links between neighborhood violence and mental health has not been able to establish whether it is perceived levels of neighborhood violence, or actual levels of violent crime, that matter most for adolescents' psychological well-being. In this study, we ascertained both perceived neighborhood safety and objectively-measured neighborhood-level violent crime (using a novel geospatial index of police-reported crime incidents) for 4464 adolescent respondents from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2011-2014)...
October 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
John Chishugi, Trixy Franke
A young girl was brought to the emergency unit after suffering sexual abuse by an older male. Additional abuses against women and girls include physical beating, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, breast ironing, widow's rites, psychological abuse, and discrimination in education, finance, employment, and legal access. Cameroon has adopted strategies aimed at eliminating violence against women, including ratification of international policies, penal codes, and support of local and international efforts that promote women; however, many of the laws remain in name only and are rarely enforced, given women's lack of financial access to quality lawyers and an unsympathetic male-dominated police force...
August 2016: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Brandon A Kohrt, Christine Bourey
Our objective was to elucidate how culture influences internal (psychological), external (social), institutional (structural), and health care (medical) processes, which, taken together, create differential risk of comorbidity across contexts. To develop a conceptual model, we conducted qualitative research with 13 female child soldiers in Nepal. Participants gave open-ended responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) vignettes (marital rape, emotional abuse, violence during pregnancy). Twelve participants (92%) endorsed personal responses (remaining silent, enduring violence, forgiving the husband)...
August 25, 2016: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
Gaboipolelwe M Masilo, Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence against children is increasing at an alarming rate in South Africa. In 2010 the South African Police Service (SAPS) reported 21 538 rape cases of children under 18 years. In the North-West province (NWP) 5039 incidents of rape cases were reported in 2009. Mothers often experience emotional pain following child sexual abuse disclosure. It is seldom acknowledged that these mothers experience trauma and need support, post disclosure. The researcher has no known evidence of research conducted on the experiences of these mothers in NWP...
2016: Curationis
Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, J Katherine Lee, Brian Renauer, Kris Henning, Greg Stewart
This study examines the role of perceived phenotypic racial stereotypicality and race-based social identity threat on racial minorities' trust and cooperation with police. We hypothesize that in police interactions, racial minorities' phenotypic racial stereotypicality may increase race-based social identity threat, which will lead to distrust and decreased participation with police. Racial minorities (Blacks, Latinos, Native Americans, and multi-racials) and Whites from a representative random sample of city residents were surveyed about policing attitudes...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Sandra L Ramey, Yelena Perkhounkova, Maria Hein, Sophia Chung, Warren D Franke, Amanda A Anderson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine a resilience training intervention that impacts autonomic responses to stress and improves cardiovascular risk, psychological, and physiological outcomes in police. METHODS: Officers [(n = 38) 22 to 54 years] modified emotional and physical responses to stress using self-regulation. Measurements include psychological and physiological measures [eg, heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure, C-reactive protein)] obtained at three time intervals...
August 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Manon Ceelen, Tina Dorn, Flora S van Huis, Udo J L Reijnders
Although the physical and psychological consequences of sexual violence can be severe, many victims do not report the violence to the police force. The current study examined the characteristics and the post-decisional attitude of the non-reporting sexual violence victims. In total, 287 victims of sexual violence completed an anonymous online questionnaire that assessed characteristics of the violence, whether or not the crime was reported, reasons for not reporting, and aspects that would have convinced non-reporters to report in retrospect...
July 10, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Gisli Gudjonsson
There are three types of false confessions: 'voluntary', 'pressured-compliant' and 'pressured-internalized'. On the basis of case studies, in the early 1980s Gudjonsson and MacKeith coined the term 'memory distrust syndrome (MDS)' to describe a condition where people develop profound distrust of their memory and become susceptible to relying on external cues and suggestions from others. Memory distrust can, under certain circumstances, lead to a false confession, particularly of the pressured-internalized type, described as 'confabulation'...
June 24, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Rollin McCraty, Mike Atkinson
Research suggests that police work is among the most stressful occupations in the world and officers typically suffer a variety of physiological, psychological, and behavioral effects and symptoms. Officers operating under severe or chronic stress are likely to be at greater risk of error, accidents, and overreactions that can compromise their performance, jeopardize public safety, and pose significant liability costs to the organization. Therefore, this study explored the nature and degree of physiological activation typically experienced of officers on the job and the impact of the Coherence Advantage resilience and performance enhancement training on a group of police officers from Santa Clara County, California...
November 2012: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
Markus Gerber, Christin Lang, Sakari Lemola, Flora Colledge, Nadeem Kalak, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Uwe Pühse, Serge Brand
BACKGROUND: A variety of objective and subjective methods exist to assess insomnia. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) was developed to provide a brief self-report instrument useful to assess people's perception of sleep complaints. The ISI was developed in English, and has been translated into several languages including German. Surprisingly, the psychometric properties of the German version have not been evaluated, although the ISI is often used with German-speaking populations. METHODS: The psychometric properties of the ISI are tested in three independent samples: 1475 adolescents, 862 university students, and 533 police and emergency response service officers...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Celia Moore, Lamar Pierce
This paper combines experimental and field data to examine how authorities with discretion over how rules are enforced penalize transgressors when the social context of the transgression elicits expectations of leniency. Specifically, we test how transgressors are punished when it is their birthday: a day that triggers expectations of lenient treatment. First, in three scenario studies we explore individuals' intuitions about how they would behave and expect to be treated if they transgressed on their birthdays, as well as how they would imagine penalizing a birthday transgressor...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
E Dieu, J Vandevoorde, A Hirschelmann
OBJECTIVES: The proposed criminological hypothesis is that the restorative justice approach would allow offenders to recognize the victims with more empathic feelings, assuming a decreasing effect on the needs and risks of recidivism (Griffiths and Murdoch, 2007). Authors of aggravated robbery raise several psychological issues (i.e. incomprehension of the causes of their act, euphemistic labelling and moral disengagement, lack of empathy) that the restorative program proposes to work through scriptwriting of personal histories, better comprehension of the conflict in the past and exchanges focused on the personal and social consequences of the acts (emotional chain)...
May 20, 2016: L'Encéphale
Paula Reavey, Rachel Wilcock, Steven D Brown, Richard Batty, Serina Fuller
Individuals with mental health problems are considered to be part of a group labeled 'vulnerable' in forensic psychology literature and the legal system more generally. In producing witness statements, there are numerous guidelines in the UK, designed to facilitate the production of reliable and valid accounts by those deemed to be vulnerable witnesses. And yet, it is not entirely clear how mental health impacts on reliability and validity within the judicial system, partly due to the diversity of those who present with mental health difficulties...
May 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Brian A Chopko, Patrick A Palmieri, Richard E Adams
The Critical Incident History Questionnaire (CIHQ) measures, through multiple measurement methods, the severity and frequency of traumatic events experienced by law enforcement officers. We, however, found no studies utilizing the CIHQ to examine posttraumatic growth (PTG) as measured by the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. The purpose of this brief report was to assess the strength and direction of the relationships between PTG with trauma frequency, trauma severity, and health variables, including subjective traumatic stress, relationship stress, nontraumatic work stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, and alcohol use among law enforcement officers (N = 193) from small and midsize agencies...
May 18, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Hannah Tizard
Health can be contextualised in relation to globalisation. Economic and societal influences, increasing gaps between middle income and impoverished groups, mass media, culture sexualisation, consumerism, psychological control and criminal activities, such as the drugs and sex trades, amplify challenges to maintaining the health and wellbeing of populations (Lee 2004). UK policy makers develop tools to determine care pathways, in theory allowing those working in public health roles to support individuals to better long-term health...
April 2016: Practising Midwife
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Job crafting in changing organizations: Antecedents and implications for exhaustion and performance" by Paraskevas Petrou, Evangelia Demerouti and Wilmar B. Schaufeli (Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 2015[Oct], Vol 20[4], 470-480). In the article, there were misreported variables in one of the figures. The legend for Figure 1 should read "Tested SEM model. χ² = 76.50, df = 30, p .000, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.92, GFI = .98, RMSEA = .05, RMR = .05; significant synchronous correlations are displayed without their coefficients for clarity purposes...
July 2016: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
Abigail A Sewell, Kevin A Jefferson, Hedwig Lee
A growing body of research highlights the collateral consequences of mass incarceration, including stop-and-frisk policing tactics. Living in a neighborhood with aggressive policing may affect one's mental health, especially for men who are the primary targets of police stops. We examine whether there is an association between psychological distress and neighborhood-level aggressive policing (i.e., frisking and use of force by police) and whether that association varies by gender. The 2009-2011 New York City (NYC) Stop, Question, and Frisk Database is aggregated to the neighborhood-level (N = 34) and merged with individual data from the 2012 NYC Community Health Survey (N = 8066) via the United Hospital Fund neighborhood of respondents' residence...
June 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Lionel D Scott, Henrika McCoy
This study examines whether negative social contextual stressors were associated with somatic symptoms among young Black males (N = 74) after accounting for background and psychological characteristics. Using Cunningham and Spencer's Black Male Experiences Measure, negative social contextual stressors connoted those experiences connected to the personal attributes, devaluation, and negative imagery of young Black males, such as being followed when entering a store or police or security guards asking them what they are doing when hanging out (e...
2015: Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment
Raewyn C Mutch, Heather M Jones, Carol Bower, Rochelle E Watkins
BACKGROUND: People with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) can be involved in high risk, socially unacceptable and harmful behaviours and are at high risk of engaging with the justice system. OBJECTIVE: To obtain baseline data on Western Australian justice professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practice relating to FASD to inform the development of FASD resources. METHODS: Cross sectional study using on-line survey methods, descriptive analysis of quantitative data and content analysis methods for qualitative data...
2016: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
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