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Multiple chronic diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232423/a-case-of-leprosy-in-central-florida
#1
Kathryn L Anderson, John P Minni, Michael A Nowak, Laszlo J Karai, Eugene Sanik
Hansen disease, also known as leprosy, is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease that is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. We report an unusual case of a 65-year-old man who presented with multiple anesthetic, annular, erythematous, scaly plaques with a raised border without any known exposures to leprosy. Histologic examination revealed a perineural lymphohistiocytic infiltrate and rare bacilli demonstrated on Fite staining. After confirmation with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and consultation with the National Hansen's Disease Program (Baton Rouge, Louisiana), the patient was placed on a regimen of rifampicin 600 mg once monthly and dapsone 100 mg once daily for 6 months, which showed considerable improvement...
November 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230832/management-of-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-in-the-setting-of-pregnancy-when-is-leukocytapheresis-appropriate-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Elizabeth M Staley, Sierra C Simmons, Alexander Z Feldman, Robin G Lorenz, Marisa B Marques, Lance A Williams, X Long Zheng, Huy P Pham
BACKGROUND: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a common hematologic malignancy; however, its occurrence during pregnancy is unusual due to its low prevalence in females of childbearing age. There are conflicting reports of how to best manage CML in pregnancy, particularly in the setting of leukocytosis. CASE REPORT: A 30-year-old female was diagnosed with CML at 18 weeks' estimated gestational age. On initial presentation she reported fatigue, night sweats, and early satiety, and was found to have a white blood cell (WBC) count of 69...
December 11, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230714/obesity-phenotypes-depot-differences-in-adipose-tissue-and-their-clinical-implications
#3
REVIEW
Valeria Guglielmi, Paolo Sbraccia
Obesity, defined as excess fat mass, increases risks for multiple chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and several types of cancer. Beyond adiposity per se, the pattern of fat distribution, android or truncal as compared to gynoid or peripheral, has a profound influence on systemic metabolism and hence risk for obesity complications. Not only factors as genetics, environment, gender, and age account for the apparent compartmentalization of white adipose tissue (WAT) in the body...
December 11, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229782/innate-lymphoid-cells-ilcs-cytokine-hubs-regulating-immunity-and-tissue-homeostasis
#4
Maho Nagasawa, Hergen Spits, Xavier Romero Ros
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerged as an expanding family of effector cells particularly enriched in the mucosal barriers. ILCs are promptly activated by stress signals and multiple epithelial- and myeloid-cell-derived cytokines. In response, ILCs rapidly secrete effector cytokines, which allow them to survey and maintain the mucosal integrity. Uncontrolled action of ILCs might contribute to tissue damage, chronic inflammation, metabolic diseases, autoimmunity, and cancer. Here we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the cytokine network that modulate ILC immune responses: stimulating cytokines, signature cytokines secreted by ILC subsets, autocrine cytokines, and cytokines that induce cell plasticity...
December 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229532/inflammation-and-renal-fibrosis-recent-developments-on-key-signaling-molecules-as-potential-therapeutic-targets
#5
REVIEW
Wenshan Lv, George W Booz, Yangang Wang, Fan Fan, Richard J Roman
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health issue. At the histological level, renal fibrosis is the final common pathway of progressive kidney disease irrespective of the initial injury. Considerable evidence now indicates that renal inflammation plays a central role in the initiation and progression of CKD. Some of the inflammatory signaling molecules involved in CKD include: monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229085/prevalence-of-comorbidities-in-copd-patients-by-disease-severity-in-a-german-population
#6
Timm Greulich, Benjamin J D Weist, Andreas Rembert Koczulla, Sabina Janciauskiene, Andreas Klemmer, Wolfram Lux, Peter Alter, Claus F Vogelmeier
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is commonly associated with multiple comorbidities. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of comorbidities in patients with COPD and to relate their prevalence to the severity of the disease by using a large German health care database. Based on the retrospective analysis of a two-year (2013-2014) database from the German Statutory Health Insurance system, we obtained a representative sample of 4,075,493 german insurants. This sample included 146,141 patients with COPD (age: ≥35 years)...
November 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228928/association-between-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-level-and-pulmonary-function-in-healthy-korean-adolescents-the-js-high-school-study
#7
Ji Hye Park, Seyeon Mun, Dong Phil Choi, Joo Young Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is associated with pulmonary function and pulmonary disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function in healthy adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on data collected for the JS High School study. The analysis included 644 adolescents (318 male and 326 female) aged 15-16 years old and free from asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
December 11, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228863/parallel-evaluation-of-two-potassium-channel-blockers-in-restoring-conduction-in-mechanical-spinal-cord-injury-in-rat
#8
Jessica Page, Jonghyuck Park, Zhe Chen, Peng Cao, Riyi Shi
Myelin damage is a hallmark of spinal cord injury (SCI) and potassium channel blocker (PCB) is proven effective to restore axonal conduction and regain neurological function. Aiming to improve this therapy beyond the FDA-approved 4-AP, we have developed multiple new PCBs, with 4-AP-3-MeOH being the most potent and effective. The current study evaluated two PCBs, 4-AP-3-MeOH and 4-AP, in parallel in both ex vivo and in vivo rat mechanical SCI models. Specifically, 4-AP-3-MeOH induced significantly greater augmentation of axonal conduction than 4-AP in both acute and chronic injury...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228430/mediation-of-inflammation-obesity-and-fatty-liver-disease-by-advanced-glycation-endoproducts
#9
D-D Xiong, M Zhang, N Li, J-F Gai, L Mao, M Li
OBJECTIVE: Fatty liver may induce various complications including chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis, and is frequently occurred in obesity individuals. Advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) were known to play a critical role in multiple liver diseases. This study, therefore, aimed to study the effect of AGEs on obesity, related liver cirrhosis and inflammation, on an obesity fatty liver rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control, model and AGEs inhibitor groups (n=20 each)...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228279/in-vitro-model-of-fully-differentiated-human-nasal-epithelial-cells-infected-with-rhinovirus-reveals-epithelium-initiated-immune-responses
#10
Kai Sen Tan, Hsiao Hui Ong, Yan Yan, Jing Liu, Chunwei Li, Yew Kwang Ong, Kim Thye Thong, Hyung Won Choi, De-Yun Wang, Vincent T Chow
Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the commonest cause of the common cold. While less pathogenic compared to other respiratory viruses, it is frequently associated with exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases such as rhinosinusitis and asthma exacerbation. Currently, there are limited studies on HRV infection of nasal epithelial cells despite being the first site of viral contact, immune initiation, and airway inter-connectivity. Hence, we established a model of HRV infection of in vitro differentiated human nasal epithelial cells (hNECs) derived from multiple individuals...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228214/oestrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-ligand-acts-on-cd11c-cells-to-mediate-protection-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#11
Roy Y Kim, Darian Mangu, Alexandria S Hoffman, Rojan Kovash, Eunice Jung, Noriko Itoh, Rhonda Voskuhl
Oestrogen treatments are neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative disease models. Selective oestrogen receptor modifiers are needed to optimize beneficial effects while minimizing adverse effects to achieve neuroprotection in chronic diseases. Oestrogen receptor beta (ERβ) ligands are potential candidates. In the multiple sclerosis model chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, ERβ-ligand treatment is neuroprotective, but mechanisms underlying this neuroprotection remain unclear. Specifically, whether there are direct effects of ERβ-ligand on CD11c+ microglia, myeloid dendritic cells or macrophages in vivo during disease is unknown...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228057/n-acetylcysteine-nac-ameliorates-epstein-barr-virus-latent-membrane-protein-1-induced-chronic-inflammation
#12
Xiao Gao, Eirini-Maria Lampraki, Sarwah Al-Khalidi, Muhammad Asif Qureshi, Rhea Desai, Joanna Beatrice Wilson
Chronic inflammation results when the immune system responds to trauma, injury or infection and the response is not resolved. It can lead to tissue damage and dysfunction and in some cases predispose to cancer. Some viruses (including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)) can induce inflammation, which may persist even after the infection has been controlled or cleared. The damage caused by inflammation, can itself act to perpetuate the inflammatory response. The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) of EBV is a pro-inflammatory factor and in the skin of transgenic mice causes a phenotype of hyperplasia with chronic inflammation of increasing severity, which can progress to pre-malignant and malignant lesions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227938/the-cumulative-effect-of-air-pollutants-on-the-acute-exacerbation-of-copd-in-shanghai-china
#13
Xian Wen Sun, Pei Li Chen, Lei Ren, Ying Ni Lin, Jian Ping Zhou, Lei Ni, Qing Yun Li
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown the effect of air pollutants on acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). However, little is known regarding the dose-response relationship. This study aimed to investigate the cumulative effect of air pollutants on AECOPD. METHODS: We collected 101 patients with AECOPD from November 2010 through August 2011 in Shanghai. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate associations between air pollutants and AECOPD...
December 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227422/assessment-of-the-sustainability-capacity-of-a-coordinated-approach-to-chronic-disease-prevention
#14
Sarah Moreland-Russell, Todd Combs, LaShaun Polk, Sarah Dexter
OBJECTIVE: This article outlines some factors that influenced the sustainability capacity of a coordinated approach to chronic disease prevention in state and territory health departments. DESIGN: This study involved a cross-sectional design and mixed-methods approach. Quantitative data were collected using the Program Sustainability Assessment Tool (PSAT), a 40-item multiple-choice instrument that assesses 8 domains of sustainability capacity (environmental support, funding stability, partnerships, organizational capacity, program evaluation, program adaptation, communications, and strategic planning)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227112/clinical-management-of-patients-with-diabetes-and-periodontal-disease-ideas-whose-time-has-come
#15
Evanthia Lalla
Multiple studies over many decades have demonstrated that diabetes mellitus and periodontitis are closely linked and may amplify one another. This review provides a different look at the complex association between these two common, chronic conditions and discusses decision-making in the management of affected individuals.
September 2017: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226787/bayesian-proportional-hazards-model-with-latent-variables
#16
Deng Pan, Kai Kang, Chunjie Wang, Xinyuan Song
We consider a joint modeling approach that incorporates latent variables into a proportional hazards model to examine the observed and latent risk factors of the failure time of interest. An exploratory factor analysis model is used to characterize the latent risk factors through multiple observed variables. In commonly used confirmatory factor analysis, the number of latent variables and their observed indicators are specified prior to analysis. By contrast, the exploratory factor analysis model allows such information to be fully determined by the data...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226642/homoarginine-associates-with-zonulin-and-tryptophan-findings-in-a-high-risk-cohort-of-patients-carrying-an-aicd
#17
Elli Mann, Robert Kluesener, Felix Boschann, Jana Ruppert, Franz P Armbruster, Andreas Meinitzer, Christoph Melzer, Thomas B Dschietzig
BACKGROUND: Homoarginine (hArg) is known to have an impact on nitric oxide (NO) metabolism. It seems to increase NO generation and/or availability, thereby enhancing endothelial function. In addition, hArg is connected to energy metabolism since the key enzyme, L-arginine-glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) for hArg synthesis in the kidneys, is also involved in the synthesis of energy metabolites like guanidinoacetate. Former studies indicate that low levels of hArg are linked to cardiovascular disease and increased all-cause mortality...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226477/cell-therapy-for-critical-limb-ischemia-an-integrated-review-of-pre-clinical-and-clinical-studies
#18
REVIEW
Mohammad Qadura, Daniella C Terenzi, Subodh Verma, Mohammed Al-Omran, David A Hess
Critical limb ischemia (CLI), the most severe form of peripheral artery disease, is characterized by pain at rest and non-healing ulcers in the lower extremities. For patients with CLI, where the extent of atherosclerotic artery occlusion is too severe for surgical bypass or percutaneous interventions, limb amputation remains the only treatment option. Thus, cell-based therapy to restore perfusion and promote wound healing in patients with CLI is under intense investigation. Despite promising preclinical studies in animal models, transplantation of bone marrow (BM) derived cell populations in patients with CLI has shown limited benefit preventing limb amputation...
December 11, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225601/anti-donor-immune-responses-elicited-by-allogeneic-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-extracellular-vesicles-are-we-still-learning
#19
REVIEW
Paul Lohan, Oliver Treacy, Matthew D Griffin, Thomas Ritter, Aideen E Ryan
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been used to treat a broad range of disease indications such as acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, autoimmune diseases, and transplant rejection due to their potent immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory properties. The breadth of their usage is due in no small part to the vast quantity of published studies showing their ability to modulate multiple immune cell types of both the innate and adaptive immune response. While patient-derived (autologous) MSC may be the safer choice in terms of avoiding unwanted immune responses, factors including donor comorbidities may preclude these cells from use...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225140/reactive-astrocytes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-double-edged-sword
#20
REVIEW
Heejung Chun, C Justin Lee
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic and fatal disease, in which neuronal damage at its late stage cannot be easily reversed. Because AD progression is caused by multiple factors including diverse cellular processes, studies on AD pathogenesis at the molecular and cellular level are challenging. Based on the lessons from unsuccessful neuron-focused research for an AD cure, non-cell autonomous mechanisms including brain inflammation and reactive astrocytes have recently been in the spotlight as potential therapeutic targets for AD...
December 7, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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