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Very long chain polyunsaturated fat

Peter L Zock, Wendy A M Blom, Joyce A Nettleton, Gerard Hornstra
Dietary fats have important effects on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Abundant evidence shows that partial replacement of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) with unsaturated fatty acids improves the blood lipid and lipoprotein profile and reduces the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Low-fat diets high in refined carbohydrates and sugar are not effective. Very long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 or omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 VLCPUFA) present in fish have multiple beneficial metabolic effects, and regular intake of fatty fish is associated with lower risks of fatal CHD and stroke...
November 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
Aruna Gorusupudi, Aihua Liu, Gregory S Hageman, Paul S Bernstein
The human retina is well-known to have unique lipid profiles enriched in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) that appear to promote normal retinal structure and function, but the influence of diet on retinal lipid profiles in health and disease remains controversial. In this study, we examined two independent cohorts of donor eyes and related their retinal lipid profiles with systemic biomarkers of lipid intake. We found that serum and red blood cell lipids, and to a lesser extent orbital fat, are indeed excellent biomarkers of retinal lipid content and n-3/n-6 ratios in both the LC-PUFA and VLC-PUFA series...
March 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Emilio Herrera, Gernot Desoye
Maternal lipids are strong determinants of fetal fat mass. Here we review the overall lipid metabolism in normal and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pregnancies. During early pregnancy, the increase in maternal fat depots is facilitated by insulin, followed by increased adipose tissue breakdown and subsequent hypertriglyceridemia, mainly as a result of insulin resistance (IR) and estrogen effects. The response to diabetes is variable as a result of greater IR but decreased estrogen levels. The vast majority of fatty acids (FAs) in the maternal circulation are esterified and associated with lipoproteins...
May 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Arieh Riskin, Corina Hartman, Raanan Shamir
Parenteral nutrition (PN) must be initiated as soon as possible after delivery in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants in order to prevent postnatal growth failure and improve neurodevelopmental outcome. When administered early, high levels of parenteral amino acids (AA) are well tolerated and prevent negative nitrogen balance. Although proteins are the driving force for growth, protein synthesis is energy-demanding. Intravenous lipid emulsions (ILE) constitute a good energy source because of their high energy density and provide essential fatty acids (FA) along with their long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) derivatives necessary for central nervous system and retinal development...
May 2015: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Jing-Jing Geng, Huan Li, Jin-Pin Liu, Yi Yang, Ze-Lin Jin, Yun-Ni Zhang, Mei-Ling Zhang, Li-Qiao Chen, Zhen-Yu Du
Shanghai is a Chinese megacity in the Yangtze River Delta area, one of the most polluted coastal areas in China. The inhabitants of Shanghai have very high aquatic product consumption rates. A risk-benefit assessment of the co-ingestion of fish nutrients and contaminants has not previously been performed for Shanghai residents. Samples of five farmed fish species (marine and freshwater) with different feeding habits were collected from Shanghai markets in winter and summer. Fatty acids, protein, mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes were measured in liver, abdominal fat, and dorsal, abdominal, and tail muscles from fish...
December 1, 2015: Science of the Total Environment
Matti Marklund, Karin Leander, Max Vikström, Federica Laguzzi, Bruna Gigante, Per Sjögren, Tommy Cederholm, Ulf de Faire, Mai-Lis Hellénius, Ulf Risérus
BACKGROUND: High intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Large, prospective studies including both sexes and circulating PUFAs as dietary biomarkers are needed. We investigated sex-specific associations of the major dietary PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid, docohexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid, with incident CVD and all-cause mortality in a population-based cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: PUFAs in serum cholesterol esters were measured at baseline in 60-year-old Swedish women (n=2193) and men (n=2039)...
August 18, 2015: Circulation
H Hammami, J Vandenplas, M-L Vanrobays, B Rekik, C Bastin, N Gengler
Genetic parameters that considered tolerance for heat stress were estimated for production, udder health, and milk composition traits. Data included 202,733 test-day records for milk, fat, and protein yields, fat and protein percentages, somatic cell score (SCS), 10 individual milk fatty acids (FA) predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry, and 7 FA groups. Data were from 34,468 first-lactation Holstein cows in 862 herds in the Walloon region of Belgium and were collected between 2007 and 2010. Test-day records were merged with daily temperature-humidity index (THI) values based on meteorological records from public weather stations...
July 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Elvira Verduci, Carlotta Lassandro, Giovanni Radaelli, Laura Soldati
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease represents the most common chronic liver disease in obese children of industrialized countries. Nowadays the first line of treatment of pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is based on dietary and lifestyle intervention; however compliance to these interventions is very difficult to maintain in long term period. This editorial discusses about docosahexaenoic acid treatment as possible novel approach for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. Docosahexaenoic acid may modulate the inflammatory response, improve insulin sensitivity and could be effective in enhancing intestinal barrier integrity, essential to protect a healthy gut-liver axis...
2015: Journal of Translational Medicine
H H Hinriksdottir, V L Jonsdottir, K Sveinsdottir, E Martinsdottir, A Ramel
BACKGROUND: Despite the potential benefits of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs), intake is often low because of low consumption of oily seafood. Microencapsulated fish oil powder can improve tolerance and acceptance of LC n-3 PUFAs. Bioavailability is important to achieve efficacy. We investigated the bioavailability of LC n-3 PUFAs from microencapsulated powder in comparison with meals enriched with liquid fish oil. METHODS: Participants (N=99, age⩾50 years) of this 4-week double-blinded dietary intervention were randomized into three groups...
March 2015: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
W S Harris, M L Baack
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for normal vision and neurodevelopment. DHA accretion in utero occurs primarily in the last trimester of pregnancy to support rapid growth and brain development. Premature infants, born before this process is complete, are relatively deficient in this essential fatty acid. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants remain deficient for a long period of time due to ineffective conversion from precursor fatty acids, lower fat stores and a limited nutritional provision of DHA after birth...
January 2015: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Jong-Min Park, Sung-Hun Kwon, Young-Min Han, Ki-Baik Hahm, Eun-Hee Kim
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), particularly eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA), has been acknowledged as essential very long-chain fatty acids contributing to either achieving optimal health or protection against diseases, and even longevity. Recent high impact studies dealing with EPA and DHA have sparked a renewed interest in using n-3 PUFAs for cancer prevention and cancer treatment, for which n-3 PUFAs may exert their anticancer actions by influencing multiple targets implicated in various stages of cancer development, including cell proliferation, cell survival, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metastasis against various cancers...
September 2013: Journal of Cancer Prevention
T Ribeiro, M M Lordelo, P Costa, S P Alves, W S Benevides, R J B Bessa, J P C Lemos, R M A Pinto, L M A Ferreira, C M G A Fontes, J A M Prates
1. Chicken breast meat is a lean meat due to its low content of intramuscular fat (IMF) resulting in an overall lower acceptability by consumers due to a decrease in juiciness, flavour and increased chewiness. Recently, studies performed in pigs suggested the possibility of increasing IMF by decreasing dietary crude protein (CP) content, an effect possibly mediated through an increased lipogenesis. 2. Dietary supplementation with lipids rich in omega 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) may modulate an increase in the content of these fatty acids in meat from monogastric animals and, thus, promote the daily intake of n-3 LC-PUFA by humans...
2014: British Poultry Science
E Griffo, L Di Marino, L Patti, L Bozzetto, G Annuzzi, P Cipriano, A Mangione, G Della Pepa, S Cocozza, G Riccardi, A A Rivellese
Postprandial lipid abnormalities are considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Hence, it is important to find nutritional strategies that are able to positively influence these abnormalities. Since the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and polyphenols on postprandial lipids in humans is still under debate, we evaluated the acute response of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to test meals that are naturally rich in polyphenols and/or marine long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs. We hypothesized that LC n-3 PUFA would have a different effect on chylomicron and very low density lipoproteins when compared with polyphenols or their combination...
August 2014: Nutrition Research
Veronika Tillander, Bodil Bjørndal, Lena Burri, Pavol Bohov, Jon Skorve, Rolf K Berge, Stefan Eh Alexson
BACKGROUND: Marine derived oils are rich in long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which have long been associated with health promoting effects such as reduced plasma lipid levels and anti-inflammatory effects. Krill oil (KO) is a novel marine oil on the market and is also rich in EPA and DHA, but the fatty acids are incorporated mainly into phospholipids (PLs) rather than triacylglycerols (TAG). This study compares the effects of fish oil (FO) and KO on gene regulation that influences plasma and liver lipids in a high fat diet mouse model...
2014: Nutrition & Metabolism
Alexandre Lapillonne
Lipids provide infants with most of their energy needs. The major portion of the fat in human milk is found in the form of triglycerides, the phospholipids and cholesterol contributing for only a small proportion of the total fat. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are crucial for normal development of the central nervous system and have potential for long-lasting effects that extend beyond the period of dietary insufficiency. Given the limited and highly variable formation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from α-linolenic acid, and because DHA is critical for normal retinal and brain development in the human, DHA should be considered to be conditionally essential during early development...
2014: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Mahmoud Hussein, Kevin J Harvatine, Yves R Boisclair, Dale E Bauman
The very long chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCn3PUFAs) are potent regulators of hepatic lipid synthesis, but their effect on lipid synthesis in the lactating mammary gland is less well investigated. The objective of the present study was to examine effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on mammary lipogenesis and the expression of lipogenic genes in mammary and hepatic tissues of lactating mice. Beginning on day 6 of lactation and continuing for 7 d, female C57BL/6J mice (n = 8/diet) were fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments: a 5%-fat diet containing mainly saturated fatty acids (FAs) (low-fat control) or 2 10%-fat diets, 1 enriched with FO as a source of VLCn3PUFAs and the other enriched with a safflower/palm oil mixture (high-fat control) as a source of oleic acid...
December 2013: Journal of Nutrition
Girish Deshpande, Karen Simmer, Mangesh Deshmukh, Trevor A Mori, Kevin D Croft, Judy Kristensen
OBJECTIVES: Fat emulsions used in Australia for parenteral nutrition in preterm neonates have been based on either soybean oil or olive oil (OO). OO lipid Clinoleic has a high ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (9:1); this may not be ideal for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids supply. Newly available SMOFlipid has an appropriate ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (2.5:1). SMOFlipid also contains OO (25%), coconut oil (30%), and soybean oil (30%). The aims of the study were to evaluate the safety of the SMOFlipid and to test the hypothesis that SMOFlipid would lead to increased omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and reduced oxidative stress as compared with Clinoleic in preterm neonates (<30 weeks)...
February 2014: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
E Scorletti, C D Byrne
Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids belong to a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are known to have important beneficial effects on metabolism and inflammation. Such effects may confer a benefit in specific chronic noncommunicable diseases that are becoming very prevalent in Westernized societies [e.g., nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)]. Typically, with a Westernized diet, long-chain omega-6 fatty acid consumption is markedly greater than omega-3 fatty acid consumption. The potential consequences of an alteration in the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid consumption are increased production of proinflammatory arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids and impaired regulation of hepatic and adipose function, predisposing to NAFLD...
2013: Annual Review of Nutrition
J Stamey Lanier, J K Suagee, O Becvar, B A Corl
Supplementing dairy cows with n-3 fatty acid-rich feeds does not easily increase quantities in milk fat. Previous results demonstrated very long-chain n-3 fatty acids are primarily transported in the PL fraction of blood, making them largely unavailable to the mammary gland for enrichment of milk fat. Our objective was to compare mammary uptake of fatty acids of increasing chain length and unsaturation delivered intravenously as TAG emulsions. Late lactation dairy cows were assigned to a completely randomized block design...
May 2013: Lipids
Tobias Ludwig, Stefanie Worsch, Mathias Heikenwalder, Hannelore Daniel, Hans Hauner, Bernhard L Bader
In studies emphasizing antiobesogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n-3 PUFA), diets with very high fat content, not well-defined fat quality, and extreme n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios have been applied frequently. Additionally, comparative analyses of visceral adipose tissues (VAT) were neglected. Considering the link of visceral obesity to insulin resistance or inflammatory bowel diseases, we hypothesized that VAT, especially mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT), may exhibit differential responsiveness to diets through modulation of metabolic and inflammatory processes...
June 1, 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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