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Injury mortality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820966/reactive-oxygen-species-responsive-polymeric-nanoparticles-for-alleviating-sepsis-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-mice
#1
Gan Chen, Hongzhang Deng, Xiang Song, Mingzi Lu, Lian Zhao, Sha Xia, Guoxing You, Jingxiang Zhao, Yulong Zhang, Anjie Dong, Hong Zhou
Sepsis-associated acute liver injury contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and is associated with increased mortality. Currently, no specific therapeutics for sepsis-associated liver injury are available. With excess levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) being implicated as key players in sepsis-induced liver injury, we hypothesize that ROS-responsive nanoparticles (NPs) formed via the self-assembly of diblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(propylene sulfide) (PPS) may function as an effective drug delivery system for alleviating sepsis-induced liver injury by preferentially releasing drug molecules at the disease site...
August 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820797/postoperative-renal-dysfunction-after-noncardiac-surgery
#2
Suvi T Vaara, Rinaldo Bellomo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The narrative review aims to discuss recent results and important knowledge gaps regarding acute kidney injury (AKI) in postoperative patients undergone major noncardiac surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Postoperative AKI affects approximately one-fifth of patients after major surgery, but the incidence varies according to the type of surgery. Preexisting chronic kidney disease is a major risk factor for postoperative AKI. It carries a substantial risk for postoperative adverse outcomes, as well as long-term mortality and morbidity...
August 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820364/patterns-of-c-2-fracture-in-the-elderly-comparison-of-etiology-treatment-and-mortality-among-specific-fracture-types
#3
Ingrid Radovanovic, Jennifer C Urquhart, Parham Rasoulinejad, Kevin R Gurr, Fawaz Siddiqi, Christopher S Bailey
OBJECTIVE Previous studies have focused on Type II odontoid fractures and have failed to report on the effect of other C-2 fracture types on treatment and outcome. The purpose of this study was to compare patient characteristics, cause of injury, predisposing factors to fracture, treatments, and mortality rates among C-2 fracture types in a cohort of elderly patients 70 years of age and older. METHODS A retrospective cohort study design was used. Patients who sustained a C-2 fracture between 2002 and 2011 and who were admitted to the authors' Level 1 trauma center were identified using the Discharge Abstract Database and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) code S12...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820342/expected-years-of-life-lost-through-road-traffic-injuries-in-mexico
#4
Efrén Murillo-Zamora, Oliver Mendoza-Cano, Benjamín Trujillo-Hernández, José Guzmán-Esquivel, Alfredo Medina-González, Miguel Huerta, Ramón Alberto Sánchez-Piña, Agustin Lugo-Radillo
BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of premature mortality, mainly in low- and middle-income countries Objective: To estimate the 2014 burden of RTIs in Mexico calculating years of life lost (YLL) and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYLL), and to evaluate sex, age, and region-related differences in premature mortality. METHODS: Mortality data were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography and 14,637 deaths of individuals 15 years of age and older were analyzed...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819767/comparative-efficacy-of-drugs-for-preventing-acute-kidney-injury-after-cardiac-surgery-a-network-meta-analysis
#5
Xi Chen, Tianlun Huang, Xuan Cao, Gaosi Xu
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently after cardiac surgery and has been associated with increased hospital length of stay, mortality, and costs. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacologic strategies for preventing AKI after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) up to 6 May 2017 and the reference lists of relevant articles about trials...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819737/further-controversies-about-brain-tissue-oxygenation-pressure-reactivity-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Morten Andresen, Joseph Donnelly, Marcel Aries, Marianne Juhler, David Menon, Pja Hutchinson, Peter Smielewski
BACKGROUND: Continuous monitoring of cerebral autoregulation is considered clinically useful due to its ability to warn against brain ischemic insults, which may translate to a relationship with adverse outcome. It is typically performed using the pressure reactivity index (PRx) based on mean arterial pressure and intracranial pressure. A new ORx index based on brain tissue oxygenation and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) has been proposed that similarly allows for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity...
August 17, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819674/-imaging-techniques-in-modern-trauma-diagnostics
#7
T J Vogl, K Eichler, I Marzi, S Wutzler, K Zacharowski, C Frellessen
Modern trauma room management requires interdisciplinary teamwork and synchronous communication between a team of anaesthesists, surgeons and radiologists. As the length of stay in the trauma room influences morbidity and mortality of a severely injured person, optimizing time is one of the main targets. With the direct involvement of modern imaging techniques the injuries caused by trauma should be detected within a very short period of time in order to enable a priority-orientated treatment. Radiology influences structure and process quality, management and development of trauma room algorithms regarding the use of imaging techniques...
August 17, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819541/mortality-among-5-17-year-old-children-in-kenya
#8
Bonface Ombaba Osano, Fred Were, Shanaaz Mathews
INTRODUCTION: Global mortality trends have changed over time and are expected to continue changing with a reduction in communicable diseases and an increase of non-communicable disease. Increased survival of children beyond five years may change mortality patterns for these children. There are few studies in Africa that explore the causes of mortality in children over five years. The objective of this study was to determine the mortality rate and clinical profiles of children aged 5-17 years who died in six Kenyan hospitals in 2013...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819452/co-activation-of-pkc-%C3%AE-by-crif1-modulates-oxidative-stress-in-bone-marrow-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-after-irradiation-by-phosphorylating-nrf2-ser40
#9
Lili Chen, Qian Ran, Yang Xiang, Lixin Xiang, Li Chen, Fengjie Li, Jiang Wu, Chun Wu, Zhongjun Li
The high mortality associated with pancytopenia and multi-organ failure resulting from hematopoietic disorders of acute radiation syndrome (h-ARS) creates an urgent need for developing more effective treatment strategies. Here, we showed that bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSCs) effectively regulate oxidative stress following radiative injury, which might be on account of irradiation-induced elevation of protein levels of CR6-interacting factor 1(CRIF1) and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2(NRF2)...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818454/the-anti-tumor-effect-of-intravesical-administration-of-normal-urothelial-cells-on-bladder-cancer
#10
Chi-Ping Huang, Chi-Cheng Chen, Chih-Rong Shyr
BACKGROUND AIMS: Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) is the second most common cancer of the genitourinary tract and for advanced forms of the disease it has a high mortality rate. There are no approved new molecularly targeted agents or chemotherapeutics for advanced UBC beyond cisplatin-based chemotherapy except the recently approved anti-programmed death ligand 1 (anti-PD-1/PD-L1) antibody. With complex genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumors, despite several druggable targets identified, to cure UBC is still a challenging unmet medical need...
August 14, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818266/microrna-93-elevation-after-myocardial-infarction-is-cardiac-protective
#11
Kai Li, Tao Lin, Lingdan Chen, Neng Wang
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is one of the most serious diseases that endangers human health worldwide, myocardial infarction (MI) is an acute form of CAD. Recent developments in MI therapies have resulted in significant reductions in mortality. However, subsequent chronic congestive heart failure and ventricle remodeling plagues an increasing number of MI patients. MicroRNAs (miR) have been reported to be involved in the process of cardiac remodeling, a recent study shows that miR-93 is elevated in the blood of CAD patients...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817980/pathways-to-pulmonary-hypertension-in-sickle-cell-disease-the-search-for-prevention-and-early-intervention
#12
Natalie R Shilo, Claudia R Morris
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) develops in a significant number of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. This review focuses on PH pathophysiology, risk stratification, and new recommendations for screening and treatment for patients with SCD. Areas covered: An extensive PubMed literature search was performed. While the pathophysiology of PH in SCD is yet to be fully deciphered, it is known that the etiology is multifactorial; hemolysis, hypercoagulability, hypoxemia, ischemic-reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, and genetic susceptibility all contribute in varying degrees to endothelial dysfunction...
August 18, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817669/the-association-between-renal-recovery-after-acute-kidney-injury-and-long-term-mortality-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#13
Charat Thongprayoon, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Narat Srivali, Wonngarm Kittanamongkolchai, Ankit Sakhuja, Kevin L Greason, Kianoush B Kashani
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the association between renal recovery status at hospital discharge after acute kidney injury (AKI) and long-term mortality following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: We screened all adult patients who survived to hospital discharge after TAVR for aortic stenosis at a quaternary referral medical center from January 1, 2008, through June 30, 2014. An AKI was defined as an increase in serum creatinine level of 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817088/the-role-of-neurogenic-inflammation-in-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-development-of-cerebral-oedema-following-acute-central-nervous-system-cns-injury
#14
REVIEW
Annabel J Sorby-Adams, Amanda M Marcoionni, Eden R Dempsey, Joshua A Woenig, Renée J Turner
Acute central nervous system (CNS) injury, encompassing traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, accounts for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide, largely attributable to the development of cerebral oedema and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Despite this, clinical treatments are limited and new therapies are urgently required to improve patient outcomes and survival. Originally characterised in peripheral tissues, such as the skin and lungs as a neurally-elicited inflammatory process that contributes to increased microvascular permeability and tissue swelling, neurogenic inflammation has now been described in acute injury to the brain where it may play a key role in the secondary injury cascades that evolve following both TBI and stroke...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816880/management-of-hangman-s-fractures-a-systematic-review
#15
Hamadi Murphy, Gregory D Schroeder, Weilong J Shi, Christopher K Kepler, Mark F Kurd, Andrew N Fleischman, Frank Kandziora, Jens R Chapman, Lorin M Benneker, Alexander R Vaccaro
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis, is a common cervical spine fracture; however, to date there is limited data available to guide the treatment of these injuries. The purpose of this review is to provide an evidence-based analysis of the literature and clinical outcomes associated with the surgical and nonsurgical management of hangman's fractures. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed (MEDLINE) and Scopus (EMBASE, MEDLINE, COMPENDEX) for all articles describing the treatment of hangman's fractures in 2 or more patients...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816877/fractures-in-spinal-ankylosing-disorders-a-narrative-review-of-disease-and-injury-types-treatment-techniques-and-outcomes
#16
Tarush Rustagi, Doniel Drazin, Cumhur Oner, Jonathan York, Gregory D Schroeder, Alexander R Vaccaro, Rod J Oskouian, Jens R Chapman
INTRODUCTION: Spinal ankylosing disorders encompass ankylosing spondylitis (AS), disseminated hyperostosis of the spine, and end-stage spondylosis. All these result in a stiffened and frequently deformed spinal column. This makes the spinal column highly susceptible to severe injuries that are commonly associated with unfavorable outcomes. Improved understanding of the underlying disease processes and clinical comorbidities may alter the poor injury related morbidity and mortality outcomes...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816837/individualizing-thresholds-of-cerebral-perfusion-pressure-using-estimated-limits-of-autoregulation
#17
Joseph Donnelly, Marek Czosnyka, Hadie Adams, Chiara Robba, Luzius A Steiner, Danilo Cardim, Brenno Cabella, Xiuyun Liu, Ari Ercole, Peter John Hutchinson, David Krishna Menon, Marcel J H Aries, Peter Smielewski
OBJECTIVES: In severe traumatic brain injury, cerebral perfusion pressure management based on cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index has the potential to provide a personalized treatment target to improve patient outcomes. So far, the methods have focused on identifying "one" autoregulation-guided cerebral perfusion pressure target-called "cerebral perfusion pressure optimal". We investigated whether a cerebral perfusion pressure autoregulation range-which uses a continuous estimation of the "lower" and "upper" cerebral perfusion pressure limits of cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation (assessed with pressure reactivity index)-has prognostic value...
September 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815564/target-temperature-34-vs-36%C3%A2-c-after-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-a-retrospective-observational-study
#18
L Arvidsson, S Lindgren, L Martinell, S Lundin, C Rylander
BACKGROUND: Intensive care for comatose survivors of cardiac arrest includes targeted temperature management (TTM) to attenuate cerebral reperfusion injury. A recent multi-center clinical trial did not show any difference in mortality or neurological outcome between TTM targeting 33°C or 36°C after out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest (OHCA). In our institution, the TTM target was changed accordingly from 34 to 36°C. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze if this change had affected patient outcome...
August 16, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815160/the-burden-of-spine-fractures-in-india-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#19
Ilyas S Aleem, Dylan DeMarco, Brian Drew, Parag Sancheti, Vijay Shetty, Mandeep Dhillon, Clary J Foote, Mohit Bhandari
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the characteristics of patients sustaining spinal trauma in India and (2) to explore the association between patient or injury characteristics and outcomes after spinal trauma. METHODS: In affiliation with the ongoing INternational ORthopaedic MUlticentre Study (INORMUS), 192 patients with spinal injuries were recruited during an 8-week period (November 2011 to June 2012) from 14 hospitals in India and followed for 30-days...
June 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815092/zinc-chloride-smoke-inhalation-induced-severe-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-first-survival-in-the-united-states-with-extended-duration-five-weeks-therapy-with-high-dose-corticosteroids-in-combination-with-lung-protective-ventilation
#20
Hafiz Mahboob, Robert Richeson Iii, Robert McCain
Zinc chloride smoke bomb exposure is frequently seen in military drills, combat exercises, metal industry works, and disaster simulations. Smoke exposure presents with variety of pulmonary damage based on the intensity of the exposure. Smoke induced severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is often fatal and there are no standard treatment guidelines. We report the first survival of smoke induced severe ARDS in the United States (US) with prolonged use of high dose steroids (five weeks) and lung protective ventilation alone...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
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