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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093238/a-model-of-the-mitochondrial-basis-of-bipolar-disorder
#1
REVIEW
Gerwyn Morris, Ken Walder, Sean L McGee, Olivia M Dean, Susannah J Tye, Michael Maes, Michael Berk
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder phenomenologically is a biphasic disorder of energy availability; increased in mania and decreased in depression. In consort, there is accumulating evidence indicating increased mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in bipolar mania which contrasts with decreased mitochondrial function in patients in the euthymic or depressive phase of the illness. Consequently, the central thesis of this paper is that bipolar disorder is due to a phasic dysregulation of mitochondrial biogenergetics...
January 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090296/endotoxin-and-mechanical-stress-induced-epigenetic-changes-in-the-regulation-of-the-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-promoter
#2
Venkateswaran Ramamoorthi Elangovan, Sara M Camp, Gabriel T Kelly, Ankit A Desai, Djanybek Adyshev, Xiaoguang Sun, Stephen M Black, Ting Wang, Joe G N Garcia
Mechanical ventilation, a lifesaving intervention for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also unfortunately contributes to excessive mechanical stress and impaired lung physiological and structural integrity. We have elsewhere established the pivotal role of increased nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) transcription and secretion as well as its direct binding to the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the progression of this devastating syndrome; however, regulation of this critical gene in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is not well characterized...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071652/the-local-nature-of-incompressibility-of-quantum-hall-effect
#3
E M Kendirlik, S Sirt, S B Kalkan, N Ofek, V Umansky, A Siddiki
Since the experimental realization of the integer quantum Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron system, the interrelation between the conductance quantization and the topological properties of the system has been investigated. Assuming that the two-dimensional electron system is described by a Bloch Hamiltonian, system is insulating in the bulk of sample throughout the quantum Hall plateau due to a magnetic field induced energy gap. Meanwhile, the system is conducting at the edges resembling a 2+1 dimensional topological insulator without time-reversal symmetry...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063949/vitamin-d-supplementation-inhibits-oxidative-stress-and-upregulate-sirt1-ampk-glut4-cascade-in-high-glucose-treated-3t3l1-adipocytes-and-in-adipose-tissue-of-high-fat-diet-fed-diabetic-mice
#4
Prasenjit Manna, Arunkumar E Achari, Sushil K Jain
This study examined the hypothesis that vitamin-D prevents oxidative stress and upregulates glucose metabolism via activating insulin-independent signaling molecules in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. To investigate the mechanism 3T3L1 adipocytes were treated with high glucose (HG, 25 mM) and 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) (0-50 nM). Results showed that 1,25(OH)2D3 supplementation decreased NOX4 expression, ROS production, NF-κB phosphorylation, and increased the expression of Nrf2 and Trx in HG-treated cells...
January 4, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059465/rosmarinic-acid-mediates-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-insulin-resistant-skeletal-muscle-through-activation-of-ampk
#5
Govindaraj Jayanthy, Vellai Roshana Devi, Kaliappan Ilango, Sorimuthu Pillai Subramanian
Rosmarinic acid (RA), a polyphenol, is known to improve hepatic insulin sensitivity in experimental type 2 diabetes. However, its effect on skeletal muscle insulin resistance is meagerly understood. The present study was aimed to investigate the upstream and downstream mediators of the molecular targets of RA in attenuating insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle both in vivo and in vitro. We found that supplementation of RA increased the expression of key genes involved in the mitochondrial biogenesis like PGC-1α, SIRT-1 and TFAM via activation of AMPK in the skeletal muscle of insulin resistant rats as well as in L6 myotubes...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050792/alpha-synuclein-alters-differently-gene-expression-of-sirts-parps-and-other-stress-response-proteins-implications-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#6
J Motyl, P L Wencel, M Cieślik, R P Strosznajder, J B Strosznajder
Alpha-synuclein (ASN) is a presynaptic protein that can easily change its conformation under different types of stress. It's assumed that ASN plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. However, the molecular mechanism of ASN toxicity has not been elucidated. This study focused on the role of extracellular ASN (eASN) in regulation of transcription of sirtuins (Sirts) and DNA-bound poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) - proteins crucial for cells' survival/death. Our results indicate that eASN enhanced the free radicals level, decreased mitochondria membrane potential, cells viability and activated cells' death...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046479/we-ab-bra-05-pet-guided-delivery-quality-evaluation-of-yttrium-90-microsphere-radioembolizaton-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients-the-optimal-sequence-of-radioembolizaton-and-chemoembolization-treatments
#7
M Lin, B Saboury
PURPOSE: Selective-internal-radiation-therapy (SIRT) and transarterial-chemoembolization (TACE) are commonly used for treatment of liver tumors. The use of TACE, which is macroembolic, prior to SIRT may cause hemodynamic changes in tumor vasculature that impair yttrium-90 (90Y) microsphere delivery to the targeted lesions. This work aims to quantify dosimetric tumor coverage using 90Y positron emission tomography (PET) dosimetry after SIRT alone compared to TACE followed by SIRT. METHODS: A total of 40 consecutive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) SIRT patients who had a post-SIRT 90Y PET/CT scan were evaluated...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035358/effect-of-glucosamine-on-expression-of-type-ii-collagen-matrix-metalloproteinase-and-sirtuin-genes-in-a-human-chondrocyte-cell-line
#8
Mamoru Igarashi, Koji Sakamoto, Isao Nagaoka
Glucosamine (GlcN) has been widely used to treat osteoarthritis (OA) in humans. However, the effects of GlcN on genes related to cartilage metabolism are still unknown. In the present study, to elucidate the chondroprotective action of GlcN on OA, we examined the effects of GlcN (0.1-10 mM) on the expression of the sirtuin (SIRT) genes as well as type II collagen and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) using a human chondrocyte cell line SW 1353. SW 1353 cells were incubated in the absence or presence of GlcN...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032230/protective-effect-of-p7c3-on-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-optic-nerve-injury
#9
Hidehiro Oku, Seita Morishita, Taeko Horie, Yuko Nishikawa, Teruyo Kida, Masashi Mimura, Shota Kojima, Tsunehiko Ikeda
PURPOSE: To determine whether P7C3-A20, a proneurogenic neuroprotective agent, can protect the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of rats from optic nerve crushing. METHODS: The left optic nerve of 67 rats was crushed, and 5.0 mg/kg/day of P7C3-A20 (crush-P7C3) or its vehicle (crush-placebo) was injected intraperitoneally for 3 days from one day prior to the crushing. The protective effects were determined by the number of Tuj-1-stained RGCs and by the ratio of the mRNA levels of BAX/Bcl-2 on day 7...
December 28, 2016: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028356/sirtuins-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
REVIEW
Fatiha Nassir, Jamal A Ibdah
Mammalian sirtuins are seven members belonging to the silent information regulator 2 family, a group of Class III histone/protein deacetylases. Sirtuins (SIRT 1-7) have different subcellular localization and function and they regulate cellular protein function through various posttranslational modifications. SIRT1 and 3, the most studied sirtuins, use the product of cellular metabolism nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor to post-translationally deacetylate cellular proteins and consequently link the metabolic status of the cell to protein function...
December 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994519/anticancer-effects-of-a-new-sirt-inhibitor-mhy2256-against-human-breast-cancer-mcf-7-cells-via-regulation-of-mdm2-p53-binding
#11
Eun Young Park, Youngwoo Woo, Seong Jin Kim, Do Hyun Kim, Eui Kyung Lee, Umasankar De, Kyeong Seok Kim, Jaewon Lee, Jee H Jung, Ki-Tae Ha, Wahn Soo Choi, In Su Kim, Byung Mu Lee, Sungpil Yoon, Hyung Ryong Moon, Hyung Sik Kim
The sirtuins (SIRTs), a family of NAD(+)-dependent class III histone deacetylase, are involved in various biological processes including cell survival, division, senescence, and metabolism via activation of the stress-response pathway. Recently, inhibition of SIRTs has been considered a promising anticancer strategy, but their precise mechanisms of action are not well understood. In particular, the relevance of p53 to SIRT-induced effects has not been fully elucidated. We investigated the anticancer effects of a novel SIRT inhibitor, MHY2256, and its efficacy was compared to that of salermide in MCF-7 (wild-type p53) and SKOV-3 (null-type p53) cells...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955950/resistive-training-and-molecular-regulators-of-vascular-metabolic-risk-in-chronic-stroke
#12
Alice S Ryan, Guoyan Li, Charlene Hafer-Macko, Frederick M Ivey
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator (PGC-1α) gene and Sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1) respond to physiological stimuli and regulate insulin resistance. Inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and the soluble forms of intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1) and vascular CAM-1 (sVCAM-1) are associated with increased risk of diabetes and coronary heart disease. Resistive training (RT) reduces hyperinsulinemia and improves insulin action in chronic stroke...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931585/resveratrol-ameliorated-vascular-calcification-by-regulating-sirt-1-and-nrf2
#13
P Zhang, Y Li, Y Du, G Li, L Wang, F Zhou
Pathologic vascular calcification is a significant reason for mortality and morbidity in patients who suffer from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Resveratrol, a scavenger for many free radicals, is a crucial compound for biomedicine. However, the role and mechanism of resveratrol in vascular calcification is still unknown. In this study, to mimic vascular calcification in ESRD, we used β-glyceophosphate to stimulate the rat vascular smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). We investigate the therapeutic role of resveratrol pretreatment in vascular calcification...
December 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914878/hydroxytyrosol-modulates-the-levels-of-microrna-9-and-its-target-sirtuin-1-thereby-counteracting-oxidative-stress-induced-chondrocyte-death
#14
S D'Adamo, S Cetrullo, S Guidotti, R M Borzì, F Flamigni
OBJECTIVE: Nutraceutical compounds, such as hydroxytyrosol (HT), have been found to exert protective effects in osteoarthritis (OA) by affecting a variety of key molecular and cellular processes in chondrocytes. However, to our knowledge, no relationship has been reported between nutraceuticals and microRNA (miR) network in OA models. Here, we identified a miR that is implicated in HT-mediated chondroprotection following oxidative stress condition by targeting sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1). METHODS: Human primary and C-28/I2 chondrocytes were pre-treated with 100 μM HT 30 min before 100 μM H2O2 addition...
December 1, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898652/natural-mineral-rich-water-ingestion-by-ovariectomized-fructose-fed-sprague-dawley-rats-effects-on-sirtuin-1-and-glucocorticoid-signaling-pathways
#15
Jugal Kishore Das, Milton Severo, Cidália Dionísio Pereira, Emília Patrício, José Magalhães, Rosário Monteiro, Delminda Neves, Maria João Martins
OBJECTIVE: Prevention or induction of metabolic disorders and obesity depend on estrogen signaling and/or exogenous factors, such as mineral content in diet. The protective effects of a Portuguese natural mineral-rich water against the induction of metabolic syndrome in fructose-fed male Sprague-Dawley rats have been reported. The present study was designed to assess the impact of this mineral-rich water on fructose-fed estrogen-deficient female Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Ovariectomized rats had access to tap (TWO) or mineral-rich (MWO) waters, with and without 10% fructose (10-wk treatment)...
November 28, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889467/treadmill-exercise-decreases-amyloid-%C3%AE-burden-possibly-via-activation-of-sirt-1-signaling-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Jung-Hoon Koo, Eun-Bum Kang, Yoo-Sung Oh, Dae-Seung Yang, Joon-Yong Cho
Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) correlates significantly with progressive cognitive deficits, a main symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although treadmill exercise reduces Aβ levels, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects are not fully understood. We hypothesize that treadmill exercise decreases Aβ production and alleviates cognitive deficits by activating the non-amyloidogenic pathway via SIRT-1 signaling. Treadmill exercise improved cognitive deficits and alleviated neurotoxicity. Most importantly, treadmill exercise increased SIRT-1 level, which subsequently resulted in increased ADAM-10 level by down-regulation of ROCK-1 and upregulation of RARβ, ultimately facilitating the non-amyloidogenic pathway...
February 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878478/liver-resection-after-selective-internal-radiation-therapy-with-yttrium-90-is-safe-and-feasible-a-bi-institutional-analysis
#17
G Paul Wright, J Wallis Marsh, Manish K Varma, Michael G Doherty, David L Bartlett, Mathew H Chung
BACKGROUND: Treatment with yttrium-90 (Y90) microspheres has emerged as a viable liver-directed therapy for patients with unresectable tumors and those outside transplantation criteria. A select number of patients demonstrate a favorable response and become candidates for surgical resection. METHODS: Patients who underwent selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with Y90 microspheres at two institutions were reviewed. Patients who underwent liver resection were included in the study...
November 22, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847206/the-sirt1-nf-kb-signaling-pathway-is-involved-in-regulation-of-endothelin-type-b-receptors-mediated-by-homocysteine-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#18
Yulong Chen, Huanhuan Liu, Hongmei Zhang, Enqi Liu, Cang-Bao Xu, Xingli Su
Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Endothelin type B (ETB) receptors were involved in the pathogenesis of CVDs. However, Sirtuin 1(Sirt1) has potential protect roles for CVDs. The present study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homocysteine up-regulates ETB receptors through down-regulation of Sirt 1. In vitro experiments were performed in rat superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The rat SMA was cultured in serum free medium for 24h in the presence and absence of homocysteine (Hcy) with or without resveroral (Res) (a Sirt 1agonist)...
December 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831761/prognostic-importance-of-the-presence-of-early-metabolic-response-and-absence-of-extrahepatic-metastasis-after-selective-internal-radiation-therapy-in-colorectal-cancer-liver-metastasis
#19
Cigdem Soydal, Nuriye Ozlem Kucuk, Deniz Balci, Ethem Gecim, Sadik Bilgic, Atilla Halil Elhan
AIMS: In this study, the authors aimed to identify prognostic factors after selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastasis. METHODS: Forty-nine (28 male, 21 female; mean age: 64.6 ± 10.8) patients who received SIRT for CRC liver metastasis were studied. Effects of number (<5 vs. ≥5), maximum dimension, and standardized uptake value (SUV) of liver metastases, liver tumor load (<25% vs. 26%-50% vs. 51%-75%), presence of extrahepatic disease, and metabolic early response on overall survival were analyzed...
November 2016: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823629/javamide-i-o-methyl-ester-increases-p53-acetylation-and-induces-cell-death-via-activating-caspase-3-7-in-monocytic-thp-1-cells
#20
Jae B Park
BACKGROUND: Javamide-I and-II are phenolic amide compounds found in Coffea sp. Previous study suggested that javamide-II may be a potent compound with Sirt1/2 inhibition activity. PURPOSE: However, the effects of javamide-I and the its O-methyl ester on Sirt inhibition, p53 acetylation and cell death have not been investigated. METHODS: The isolation and synthesis of javamide-I and its O-methyl ester analogue were confirmed by NMR. Their potential effects on Sirt1/2/3, p53 acetylation and cell death were examined using sirt assay, silico analysis, Western blot, caspase 3/7 and apoptotic assay methods...
December 1, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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