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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777749/burden-of-liver-disease-in-europe-epidemiology-and-analysis-of-risk-factors-to-identify-prevention-policies
#1
REVIEW
Laura Pimpin, Helena Cortez-Pinto, Francesco Negro, Emily Corbould, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Laura Webber, Nick Sheron
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The burden of liver disease in Europe continues to grow. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of liver diseases and their risk factors in European countries, and identify public health interventions that could impact on these risk factors to reduce the burden of liver disease. METHODS: As part of the HEPAHEALTH project, commissioned by EASL, we extracted information on historical and current prevalence and mortality from national and international literature and databases on liver disease in 35 countries in the WHO European region, as well as historical and recent prevalence data on their main determinants; alcohol consumption, obesity and hepatitis B and C virus infections...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777660/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-exacerbations-a-need-for-action
#2
Antonio Anzueto, Marc Miravitlles
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, with exacerbations contributing strongly to the overall severity and burden of disease at the individual level. Many patients with COPD are managed predominantly in the primary care setting; therefore, primary care physicians (PCPs) must have awareness and understanding of the causes, effects, and management of exacerbations in COPD. This review offers practical information regarding how exacerbations are defined in the treatment setting, pathogenic and environmental causes, options for exacerbation treatment and prevention, and suggestions for improving care in the clinic...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777404/randomized-trial-comparing-resection-of-primary-tumor-with-no-surgery-in-stage-iv-breast-cancer-at-presentation-protocol-mf07-01
#3
Atilla Soran, Vahit Ozmen, Serdar Ozbas, Hasan Karanlik, Mahmut Muslumanoglu, Abdullah Igci, Zafer Canturk, Zafer Utkan, Cihangir Ozaslan, Turkkan Evrensel, Cihan Uras, Erol Aksaz, Aykut Soyder, Umit Ugurlu, Cavit Col, Neslihan Cabioglu, Betül Bozkurt, Ali Uzunkoy, Neset Koksal, Bahadir M Gulluoglu, Bulent Unal, Can Atalay, Emin Yıldırım, Ergun Erdem, Semra Salimoglu, Atakan Sezer, Ayhan Koyuncu, Gunay Gurleyik, Haluk Alagol, Nalan Ulufi, Uğur Berberoglu, Mustafa Dulger, Omer Cengiz, Efe Sezgin, Ronald Johnson
BACKGROUND: The MF07-01 trial is a multicenter, phase III, randomized, controlled study comparing locoregional treatment (LRT) followed by systemic therapy (ST) with ST alone for treatment-naïve stage IV breast cancer (BC) patients. METHODS: At initial diagnosis, patients were randomized 1:1 to either the LRT or ST group. All the patients were given ST either immediately after randomization or after surgical resection of the intact primary tumor. RESULTS: The trial enrolled 274 patients: 138 in the LRT group and 136 in the ST group...
May 17, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777177/controlling-vector-borne-diseases-by-releasing-modified-mosquitoes
#4
REVIEW
Heather A Flores, Scott L O'Neill
Aedes mosquito-transmitted diseases, such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya, are becoming major global health emergencies while old threats, such as yellow fever, are re-emerging. Traditional control methods, which have focused on reducing mosquito populations through the application of insecticides or preventing breeding through removal of larval habitat, are largely ineffective, as evidenced by the increasing global disease burden. Here, we review novel mosquito population reduction and population modification approaches with a focus on control methods based on the release of mosquitoes, including the release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes and strategies to genetically modify the vector, that are currently under development and have the potential to contribute to a reversal of the current alarming disease trends...
May 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777100/uncovering-the-hidden-impacts-of-inequality-on-mental-health-a-global-study
#5
Shoukai Yu
Women are nearly twice as likely as men to suffer from mental illness. This gender disparity in depressive disorders may relate to social inequalities and living standards across nations. Currently, these disparities were not reflected at the level of health policies. This study utilized global data for depressive disorders and socioeconomic data from the United Nations' World Bank databases and Global Burden of Disease database to demonstrate the correlation between social inequality and gender disparities in mental health...
May 18, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777003/impact-of-reference-target-region-selection-on-amyloid-pet-standard-uptake-value-ratios-in-the-phase-1b-prime-study-of-aducanumab
#6
Ping Chiao, Barry J Bedell, Brian Avants, Alex P Zijdenbos, Marilyn Grand'Maison, Paul O'Neill, John O'Gorman, Tianle Chen, Robert Koeppe
Standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) are commonly used to quantify tracer uptake in amyloid beta positron emission tomography (Aβ-PET). Here, we explore the impact of target and reference region of interest (ROI) selection on SUVR effect size using interventional data from the ongoing Phase Ib PRIME study (NCT01677572) of aducanumab (BIIB037) in patients with prodromal or mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Florbetapir PET SUVR was calculated at baseline (screening) and Weeks 26 and 54 for patients randomized to placebo and each of four aducanumab doses (1, 3, 6, and 10 mg/kg), using whole cerebellum, cerebellar grey matter, cerebellar white matter, pons, and subcortical white matter as reference regions...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776917/treatment-refractory-mania-with-psychosis-in-a-post-transplant-patient-on-tacrolimus-a-case-report
#7
Muaid Ithman, Kunal Malhotra, Meelie Bordoloi, Garima Singh
Bipolar affective disorder type I imparts significant morbidity and disease burden in the Population. It is characterized by occurrence of one or more manic episodes which may be preceded or followed by a depressive or hypomanic phase. About half of these manic episodes are characterized by the presence of psychotic features [1]. The condition is further complicated when patient has multiple comorbid conditions. We report here a case of a 66 year old Caucasian female, previously diagnosed with Bipolar disorder who developed treatment refractory mania with psychotic feature after being on Tacrolimus (an immunosuppressive agent) after kidney transplantation...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Medicine & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776894/amyloid-pet-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-dementia
#8
V Camacho, A Gómez-Grande, P Sopena, D García-Solís, M Gómez Río, C Lorenzo, S Rubí, J Arbizu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive cognitive decline and memory loss, and is the most common form of dementia. Amyloid plaques with neurofibrillary tangles are a neuropathological hallmark of AD that produces synaptic dysfunction and culminates later in neuronal loss. Amyloid PET is a useful, available and non-invasive technique that provides in vivo information about the cortical amyloid burden. In the latest revised criteria for the diagnosis of AD biomarkers were defined and integrated: pathological and diagnostic biomarkers (increased retention on fibrillar amyloid PET or decreased Aβ1-42 and increased T-Tau or P-Tau in CSF) and neurodegeneration or topographical biomarkers (temporoparietal hypometabolism on 18 F-FDG PET and temporal atrophy on MRI)...
May 15, 2018: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776828/septic-acute-kidney-injury-patients-in-emergency-department-the-risk-factors-and-its-correlation-to-serum-lactate
#9
Yin-Chou Hsu, Chih-Wei Hsu
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in septic patients, imposing a heavy burden of illness in terms of morbidity and mortality. Serum lactate is a widely used marker predicting the severity of sepsis. A paucity of research has investigated septic AKI in emergency departments (EDs) and its correlation with initial serum lactate level. This study aimed at identifying risk factors for septic AKI and clarifying the link between initial serum lactate level and septic AKI in ED patients...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776778/three-years-post-affordable-care-act-sexually-transmitted-disease-clinics-remain-critical-among-vulnerable-populations
#10
Nicky J Mehtani, Christina M Schumacher, Luke E Johnsen, Adena Greenbaum, C Patrick Chaulk, Khalil G Ghanem, Jacky M Jennings, Kathleen R Page
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study is to examine whether demand for publicly funded sexually transmitted disease clinics changed after Affordable Care Act implementation. METHODS: The percentages of total incident sexually transmitted infections in Baltimore City that occurred at publicly funded sexually transmitted disease clinics were compared between the 3 years prior to and following the 2014 Medicaid and private insurance expansions. Risk factors associated with diagnosis at sexually transmitted disease clinics were identified using log binomial regression...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776611/nasal-delivery-of-chitosan-alginate-nanoparticle-encapsulated-bee-apis-mellifera-venom-promotes-antibody-production-and-viral-clearance-during-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection-by-modulating-t-cell-related-responses
#11
Jina Lee, Yun-Mi Kim, Ju-Heon Kim, Cheong-Weon Cho, Jong-Woon Jeon, Jin-Kyu Park, Sang-Ho Lee, Bock-Gie Jung, Bong-Joo Lee
In this study, we administered specially developed chitosan/alginate nanoparticle encapsulated BV (CH/AL-BV) which has slow-releasing properties and mucosal adhesiveness to pig via nasal route and evaluate whether it can facilitate systemic immune response and improve clearance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The CH/AL-BV-administered group with PRRSV vaccination showed significantly enhanced Th1-related responses including a high population of CD4+ T lymphocyte and cytokine mRNA levels including interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-12 and increased PRRSV-specific IgG levels...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776525/ability-to-monitor-driving-under-the-influence-of-marijuana-among-non-fatal-motor-vehicle-crashes-an-evaluation-of-the-colorado-electronic-accident-reporting-system
#12
Alexis B Peterson, Erin K Sauber-Schatz, Karin A Mack
INTRODUCTION: As more states legalize medical/recreational marijuana use, it is important to determine if state motor-vehicle surveillance systems can effectively monitor and track driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana. This study assessed Colorado's Department of Revenue motor-vehicle crash data system, Electronic Accident Reporting System (EARS), to monitor non-fatal crashes involving driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana. METHODS: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines on surveillance system evaluation were used to assess EARS' usefulness, flexibility, timeliness, simplicity, acceptability, and data quality...
June 2018: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776436/rates-and-causes-of-30-day-readmission-and-emergency-room-utilization-following-head-and-neck-surgery
#13
Vincent Wu, Stephen F Hall
BACKGROUND: Unplanned returns to hospital are common, costly, and potentially avoidable. We aimed to investigate and characterize reasons for all-cause readmissions to hospital as in-patients (IPs) and visits to the Emergency Department (ED) within 30-days following patient discharge post head and neck surgery (HNS). METHODS: Retrospective case series with chart review. All patients within the Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery who underwent HNS for benign and malignant disease from January 1, 2010 to May 31, 2015 were identified...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776378/differential-induction-of-mutant-sod1-misfolding-and-aggregation-by-tau-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-pathology
#14
Michael C Pace, Guilian Xu, Susan Fromholt, John Howard, Benoit I Giasson, Jada Lewis, David R Borchelt
BACKGROUND: Prior studies in C. elegans demonstrated that the expression of aggregation-prone polyglutamine proteins in muscle wall cells compromised the folding of co-expressed temperature-sensitive proteins, prompting interest in whether the accumulation of a misfolded protein in pathologic features of human neurodegenerative disease burdens cellular proteostatic machinery in a manner that impairs the folding of other cellular proteins. METHODS: Mice expressing high levels of mutant forms of tau and α-synuclein (αSyn), which develop inclusion pathologies of the mutant protein in brain and spinal cord, were crossed to mice expressing low levels of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 fused to yellow fluorescent protein (G85R-SOD1:YFP) for aging and neuropathological evaluation...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775975/misleading-new-insights-into-the-chrysotile-debate
#15
H-J Woitowitz, X Baur
Although there is no dispute among independent scientists about the carcinogenic and fibrogenic effects of chrysotile, the asbestos industry has been continuously and successfully acting to cast doubts on its harm. Another approach including asbestos insurance entities is to refuse compensation by raising the bar and fight criminal prosecution for asbestos-related diseases by the help of paid scientists. A recent publication on asbestos fibre burden in human lungs fits well in this context. The claim that chrysotile fibres are biopersistent in human lung is not based on the data provided by these authors, and, additionally, exhibits serious inconsistencies and obvious mismeasurements and significant methodological problems...
May 18, 2018: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775774/hospital-admissions-2000-2014-a-retrospective-analysis-of-288-096-events-in-patients-with-dementia
#16
Catarina Bernardes, João Massano, Alberto Freitas
INTRODUCTION: Dementia is a leading cause of disability worldwide. It is associated with an increased risk of hospitalization, imposing a significant burden on healthcare systems. The evidence on the long-term evolution of this issue and broadly on healthcare systems is currently limited. This study aims to describe the hospitalizations of people who received a diagnosis of dementia admitted to public general hospitals in a western European country with universal health coverage, over more than a decade...
May 8, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775772/occurrence-genotyping-and-health-risk-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-in-recreational-lakes-in-tianjin-china
#17
Shumin Xiao, Pengna Yin, Yan Zhang, Xiaoyun Zhao, Liping Sun, Hongying Yuan, Jingfang Lu, Sike Hu
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are critical parasites in the etiology of diarrhea worldwide, and often cause waterborne outbreaks. The presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recreational lakes was investigated with molecular characterization, and a comprehensive quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of protozoan infections was performed, considering multiple exposure pathways, differences in age, sex, and disease severity, and the genotypes of the protozoa. Forty-three (82.7%) and 51 (98.1%) water samples were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, respectively, with average counts of 3...
May 10, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775747/mediterranean-diet-and-depression-among-older-individuals-the-multinational-medis-study
#18
Maria F Masana, Josep Maria Haro, Anargiros Mariolis, Suzanne Piscopo, Giuseppe Valacchi, Vassiliki Bountziouka, Foteini Anastasiou, Akis Zeimbekis, Dimitra Tyrovola, Efthimios Gotsis, George Metallinos, Anna Polystipioti, Josep-Antoni Tur, Antonia-Leda Matalas, Christos Lionis, Evangelos Polychronopoulos, Labros S Sidossis, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos
BACKGROUND: Depression has been linked to a large and growing economic and societal burden worldwide. In Europe, depression is one of the most frequent mental disorders across all age groups, but particularly in people aged 65 years and over, and higher depressive symptoms have been reported among individuals with chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes and heart disease). AIM: To evaluate the role of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) in depression in a sample of older people living in the Mediterranean basin...
May 15, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775454/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies-of-cry5b-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-anthelmintics-reveal-a-powerful-and-unique-combination-therapy-against-intestinal-nematode-parasites
#19
Yan Hu, Melanie Miller, Bo Zhang, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Martin K Nielsen, Raffi V Aroian
BACKGROUND: The soil-transmitted nematodes (STNs) or helminths (hookworms, whipworms, large roundworms) infect the intestines of ~1.5 billion of the poorest peoples and are leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Only one class of anthelmintic or anti-nematode drugs, the benzimidazoles, is currently used in mass drug administrations, which is a dangerous situation. New anti-nematode drugs are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein Cry5B is a powerful, promising new candidate...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775139/burden-and-strain-among-familial-caregivers-of-patients-with-dementia-in-china
#20
Min Zhang, Yu-Ping Chang, Yu Jin Liu, Ling Gao, Davina Porock
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is one of a variety of progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by a number of nervous and mental symptoms and behavior disorders. These problems are likely to cause burden and strain on caregivers. In this study, we demonstrated the level and relationship of burden and strain among caregivers of dementia patients in China. METHODS: A total of 212 caregivers of family members with dementia responded to the survey...
May 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
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