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Gcm1 placental

Baosheng Chen, Mark S Longtine, Maria Laura Costa, D Michael Nelson
Poor differentiation of trophoblasts is associated with placental dysfunction, predisposing women to multiple pregnancy disorders. Punicalagin, a prominent ellagitannin in pomegranate juice has been shown to exert anti-apoptosis and anti-oxidative effects in human trophoblasts. We hypothesized that punicalagin modulates trophoblast differentiation. We found that punicalagin-treated primary trophoblast showed reduced E-cadherin, higher Syncytin 1, more β-hCG, and increased GCM1, an upstream regulator of β-hCG...
August 2016: Placenta
Xiaoyin Lu, Yuxia He, Cheng Zhu, Hongmei Wang, Shiling Chen, Hai-Yan Lin
INTRODUCTION: The multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast (STB) is maintained and regenerated by the fusion of underlying cytotrophoblast cells (CTBs) and is responsible for a number of functions in the human placenta. Deficiencies in this structure may result in pregnancy-associated diseases. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying trophoblast syncytialization await further investigation. METHODS: The location of the transcription factor Twist1 in human placental tissues was identified by immunohistochemistry...
March 2016: Placenta
Yueh Ho Chiu, Hungwen Chen
Development of human placenta involves the invasion of trophoblast cells from anchoring villi into the maternal decidua. Placental transcription factor GCM1 regulates trophoblast cell invasion via transcriptional activation of HtrA4 gene, which encodes a serine protease enzyme. The GATA3 transcription factor regulates trophoblast cell differentiation and is highly expressed in invasive murine trophoblast giant cells. The regulation of trophoblastic invasion by GCM1 may involve novel cellular factors. Here we show that GATA3 interacts with GCM1 and inhibits its activity to suppress trophoblastic invasion...
2016: Scientific Reports
Mei-Leng Cheong, Liang-Jie Wang, Pei-Yun Chuang, Ching-Wen Chang, Yun-Shien Lee, Hsiao-Fan Lo, Ming-Song Tsai, Hungwen Chen
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is composed of a common α subunit and a placenta-specific β subunit. Importantly, hCG is highly expressed in the differentiated and multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast, which is formed via trophoblast cell fusion and stimulated by cyclic AMP (cAMP). Although the ubiquitous activating protein 2 (AP2) transcription factors TFAP2A and TFAP2C may regulate hCGβ expression, it remains unclear how cAMP stimulates placenta-specific hCGβ gene expression and trophoblastic differentiation...
January 1, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Priyadarsini Kumar, Twanda L Thirkill, Jennifer Ji, Louise H Monte, Gordon C Douglas
Trophoblast differentiation during early placental development is critical for successful pregnancy and aberrant differentiation causes preeclampsia and early pregnancy loss. During the first trimester, cytotrophoblasts are exposed to low oxygen tension (equivalent to~2%-3% O2) and differentiation proceeds along an extravillous pathway (giving rise to invasive extravillous cytotrophoblasts) and a villous pathway (giving rise to multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast). Interstitial extravillous cytotrophoblasts invade the decidua, while endovascular extravillous cytotrophoblasts are involved in re-modelling uterine spiral arteries...
2015: PloS One
Mariko Horii, Matteo Moretto-Zita, Katharine K Nelson, Yingchun Li, Mana M Parast
INTRODUCTION: Early placental development depends on the correct balance of cytotrophoblast (CTB) proliferation and differentiation, into either syncytiotrophoblast (STB) involved in nutrient/gas exchange, or invasive extravillous trophoblast (EVT) involved in establishment of blood flow to the placenta. Metastasis associated protein-3 (MTA3) is a transcriptional co-repressor known to regulate cell migration. In addition, MTA3 is reportedly decreased in preeclampsia. We set out to investigate the role of MTA3 in human trophoblast differentiation...
September 2015: Placenta
Szilvia Szabo, Meera Mody, Roberto Romero, Yi Xu, Katalin Karaszi, Noemi Mihalik, Zhonghui Xu, Gaurav Bhatti, Tibor Fule, Petronella Hupuczi, Tibor Krenacs, Janos Rigo, Adi L Tarca, Sonia S Hassan, Tinnakorn Chaiworapongsa, Ilona Kovalszky, Zoltan Papp, Nandor Gabor Than
Preterm preeclampsia is associated with the failure of trophoblast invasion, placental hypoxic/ischemic injury and the release of toxic substances, which promote the terminal pathway of preeclampsia. In term preeclampsia, factors yet unknown trigger the placenta to induce the terminal pathway. The contribution of the villous trophoblast to these pathologic events has not been fully elucidated. Here we aimed to study how stress and signaling pathways influence trophoblastic functions in various subforms of preeclampsia...
July 2015: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Xi Tian, Kate Anthony, Thomas Neuberger, Francisco J Diaz
Zinc is an essential nutrient for optimal fertility, but the effects of preconception zinc deficiency on postimplantation development are not known. Female mice were fed a control or a zinc-deficient diet (ZDD) for 4-5 days before ovulation (preconception). Embryonic and/or placental development were evaluated on Days 3.5, 6.5, 10.5, 12.5, and 16.5 of pregnancy. The findings show a decrease in embryo length (31%, Day 10.5; 13%, Day 12.5; 10%, Day 16.5) and weight (23%, Day 16.5) in embryos from mothers fed a ZDD preconception...
April 2014: Biology of Reproduction
A C Holloway, A Salomon, M J Soares, V Garnier, S Raha, F Sergent, C J Nicholson, J J Feige, M Benharouga, N Alfaidy
In utero exposure to nicotine is associated with increased risk of numerous adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes, which suggests that it acts directly to affect placental development and the establishment of the fetomaternal circulation (FC). This study used both in vivo [Wistar rats treated with 1 mg/kg nicotine from 2 wk prior to mating until gestational day (GD) 15] and in vitro (RCHO-1 cell line; treated with 10(-9) to 10(-3)M nicotine) models to examine the effects of nicotine on these pathways. At GD 15, control and treated placentas were examined for the impact of nicotine on 1) trophoblast invasion, proliferation, and degree of hypoxia, 2) labyrinth vascularization, 3) expression of key genes of placental development, and 4) expression of placental angiogenic factors...
February 15, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ching-Wen Chang, Mei-Leng Cheong, Geen-Dong Chang, Ming-Song Tsai, Hungwen Chen
The placental transcription factor glial cell missing 1 (GCM1) and its target gene syncytin-1 are involved in cAMP-stimulated trophoblastic fusion for syncytiotrophoblast formation. GCM1 DNA-binding activity is inhibited by sumoylation, whereas GCM1 stability is decreased by deacetylation. cAMP enhances GCM1 desumoylation through the Epac1/Rap1/CaMKI signaling cascade and CaMKI is known to down-regulate class IIa HDAC activity. In this paper, we study whether the Epac1/Rap1/CaMKI signaling cascade regulates GCM1 activity and placental cell fusion through class IIa HDACs...
November 2013: Molecular Human Reproduction
Christine Henke, Matthias Ruebner, Florian Faschingbauer, Claus C Stolt, Natascha Schaefer, Nadine Lang, Matthias W Beckmann, Pamela L Strissel, Reiner Strick
The murine placenta has a trichorial structure with two multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast (SCT) layers representing a barrier between the maternal and fetal blood system. Genes of endogenous retroviruses and retrotransposon-derived paternally expressed genes (Peg), remnants of past infections and integrations in the genome, have essential functions in placentogenesis. Previous studies showed that the envelope genes Syncytin-A and Syncytin-B were essential for cell-cell fusion of the SCT. The goal of this study was to analyze the temporal localization and expression of nine genes throughout placental development from embryonic day (E)8...
April 2013: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Monique Y Rennie, John G Sled, S Lee Adamson
The fetoplacental arterial tree is critical for efficient distribution of arterial blood to capillaries throughout the placental exchange region; yet, little is known about the factors and mechanisms that control its development. Advances in micro-CT imaging and analysis, and available mutant mouse strains, are facilitating rapid progress. Indeed, micro-CT studies show that genetic differences between the CD1 and C57Bl/6 mouse strains, and between Gcm1 heterozygotes and wild-type littermates alter the developmental trajectory of the fetoplacental arterial tree as do environmental factors including maternal exposure to toxins in cigarette smoke and malarial infection...
January 2014: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
F Debiève, C Depoix, D Gruson, C Hubinont
Timely regulated changes in oxygen partial pressure are important for placental formation. Disturbances could be responsible for pregnancy-related diseases like preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. We aimed to (i) determine the effect of oxygen partial pressure on cytotrophoblast differentiation; (ii) measure mRNA expression and protein secretion from genes associated with placental angiogenesis; and (iii) determine the reversibility of these effects at different oxygen partial pressures. Term cytotrophoblasts were incubated at 21% and 2...
September 2013: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Veronique Tache, Aleksandar Ciric, Matteo Moretto-Zita, Yingchun Li, Julia Peng, Emin Maltepe, David S Milstone, Mana M Parast
Tissue oxygen tension regulates differentiation of multiple types of stem cells. In the placenta, hypoxia has been associated with abnormal trophoblast differentiation and placental insufficiency syndromes of preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in many cellular processes, including differentiation. We have previously shown that PPARγ-null trophoblast stem (TS) cells show a defect in differentiation to labyrinthine trophoblast, instead differentiating preferentially to trophoblast giant cells (TGC)...
November 1, 2013: Stem Cells and Development
Chang-Chun Wang, Hsiao-Fan Lo, Shu-Yu Lin, Hungwen Chen
GCM1 (glial cell missing 1) is a short-lived transcription factor essential for placental development. The F-box protein, FBW2 (F-box and WD-repeat domain-containing 2), which contains five WD (tryptophan-aspartate) repeats, recognizes GCM1 and mediates its ubiquitination via the SCFFBW2 E3 ligase complex. Although the interaction between GCM1 and FBW2 is facilitated by GCM1 phosphorylation, it is possible that this interaction might be regulated by additional cellular factors. In the present study, we perform tandem-affinity purification coupled with MS analysis identifying RACK1 (receptor for activated C-kinase 1) as an FBW2-interacting protein...
July 15, 2013: Biochemical Journal
Jinhua Lu, Shuang Zhang, Haruo Nakano, David G Simmons, Shumin Wang, Shuangbo Kong, Qiang Wang, Lianju Shen, Zhaowei Tu, Weixiang Wang, Bingyan Wang, Hongmei Wang, Yanling Wang, Johan H van Es, Hans Clevers, Gustavo Leone, James C Cross, Haibin Wang
Chorioallantoic branching morphogenesis is a key milestone during placental development, creating the large surface area for nutrient and gas exchange, and is therefore critical for the success of term pregnancy. Several Wnt pathway molecules have been shown to regulate placental development. However, it remains largely unknown how Wnt-Frizzled (Fzd) signaling spatiotemporally interacts with other essential regulators, ensuring chorionic branching morphogenesis and angiogenesis during placental development...
2013: PLoS Biology
Yi-Hung Wu, Hsiao-Fan Lo, Sih-Han Chen, Hungwen Chen
Glial cell missing 1 (GCM1) transcription factor regulates placental cell fusion into the syncytiotrophoblast. Caspase-14 is proteolytically activated to mediate filaggrin processing during keratinocyte differentiation. Interestingly, altered expression of nonactivated caspase-14 proenzyme is associated with tumorigenesis and diabetic retinopathy, suggesting that caspase-14 may perform physiological functions independently of its protease activity. Here, we performed tandem affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry analysis to identify caspase-14 proenzyme as a GCM1-interacting protein that suppresses GCM1 activity and syncytiotrophoblast differentiation...
July 2013: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Dora Baczyk, Mark Kibschull, Britt Mellstrom, Khrystyna Levytska, Marcos Rivas, Sascha Drewlo, Stephen J Lye, Jose R Naranjo, John C P Kingdom
The trophoblast transcription factor glial cell missing-1 (GCM1) regulates differentiation of placental cytotrophoblasts into the syncytiotrophoblast layer in contact with maternal blood. Reduced placental expression of GCM1 and abnormal syncytiotrophoblast structure are features of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy--preeclampsia. In-silico techniques identified the calcium-regulated transcriptional repressor--DREAM (Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator)--as a candidate for GCM1 gene expression...
2013: PloS One
Haijun Gao, Uma Yallampalli, Chandra Yallampalli
Whether and how gestational protein restriction (PR) affects placental development and function remain unknown. To test the hypothesis that PR can affect trophoblast differentiation in mid-and late pregnancy, rats were fed a 20% or an isocaloric 6% protein diet from Day 1 to 14 or 18 of pregnancy and effects of PR on trophoblast differentiation were determined by changes in expressions of marker gene(s) for trophoblast lineages. At Day 18 of pregnancy, PR increased expressions of Esrrb, Id1 andId2 (trophoblast stem cell markers), decreased expressions of Ascl2 (spongiotrophblast cell marker) and Prl2c1 (trophoblast giant cell marker), but did not alter expressions of Gjb3 and Pcdh12(glycogen cell markers) in the junctional zone (JZ)...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
B A O'Connell, K M Moritz, D W Walker, H Dickinson
OBJECTIVES: It has been hypothesized that male fetuses down regulate placental growth during periods of accelerated fetal growth. We aimed to investigate this, and determine whether sexual dimorphism was apparent in the spiny mouse placenta. We hypothesized that expression of fetal growth promoters would be higher in placentas of males, whereas genes involved in placental structural development would be more highly expressed in placentas of females. METHODS: Spiny mouse dams, a precocial rodent with an in utero endocrine milieu dissimilar from other rodents, but akin to humans, were sacrificed at gestational ages 15-37 (term = 39 days)...
February 2013: Placenta
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