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Growth Hormone AND IGF-1

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352600/placental-control-of-metabolic-adaptations-in-the-mother-for-an-optimal-pregnancy-outcome-what-goes-wrong-in-gestational-diabetes
#1
David J Hill
As pregnancy progresses the placental syncytiotrophoblast increasingly assumes control of maternal glucose homeostasis through the release and counter-balancing effects of placental lactogen (PL) and placental variant growth hormone (GH-V). While local actions of these hormones on placental growth and function are likely to exist, each also exerts indirect actions to ensure fetal nutritional availability through modulation of the maternal insulin/insulin-like growth factor axis. Peripheral insulin resistance results from the increasing levels of GH-V in the maternal circulation and is counter-balanced by an increase in insulin availability through an expansion of maternal pancreatic β-cell mass...
January 9, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351486/different-physiological-roles-of-insulin-receptors-in-mediating-nutrient-metabolism-in-zebrafish
#2
Bin-Yuan Yang, Gang Zhai, Yu-Long Gong, Jing-Zhi Su, Xu-Yan Peng, Guo-Hui Shang, Dong Han, Jun-Yan Jin, Hao-Kun Liu, Zhen-Yu Du, Zhan Yin, Shou-Qi Xie
Insulin, the most potent anabolic hormone, is critical for somatic growth and metabolism in vertebrates. Type 2 diabetes, which is the primary cause of hyperglycemia, results from an inability of insulin to signal glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Our previous study showed that double knockout of insulin receptor a (insra) and b (insrb) caused β-cell hyperplasia and lethality from 5 dpf to 16 dpf. In this study, we characterized the physiological roles of Insra and Insrb, in somatic growth and fueling metabolism, respectively...
December 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351335/the-effects-of-an-acute-exercise-bout-on-gh-and-igf-1-in-prediabetic-and-healthy-african-americans-a-pilot-study-investigating-gene-expression
#3
Nathaniel T Berry, Monica Hubal, Laurie Wideman
The incidence of pre-diabetes (PD) and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) is a worldwide epidemic. African American (AA) individuals are disproportionately more likely to become diabetic than other ethnic groups. Over the long-term, metabolic complications related to diabetes result in significant alterations in growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Considering the limited exercise-related studies in the area of gene expression changes with disease progression, the objective of this study was to examine differences in exercise-induced gene expression related to the GH and IGF-1 pathways in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy (CON) and PD AA individuals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343614/suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-2-socs2-deletion-protects-bone-health-of-mice-with-dss-induced-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
Ross Dobie, Vicky E MacRae, Chloe Pass, Elspeth M Milne, S Faisal Ahmed, Colin Farquharson
Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often present with poor bone health. The development of targeted therapies for this bone loss requires a fuller understanding of the underlying cellular mechanisms. Although bone loss in IBD is multifactorial, the altered sensitivity and secretion of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in IBD is understood to be a critical contributing mechanism. The expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2), a well-established negative regulator of GH signaling, is stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines...
January 17, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341046/reduced-growth-hormone-secretion-is-associated-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-obese-children
#5
Shuang Liang, Zhen Yu, Xiaobo Song, Yu Wang, Meng Li, Jiang Xue
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between arginine-levodopa-induced growth hormone (GH) secretion and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. This study includes a total of 84 obese and 43 normal weight children. The obese subjects are divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of NAFLD. Clinical examination, anthropometric and laboratory examinations, and liver ultrasonography are assessed for all participants. The obese group had significantly lower peak stimulated GH (p<0...
January 16, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329430/increases-in-igf-1-after-anti-tnf-%C3%AE-therapy-are-associated-with-bone-and-muscle-accrual-in-pediatric-crohn-s-disease
#6
Mark D DeBoer, Arthur M Lee, Kirabo Herbert, Jin Long, Meena Thayu, Lindsay M Griffin, Robert N Baldassano, Lee A Denson, Babette S Zemel, Michelle R Denburg, Rita Herskovitz, Mary B Leonard
Context: Low levels of IGF-1 in pediatric and adolescent Crohn's Disease (CD) likely contribute to bone and muscle deficits. Objective: Assess changes in IGF-1 levels and associations with bone and muscle accrual following initiation of anti-TNF-α therapy in pediatric and adolescent CD. Design and Participants: Participants (n=75, age 5-21 years) with CD were enrolled in a prospective cohort study; 63 completed the 12-month visit. Main Outcome Measures: IGF-1 levels at baseline and 10 weeks, and DXA and tibia peripheral quantitative-CT (pQCT) measures of bone and muscle at baseline and 12 months after initiation of anti-TNF-α therapy...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318448/elevated-serum-igf-1-level-enhances-retinal-and-choroidal-thickness-in-untreated-acromegaly-patients
#7
Xia Zhang, Jin Ma, Yuhan Wang, Lüe Li, Lu Gao, Xiaopeng Guo, Bing Xing, Yong Zhong
PURPOSE: 1) To compare the retinal, choroidal, Haller's layer, and Sattler's/choriocapillaris thicknesses of untreated acromegaly patients without chiasm compression or diabetes mellitus and healthy controls. 2) To evaluate the correlations of retinal and choroidal thicknesses with serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF) burden. METHODS: This prospective, case-control study included 27 untreated acromegaly patients and 27 sex-matched and age-matched controls...
January 10, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305680/silent-somatotroph-pituitary-adenomas-an-update
#8
REVIEW
Fabienne Langlois, Randall Woltjer, Justin S Cetas, Maria Fleseriu
Silent growth hormone adenomas (SGHA) are a rare entity of non-functioning pituitary neuroendocrine tumors. Diagnosis is invariably made post-operatively of a tumor immunopositive for GH (and Pit-1 in selected cases) but without clinical acromegaly. Mainly young females are affected, and tumors are often uncovered by investigation for headaches or oligoamenorrhea. Integration of clinical, pathological and biochemical data is required for proper diagnosis. Beside normal IGF-1 levels, a third of SGHAs displays elevated GH levels and some will eventually progress to acromegaly...
January 5, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280739/novel-modulators-of-the-growth-hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor-axis-pregnancy-associated-plasma-protein-a2-and-stanniocalcin-2
#9
Masanobu Fujimoto, Vivian Hwa, Andrew Dauber
Growth hormone (GH) and its mediator, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), play a critical role in human growth. In circulation, IGF-1 is found in a ternary complex with IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) and acid labile subunit (ALS) but little attention has been paid to the regulation of IGF-1 bioavailability. Recently, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 (PAPP-A2) and stanniocalcin-2 (STC2) were identified as novel modulators of IGF-I bioavailability. PAPP-A2 is a protease which cleaves IGFBP-3 and -5, while STC2 inhibits PAPP-A and PAPP-A2 activity...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279183/increased-fibrosis-a-novel-means-by-which-gh-influences-white-adipose-tissue-function
#10
Lara A Householder, Ross Comisford, Silvana Duran-Ortiz, Kevin Lee, Katie Troike, Cody Wilson, Adam Jara, Mitchell Harberson, Edward O List, John J Kopchick, Darlene E Berryman
OBJECTIVE: White adipose tissue (WAT) fibrosis - the buildup of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, primarily collagen - is now a recognized hallmark of tissue dysfunction and is increased with obesity and lipodystrophy. While growth hormone (GH) is known to increase collagen in several tissues, no previous research has addressed its effect on ECM in WAT. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine if GH influences WAT fibrosis. DESIGN: This study examined WAT from four distinct strains of GH-altered mice (bGH and GHA transgenic mice as well as two tissue specific GH receptor gene disrupted lines, fat growth hormone receptor knockout or FaGHRKO and liver growth hormone receptor knockout or LiGHRKO mice)...
December 20, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278515/pegvisomant-primed-growth-hormone-gh-stimulation-test-is-useful-in-identifying-true-gh-deficient-children
#11
Giorgio Radetti, Heba H Elsedfy, Randa Khalaf, Cristina Meazza, Sara Pagani, Mohamed El Kholy, Riccardo Albertini, Anna Maria De Stefano, Antonella Navarra, Annalisa De Silvestri, Mauro Bozzola
OBJECTIVE: Provocative stimulation tests for growth hormone (GH) assessment have poor reproducibility and can often elicit false positive results in normal children. The aim of our study was to confirm the capability of pegvisomant as an enhancer of GH secretion in unmasking false-positive results in short children (height <-2.0 standard deviation score, SDS) undergoing GH testing. DESIGN: A prospective study was conducted between March and August 2016. Twenty short children (10 males and 10 females), aged 4...
July 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278514/maternal-serum-placental-growth-hormone-insulin-like-growth-factors-and-their-binding-proteins-at-20-weeks-gestation-in-pregnancies-complicated-by-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Shutan Liao, Mark H Vickers, Rennae S Taylor, Mhoyra Fraser, Lesley M E McCowan, Philip N Baker, Jo K Perry
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether maternal serum concentrations of placental growth hormone (GH-V), insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 and 2, and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) 1 and 3 were altered in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHOD: In a nested case-control study, GDM cases (n=28) and matched controls (n=28) were selected from the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) biobank in Auckland, New Zealand. Maternal serum hormone concentrations at 20 weeks of gestation were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
July 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273485/a-first-in-man-phase-1-trial-for-long-acting-transcon-growth-hormone
#13
David Gilfoyle, Eva Mortensen, Eva Dam Christoffersen, Jonathan A Leff, Michael Beckert
TransCon growth hormone (GH) is a sustained-release inactive prodrug consisting of unmodified GH transiently bound to an inert carrier molecule designed to release fully active GH over a one-week period. This was a first-in-man phase 1 randomized trial was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, immunogenicity, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of a single dose of TransCon GH as compared to equivalent doses of daily GH (Omnitrope) or placebo in healthy adults. Forty-four healthy male adults were randomized to 4 cohorts of 11 subjects, distributed in a 7:2:2 ratio (TransCon GH: Omnitrope: placebo)...
December 5, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249623/growth-hormone-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-axis-in-type-1-diabetes
#14
Bimota Nambam, Desmond Schatz
The precise mechanisms relating type 1 diabetes (T1D) and poor glycemic control to the axis of growth hormone (GH), insulin like growth factor- I (IGF-I), and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) remain to be definitively determined. GH resistance with low IGF-I as is frequently seen in patients with T1D is often related to portal hypoinsulization, and lack of upregulation of GH receptors. There are conflicting reports of the effect of a dysregulated GH/IGF-I axis on height in children and adolescents with T1D, as well as on chronic complications...
December 13, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248211/influence-of-ad-libitum-milk-replacer-feeding-and-butyrate-supplementation-on-the-systemic-and-hepatic-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-and-its-binding-proteins-in-holstein-calves
#15
D Frieten, C Gerbert, C Koch, G Dusel, K Eder, A Hoeflich, B Mielenz, H M Hammon
Ad libitum milk feeding and butyrate (B) supplementation have the potential to stimulate postnatal growth and development in calves. The somatotropic axis is the main endocrine regulator of postnatal growth and may be affected by both ad libitum milk replacer (MR) feeding and B supplementation in calves. We hypothesized that ad libitum MR feeding and B supplementation stimulate systemic and hepatic insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) in preweaning calves. Sixty-four (32 male, 32 female) Holstein calves were examined from birth until wk 11 of life...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242356/pre-treatment-growth-and-igf-i-deficiency-as-main-predictors-of-response-to-growth-hormone-therapy-in-neural-models
#16
Urszula Smyczynska, Joanna Smyczynska, Maciej Hilczer, Renata Stawerska, Ryszard Tadeusiewicz, Andrzej Lewinski
Mathematical models have been applied in prediction of growth hormone treatment effectiveness in children since the end of 1990s. Usually they were multiple linear regression models, however there are also examples derived by empirical non-linear methods. Proposed solution consists in application of machine learning technique - artificial neural networks - to analyse this problem. This new methodology, contrary to previous ones, allows detection of both linear and non-linear dependencies without assuming their character a priori...
December 14, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238946/papp-a2-a-new-key-regulator-of-growth
#17
Magdalena Banaszak-Ziemska, Marek Niedziela
Short stature is the main problem that paediatric endocrinologists have to grapple with. Endocrine disorders account for only 5% of patients with short stature, but this is still one of the most common causes of reports to the endocrine clinic and hospitalisation in the endocrine department. A properly functioning growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis is one of the most important factors in proper growth. A lot of genetic defects in this axis lead to syndromes marked by impaired growth, like Laron syndrome, muta-tions in the STAT5B, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) and mutations in the acid labile subunit (ALS)...
2017: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238247/effects-of-hypoxic-training-versus-normoxic-training-on-exercise-performance-in-competitive-swimmers
#18
Hun-Young Park, Kiwon Lim
In swimming competition, optimal swimming performance is characterized by a variety of interchangeable components, such as aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power and muscular function. Various hypoxic training methods would potentiate greater performance improvements compared to similar training at sea-level. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of six-weeks of hypoxic training on exercise performance in moderately trained competitive swimmers. Twenty swimmers were equally divided into a normoxic training group (n = 10) for residing and training at sea-level (PIO2 = 149...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233485/body-fat-affects-mouse-reproduction-ovarian-hormone-release-and-response-to-follicular-stimulating-hormone
#19
Alexander V Sirotkin, Dušan Fabian, Janka Babeľová Kubandová, Radoslava Vlčková, Saleh Alwasel, Abdel Halim Harrath
We investigated the effects of body fat content on mouse fecundity, ovarian hormone release, and their response to follicle stimulation hormone (FSH). 4 types of females were produced: lean (group 1), normal (group 2), slightly fat (group 3), and significantly fat (group 4). The body weights, fat content, fertility rate, embryo number produced, retarded and degenerated embryo percentage, the release of progesterone (P4), testosterone (T), and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) by isolated ovaries cultured with and without FSH (1...
December 7, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228199/new-neoplasm-during-gh-replacement-in-adults-with-pituitary-deficiency-following-malignancy-a-kims-analysis
#20
Katarzyna Krzyzanowska-Mittermayer, Anders F Mattsson, Dominique Maiter, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Cecilia Camacho-Hübner, Anton Luger, Roger Abs
Context: Data on the association between growth hormone (GH) replacement in patients with GH deficiency (GHD) after malignancies and new neoplasms show conflicting results. Objective: To clarify the incidence of new malignant neoplasm in childhood (CO) and adult-onset (AO) adult cancer survivors (CS). Design: Retrospective comparison of CO-CS and AO-CS with CO idiopathic GHD (IGHD) and AO non-functioning pituitary adenoma patients (NFPA) and with the general population (standardized incidence ratio, SIR)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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