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Bernice H Wong, Jia Pei Chan, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Rebecca W Poh, Juat Chin Foo, Dwight L A Galam, Sujoy Ghosh, Long N Nguyen, Veluchamy A Barathi, Sia W Yeo, Chi D Luu, Markus R Wenk, David L Silver
Eye photoreceptor membrane discs in outer rod segments are highly enriched in the visual pigment rhodopsin and the ω-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The eye acquires DHA from blood, but transporters for DHA uptake across the blood-retinal barrier or retinal pigment epithelium have not been identified. Mfsd2a is a newly described sodium-dependent lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) symporter expressed at the blood-brain barrier that transports LPCs containing DHA and other long-chain fatty acids. LPC transport via Mfsd2a has been shown to be necessary for human brain growth...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Debra Q Y Quek, Long N Nguyen, Hao Fan, David L Silver
Major facilitator superfamily domain containing 2A (MFSD2A) was recently characterized as a sodium-dependent lysophosphatidylcholine transporter expressed at the blood-brain barrier endothelium. It is the primary route for importation of docosohexaenoic acid and other long-chain fatty acids into fetal and adult brain and is essential for mouse and human brain growth and function. Remarkably, MFSD2A is the first identified major facilitator superfamily member that uniquely transports lipids, implying that MFSD2A harbors unique structural features and transport mechanism...
April 29, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
María T Prieto-Sánchez, María Ruiz-Palacios, José E Blanco-Carnero, Ana Pagan, Christian Hellmuth, Olaf Uhl, Wolfgang Peissner, Antonio J Ruiz-Alcaraz, Juan J Parrilla, Berthold Koletzko, Elvira Larqué
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Maternal-fetal transfer of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is impaired by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. MFSD2a was recently recognized as a lyso-phospholipid (lyso-PL) transporter that facilitates DHA accretion in brain. The role of this transporter in placenta is uncertain. We evaluated effects of GDM and its treatment (diet or insulin) on phospholipid species, fatty acid profile in women, cord blood and placental fatty acid carriers...
January 29, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Lina Cui, Huiying Wang, Xiaoyin Lu, Rui Wang, Ru Zheng, Yue Li, Xiaokui Yang, Wen-Tong Jia, Yangyu Zhao, Yongqing Wang, Haibin Wang, Yan-Ling Wang, Cheng Zhu, Hai-Yan Lin, Hongmei Wang
The placental syncytiotrophoblast, which is formed by the fusion of cytotrophoblast cells, is indispensable for the establishment and maintenance of normal pregnancy. The human endogenous retrovirus envelope glycoprotein syncytin-2 is the most important player in mediating trophoblast cell-cell fusion as a fusogen. We constructed expression plasmids of wild-type and 21 single-amino-acid substitution mutants of syncytin-2, including 10 N-glycosylation sites individually silenced by mutagenizing N to Q, 1 naturally occurring single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) N118S that introduced an N-glycosylation site, and another 10 non-synonymous SNPs located within important functional domains...
March 3, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Jing-Zhang Wang, Ning Xiao, Ying-Zhou Zhang, Chao-Xian Zhao, Xin-Hua Guo, Li-Min Lu
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) keeps the central nervous system (CNS) safe from various brain diseases, while the BBB makes it difficult for effective drugs to enter the CNS. Mfsd2a is specifically expressed on the cell membrane of brain-microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) and is implicated in the delivery of some substances across the BBB. Mfsd2a is the first inhibitor of the transcytosis and the first transporter for lysophosphatidylcholine-docosahexaenoic acid (LPC-DHA) in BMECs. The crucial dual function of Mfsd2a puts forward two kinds of Mfsd2a-based strategies for carrying drugs from blood to the CNS...
February 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Qin Zhou, Yuanyan Xiong, Xiao R Huang, Patrick Tang, Xueqing Yu, Hui Y Lan
Transforming growth factor-β/Smad3 signaling plays a critical role in the process of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but targeting Smad3 systematically may cause autoimmune disease by impairing immunity. In this study, we used whole-transcriptome RNA-sequencing to identify the differential gene expression profile, gene ontology, pathways, and alternative splicing related to TGF-β/Smad3 in CKD. To explore common dysregulation of genes associated with Smad3-dependent renal injury, kidney tissues of Smad3 wild-type and knockout mice with immune (anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis) and non-immune (obstructive nephropathy)-mediated CKD were used for RNA-sequencing analysis...
2015: Scientific Reports
Christer Betsholtz
How the human brain rapidly builds up its lipid content during brain growth and maintains its lipids in adulthood has remained elusive. Two new studies show that inactivating mutations in MFSD2A, known to be expressed specifically at the blood-brain barrier, lead to microcephaly, thereby offering a simple and surprising solution to an old enigma.
July 2015: Nature Genetics
Alicia Guemez-Gamboa, Long N Nguyen, Hongbo Yang, Maha S Zaki, Majdi Kara, Tawfeg Ben-Omran, Naiara Akizu, Rasim Ozgur Rosti, Basak Rosti, Eric Scott, Jana Schroth, Brett Copeland, Keith K Vaux, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Debra Q Y Quek, Bernice H Wong, Bryan C Tan, Markus R Wenk, Murat Gunel, Stacey Gabriel, Neil C Chi, David L Silver, Joseph G Gleeson
Docosahexanoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant omega-3 fatty acid in brain, and, although it is considered essential, deficiency has not been linked to disease. Despite the large mass of DHA in phospholipids, the brain does not synthesize it. DHA is imported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) through the major facilitator superfamily domain-containing 2a (MFSD2A) protein. MFSD2A transports DHA as well as other fatty acids in the form of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). We identify two families displaying MFSD2A mutations in conserved residues...
July 2015: Nature Genetics
Vafa Alakbarzade, Abdul Hameed, Debra Q Y Quek, Barry A Chioza, Emma L Baple, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Long N Nguyen, Markus R Wenk, Arshia Q Ahmad, Ajith Sreekantan-Nair, Michael N Weedon, Phil Rich, Michael A Patton, Thomas T Warner, David L Silver, Andrew H Crosby
The major pathway by which the brain obtains essential omega-3 fatty acids from the circulation is through a sodium-dependent lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) transporter (MFSD2A), expressed in the endothelium of the blood-brain barrier. Here we show that a homozygous mutation affecting a highly conserved MFSD2A residue (p.Ser339Leu) is associated with a progressive microcephaly syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, spasticity and absent speech. We show that the p.Ser339Leu alteration does not affect protein or cell surface expression but rather significantly reduces, although not completely abolishes, transporter activity...
July 2015: Nature Genetics
Eri Segi-Nishida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Leah C Byrne, Yvonne J Lin, Trevor Lee, David V Schaffer, John G Flannery
Systemic delivery of AAV9 offers the potential for widespread and efficient gene delivery to the retina, and may thus be a useful approach for treatment of disease where intraocular injections are not possible, for syndromes affecting multiple organs, or where early intervention is required. The expression resulting from intravenous injection of AAV9 is more efficient in neonates than adults, and here we characterize the effect of age on retinal transduction of AAV9 in the mouse retina. We find that the pattern of expression in neonatal mice is correlated to the development of the retinal vasculature, and that the area of the retinal transduction as well as the cell types infected vary depending on the age at injection...
February 2015: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Zhen Zhao, Berislav V Zlokovic
Two recent papers in Nature, Ben-Zvi et al. (2014) and Nguyen et al. (2014), report a surprising dual role for the blood-brain barrier transporter MFSD2A in both establishing BBB integrity and in uptake of the fatty acid DHA.
May 21, 2014: Neuron
Long N Nguyen, Dongliang Ma, Guanghou Shui, Peiyan Wong, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Xiaodong Zhang, Markus R Wenk, Eyleen L K Goh, David L Silver
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is essential for normal brain growth and cognitive function. Consistent with its importance in the brain, DHA is highly enriched in brain phospholipids. Despite being an abundant fatty acid in brain phospholipids, DHA cannot be de novo synthesized in brain and must be imported across the blood-brain barrier, but mechanisms for DHA uptake in brain have remained enigmatic. Here we identify a member of the major facilitator superfamily--Mfsd2a (previously an orphan transporter)--as the major transporter for DHA uptake into brain...
May 22, 2014: Nature
Ayal Ben-Zvi, Baptiste Lacoste, Esther Kur, Benjamin J Andreone, Yoav Mayshar, Han Yan, Chenghua Gu
The central nervous system (CNS) requires a tightly controlled environment free of toxins and pathogens to provide the proper chemical composition for neural function. This environment is maintained by the 'blood-brain barrier' (BBB), which is composed of blood vessels whose endothelial cells display specialized tight junctions and extremely low rates of transcellular vesicular transport (transcytosis). In concert with pericytes and astrocytes, this unique brain endothelial physiological barrier seals the CNS and controls substance influx and efflux...
May 22, 2014: Nature
Shuqin Chen, Zhihua Zheng, Jianqing Tang, Xiandong Lin, Xiaojun Wang, Jianyin Lin
To explore the association of polymorphisms in the region of three neighboring genes TRIT1, MYCL1 and MFSD2A with risk and clinicopathological features of gastric cancer, 19 tagging SNPs in this region were genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in a case-control study of 610 Chinese gastric cancer patients and 608 cancer-free controls. MFSD2A rs4233508 T>C CC genotype was associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer in younger patients and an increased risk of moderately/well-differentiated intestinal-type gastric cancer (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1...
May 2013: Carcinogenesis
Justin H Berger, Maureen J Charron, David L Silver
The metabolic adaptations to fasting in the liver are largely controlled by the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), where PPARα upregulates genes encoding the biochemical pathway for β-oxidation of fatty acids and ketogenesis. As part of an effort to identify and characterize nutritionally regulated genes that play physiological roles in the adaptation to fasting, we identified Major facilitator superfamily domain-containing protein 2a (Mfsd2a) as a fasting-induced gene regulated by both PPARα and glucagon signaling in the liver...
2012: PloS One
C Toufaily, A Vargas, M Lemire, J Lafond, E Rassart, B Barbeau
The syncytiotrophoblast is formed at the placental periphery through cytotrophoblast fusion, which depends on Human Endogenous Retrovirus-encoded Envelope proteins Syncytin-1 and Syncytin-2. In the current study, the role of Major Facilitator Superfamily Domain Containing 2A (MFSD2a), the Syncytin-2 receptor, in trophoblast fusion and its expression in normal vs. pre-eclampsia placentas were studied. Forskolin-induced fusion of BeWo cells first parallelled an increase in MFSD2a expression. The MFSD2a signal localized in the cytoplasm and at the plasma membrane...
January 2013: Placenta
Nikki Slocum, Jessica R Durrant, David Bailey, Lawrence Yoon, Holly Jordan, Joanna Barton, Roger H Brown, Lisa Clifton, Tula Milliken, Wallace Harrington, Carie Kimbrough, Catherine A Faber, Neal Cariello, Chandikumar S Elangbam
Drug-induced weight loss in humans has been associated with undesirable side effects not present in weight loss from lifestyle interventions (caloric restriction or exercise). To investigate the mechanistic differences of weight loss by drug-induced and lifestyle interventions, we examined the gene expression (mRNA) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and conducted histopathologic assessments in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice given ephedrine (18 mg/kg/day orally), treadmill exercise (10 m/min, 1-h/day), and dietary restriction (DR: 26% dietary restriction) for 7 days...
July 2013: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Francesca Colombo, Felicia S Falvella, Antonella Galvan, Elisa Frullanti, Hideo Kunitoh, Toshikazu Ushijima, Tommaso A Dragani
BACKGROUND: The MFSD2A gene maps within a linkage disequilibrium block containing the MYCL1-EcoRI polymorphism associated with prognosis and survival in lung cancer patients. Survival discrepancies between Asians and Caucasians point to ethnic differences in allelic frequencies of the functional genetic variations. RESULTS: Analysis of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapping in the MFSD2A 5'-regulatory region using a luciferase reporter system showed that SNP rs12072037, in linkage disequilibrium with the MYCL1-EcoRI polymorphism and polymorphic in Asians but not in Caucasians, modulated transcriptional activity of the MFSD2A promoter in cell lines expressing AHR and ARNT transcription factors, which potentially bind to the SNP site...
2011: Molecular Cancer
Jan H Reiling, Clary B Clish, Jan E Carette, Malini Varadarajan, Thijn R Brummelkamp, David M Sabatini
Tunicamycin (TM) inhibits eukaryotic asparagine-linked glycosylation, protein palmitoylation, ganglioside production, proteoglycan synthesis, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase activity, and cell wall biosynthesis in bacteria. Treatment of cells with TM elicits endoplasmic reticulum stress and activates the unfolded protein response. Although widely used in laboratory settings for many years, it is unknown how TM enters cells. Here, we identify in an unbiased genetic screen a transporter of the major facilitator superfamily, major facilitator domain containing 2A (MFSD2A), as a critical mediator of TM toxicity...
July 19, 2011: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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