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Sirt 1

Vivian L Bishay, Derek M Biederman, Thomas J Ward, Imramsjah Martijn J van der Bom, Rahul S Patel, Edward Kim, Francis S Nowakowski, Robert A Lookstein, Aaron M Fischman
OBJECTIVE: The transradial approach (TRA) has been shown to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with arterial coronary interventions. Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) performed via the TRA can enhance patient comfort, compared with the traditional transfemoral approach (TFA), by allowing immediate ambulation and precluding potential complications associated with the TFA, such as closure device injury or retroperitoneal hematoma. We report our initial experience with and technique for using the TRA for SIRT...
November 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Kishor Pant, Ajay K Yadav, Parul Gupta, Abhishek Singh Rathore, Baibaswata Nayak, Senthil K Venugopal
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) utilizes several mechanisms to survive in the host cells and one of the main pathways being autophagosome formation. Humic acid (HA), one of the major components of Mineral pitch, is an Ayurvedic medicinal food, commonly used by the people of the Himalayan regions of Nepal and India for various body ailments. We hypothesized that HA could induce cell death and inhibit HBV-induced autophagy in hepatic cells. Incubation of Hep G2.2.1.5 cells (HepG2 cells stably expressing HBV) with HA (100 μM) inhibited both cell proliferation and autophagosome formation significantly, while apoptosis induction was enhanced...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lincy Edatt, K Haritha, T V Sruthi, P Aswini, V B Sameer Kumar
MMP9 is a member of the family of zinc-containing endopeptidases which degrade various components of the extracellular matrix, thereby regulating matrix remodeling. Since matrix remodeling plays an important role during growth and progression of cancer and considering the fact that, tumor cells switch to aerobic glycolysis as its major energy source, this study was designed to analyze if partial inhibition of glycolysis (the major energy pathway during hypoxia) can be used as a means to control matrix remodeling in terms of MMP9 activity and expression...
October 4, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Ashok Mandala, Nabanita Das, Sudarshan Bhattacharjee, Bidisha Mukherjee, Satinath Mukhopadhyay, Sib Sankar Roy
Insulin resistance (IR) is an important determinant of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Free fatty acids (FFAs) induce IR by various mechanisms. A surfeit of circulating FFA leads to intra-myocellular lipid accumulation that induces mitochondrial ROS generation and worsens IR. However, the molecular mechanisms behind are unclear. We identified thioredoxin interacting protein (TxNIP), which is overexpressed in T2DM, to be a promoter of ROS-induced IR. We observed upregulation of TxNIP upon palmitate treatment in skeletal muscle cells that led to ROS generation and Glut-4 downregulation resulting in impaired glucose-uptake...
October 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Sara Giovanna Romeo, Alfredo Conti, Francesca Polito, Chiara Tomasello, Valeria Barresi, Domenico La La Torre, Maria Cucinotta, Flavio Filippo Angileri, Marcello Bartolotta, Rosa Maria Di Giorgio, M'Hammed Aguennouz
Sirtuins are a family of 7 histone deacetylases largely involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival and death. The role of sirtuins in tumorigenesis and cancer progression has been previously studied in certain cancer types. Few studies have investigated sirtuin expression in gliomas, with controversial results. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1) in diffuse astrocytoma [low grade astrocytoma (LGA)], anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and in primary glioma cell lines: PLGAC (primary LGA cells); PAAC (primary AA cells); and PGBMC (primary GBM cells)...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Seong-Hui Eo, Soo Young Choi, Song Ja Kim
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are critical for the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which includes cartilage-specific collagen types I, II and XI. We previously found that PEP-1-sirtuin (SIRT)2 could induce dedifferentiation of articular chondrocytes; however, the underlying mechanisms remains unclear. We addressed this in the present study by examining the association between PEP-1-SIRT2 and the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-13 and type II collagen in rabbit articular chondrocytes. We found that PEP-1-SIRT2 increased MMP-1 and -13 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as determined by western blotting...
September 30, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Z Li, B Bridges, J Olson, S A Weinman
The multispecific transcription factor and tumor suppressor FOXO3 is an important mediator of apoptosis, but the mechanisms that control its proapoptotic function are poorly understood. There has long been evidence that acetylation promotes FOXO3-driven apoptosis and recently a specific JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase)-dependent S574 phosphorylated form (p-FOXO3) has been shown to be specifically apoptotic. This study examined whether acetylation and S574 phosphorylation act independently or in concert to regulate the apoptotic function of FOXO3...
September 26, 2016: Oncogene
Rong Shuang, Xu Rui, Li Wenfang
As the aging of the world's population is becoming increasingly serious, dementia-related diseases have become a hot topic in public health research. In recent years, human epidemiological studies have focused on lipid metabolism disorders and dementia. The efficacy of phytosterol intake as a cholesterol-lowering agent has been demonstrated. Phytosterols directly serve as ligands of the nuclear receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), activating Sirtuin 1 (SIRT-1), which are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and the pathogenesis of dementia...
September 23, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Mareike Sandvoß, Arne Björn Potthast, Frauke von Versen-Höynck, Anibh Martin Das
The hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome is frequently observed in mothers whose offspring have long-chain fatty acid oxidation defects. We previously found that fatty acid oxidation is compromised not only in these inborn errors of metabolism but also in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from all pregnancies complicated by the HELLP syndrome. Sirtuins are oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))dependent deacetylases linked to the metabolic status of the cell...
September 20, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Sabine Sellner, Ricardo Paricio-Montesinos, Alena Spieß, Annette Masuch, Daniel Erny, Laura A Harsan, Dominik V Elverfeldt, Marius Schwabenland, Knut Biber, Ori Staszewski, Sergio Lira, Steffen Jung, Marco Prinz, Thomas Blank
Homo and heterozygote cx3cr1 mutant mice, which harbor a green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in their cx3cr1 loci, represent a widely used animal model to study microglia and peripheral myeloid cells. Here we report that microglia in the dentate gyrus (DG) of cx3cr1 (-/-) mice displayed elevated microglial sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression levels and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) p65 activation, despite unaltered morphology when compared to cx3cr1 (+/-) or cx3cr1 (+/+) controls...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Nan Hu, Jun Ren, Yingmei Zhang
Insulin resistance contributes to the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, leading to cardiac anomalies. Emerging evidence depicts a pivotal role for mitochondrial injury in oxidative metabolism and insulin resistance. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is one of metabolic enzymes detoxifying aldehydes although its role in insulin resistance remains elusive. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of ALDH2 overexpression on insulin resistance-induced myocardial damage and mechanisms involved with a focus on autophagy...
September 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Jana Kudová, Ondřej Vašíček, Milan Číž, Lukáš Kubala
Melatonin, a molecule involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms, has protective effects against myocardial injuries. However, its capability to regulate the maturation of cardiac progenitor cells is unclear. Recently, several studies have shown that melatonin inhibits the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), important signaling molecules with cardioprotective effects. In this study, by employing differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells, we report that melatonin significantly upregulated the expression of cardiac cell-specific markers (myosin heavy chains six and seven) as well as the percentage of myosin heavy chain-positive cells...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
Michael J Magnetta, Anish Ghodadra, Steven J Lahti, Minzhi Xing, Di Zhang, Hyun S Kim
PURPOSE: To determine whether pathologic colorectal tumor KRAS mutation status is correlated with progression-free survival (PFS) by imaging after selective internal radiation therapy with Yttrium-90 (SIRT Y90) for metastatic colorectal cancer in the liver (mCRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an IRB approved, HIPAA compliant retrospective cohort study. Consecutive patients with unresectable mCRC with documented KRAS mutation status treated at a single center from 2002 to 2013 with SIRT Y90 were investigated...
September 6, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
B Raghunath Reddy, Swati Maitra, Priya Jhelum, K Praveen Kumar, Pankaj K Bagul, Gagandeep Kaur, Sanjay K Banerjee, Arvind Kumar, Sumana Chakravarty
Hyperglycaemia in diabetes is either caused by reduced availability of insulin (type 1 diabetes, T1D) or insulin resistance to the cells (type 2 diabetes, T2D). In recent years, the prevalence of T2D has increased to an alarming proportion, encompassing 95 percent of the total diabetic burden, probably due to economy-driven changes in lifestyle. Recent epidemiological studies show comorbid depression, anxiety and related mental illness. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying this comorbid conditions, we used Sprague-Dawley rats on high-fructose diet for 8 weeks to induce prediabetic condition...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Xiangyi Kong, Jian Guan, Jun Li, Junji Wei, Renzhi Wang
Growing evidence shows that acute and chronic overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased oxidants under pathophysiologic circumstances are of vital importance in the development of cardio-cerebral vascular diseases (CCVDs). It has been revealed that the impact of ROS can be suppressed by sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a member of the highly conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent class III histone deacetylases through protecting endothelial cells from oxidative injury. Plenty of evidences indicate that p66Shc stimulates mitochondrial ROS generation through its oxidoreductase activity and plays a vital role in the pathophysiology of CCVDs...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Shyam M Srinivas, Elie C Nasr, Vamsi K Kunam, Jennifer A Bullen, Andrei S Purysko
BACKGROUND: Given the differences in size, specific activity, and dosing methods for glass yttrium-90 microspheres ((90)Y-glass) and resin (90)Y microspheres ((90)Y-resin), these therapies may expose the liver to different amounts of radiation, thereby affecting their efficacy and tolerability. We aimed to compare the prescribed activity of (90)Y-glass and (90)Y-resin for real-world patients undergoing selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) for liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and to assess efficacy and safety outcomes in these patients...
August 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Kentaro Takada, Yasufumi Imae, Yuji Ise, Susumu Ohtsuka, Akihiro Ito, Shigeru Okada, Minoru Yoshida, Shigeki Matsunaga
Yakushinamides A (1) and B (2), prolyl amides of polyoxygenated fatty acids, have been isolated from the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei as inhibitors of HDACs and SIRTs. Their planar structures were determined by interpretation of the NMR data of the intact molecules and tandem FABMS data of the methanolysis products. For the assignment of the relative configurations of the three contiguous oxymethine carbons in 1 and 2, Kishi's universal NMR database was applied to the methanolysis products. During the assignments of relative configurations of the isolated 1-hydroxy-3-methyl moiety in 1 and the isolated 1-hydroxy-2-methyl moiety in 2, we found diagnostic NMR features to distinguish each pair of diastereomers...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
K J Senthil Kumar, M Gokila Vani, Jeng-Leun Mau, Chin-Chung Lin, Fang-Hua Chu, Chia-Cheng Wei, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan Liao, Sheng-Yang Wang
The present study revealed the anti-aging properties of antcin M (ANM) and elucidated the molecular mechanism underlying the effects. We found that exposure of human normal dermal fibroblasts (HNDFs) to high-glucose (HG, 30 mM) for 3 days, accelerated G0/G1 phase arrest and senescence. Indeed, co-treatment with ANM (10 µM) significantly attenuated HG-induced growth arrest and promoted cell proliferation. Further molecular analysis revealed that ANM blocked the HG-induced reduction in G1-S transition regulatory proteins such as cyclin D, cyclin E, CDK4, CDK6, CDK2 and protein retinoblastoma (pRb)...
August 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Amany Osama, Dina Sabry, Sahar M Hassany, Soha Saoud Abdelmoneim, Abeer Sabry
AIMS: The study aimed to investigate the quantitative expression of NANOG, p38 α , NCF2, ELF and TGF-β genes in patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma, adenoma and normal colonic tissue and their correlation with SIRT-1 protein level expression. METHOD: This study enrolled one hundred sixty seven patients; group A: 87 patients with colonoscopic findings of no adenoma or adenocarcinoma and group B: 80 patients with colorectal mass. Consecutive colonoscopic examinations were conducted, and tissue samples were taken from the colonic lesions/masses...
June 24, 2016: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
Erman Acar, Sari Peltonen, Ulla Ruotsalainen
3D image reconstruction with electron tomography holds problems due to the severely limited range of projection angles and low signal to noise ratio of the acquired projection images. The maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction methods have been successful in compensating for the missing information and suppressing noise with their intrinsic regularization techniques. There are two major problems in MAP reconstruction methods: (1) selection of the regularization parameter that controls the balance between the data fidelity and the prior information, and (2) long computation time...
August 6, 2016: Ultramicroscopy
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