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Nutrition response testing

Allison C Sylvetsky, Rebecca J Brown, Jenny E Blau, Mary Walter, Kristina I Rother
BACKGROUND: Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS), especially in form of diet soda, have been linked to metabolic derangements (e.g. obesity and diabetes) in epidemiologic studies. We aimed to test acute metabolic effects of NNS in isolation (water or seltzer) and in diet sodas. METHODS: We conducted a four-period, cross-over study at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (Bethesda, Maryland). Thirty healthy adults consumed 355 mL water with 0 mg, 68 mg, 170 mg, and 250 mg sucralose, and 31 individuals consumed 355 mL caffeine-free Diet Rite Cola™, Diet Mountain Dew™ (18 mg sucralose, 18 mg acesulfame-potassium, 57 mg aspartame), and seltzer water with NNS (68 mg sucralose and 41 mg acesulfame-potassium, equivalent to Diet Rite Cola™) in randomized order, prior to oral glucose tolerance tests...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Ronit Weisman
All organisms can respond to the availability of nutrients by regulating their metabolism, growth, and cell division. Central to the regulation of growth in response to nutrient availability is the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling that is composed of two structurally distinct complexes: TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2). The TOR genes were first identified in yeast as target of rapamycin, a natural product of a soil bacterium, which proved beneficial as an immunosuppressive and anticancer drug and is currently being tested for a handful of other pathological conditions including diabetes, neurodegeneration, and age-related diseases...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Nicola M Grissom, Robert George, Teresa M Reyes
Nutritional conditions in early life can have a lasting impact on health and disease risk, though the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In the healthy individual, physiological and behavioral responses to stress are coordinated in such a way as to mobilize resources necessary to respond to the stressor and to terminate the stress response at the appropriate time. Induction of proinflammatory gene expression within the brain is one such example that is initiated in response to both physiological and psychological stressors, and is the focus of the current study...
October 15, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Alessandra Lodi, Bettina Karsten, Gerardo Bosco, Manuel Gómez-López, Paula Paraguassú Brandão, Antonino Bianco, Antonio Paoli
: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects on blood sugar concentrations through the calculation of the glycemic score (GS) of 10 different high-protein low-carbohydrates (CHOs) proprietary foods that are commonly used as meals during very low-CHO ketogenic diets or during low-CHO diets. Fourteen healthy females were tested for their glycemic response curve elicited by 1000 kJ of glucose three times within a 3-week period (one test each week) compared with one of 10 test foods once on separate days twice a week...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Bassem Yousef Sheikh, S M Neamul Kabir Zihad, Nazifa Sifat, Shaikh J Uddin, Jamil A Shilpi, Omer A A Hamdi, Hemayet Hossain, Razina Rouf, Ismet Ara Jahan
In addition to the rich nutritional value, date palm is also used in various ethnobotanical practices for the treatment of various disease conditions. Present investigation was undertaken to examine the neuropharmacological and antinociceptive effect of the ethanol extract of three date cultivars growing in Saudi Arabia, namely Ajwah, Safawy and Sukkari. Neuropharmacological effect was observed by pentobarbitone induced sleeping time, open field, and hole board test. Antinociceptive activity was tested by acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate test...
2016: Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
Richard L Jantz, Lee Meadows Jantz, Joanne L Devlin
Secular change in height has been extensively investigated, but size and shape of the postcranial skeleton much less so. The availability of large, documented collections of nineteenth- and twentieth-century skeletons makes it possible to examine changes in skeletal structure over the past 150 years. We examined secular changes in long bone lengths and proportions, their allometric relationship to stature, and crosssectional properties of long bone shafts. Bone measurements and stature were organized into 10-year birth cohorts, ranging from 1840 to 1989...
January 2016: Human Biology
Ammar W Ashor, Shakir Chowdhury, Clio Oggioni, Othman Qadir, Kirsten Brandt, Abbas Ishaq, John C Mathers, Gabriele Saretzki, Mario Siervo
BACKGROUND: Aging and obesity are associated with raised oxidative stress and a reduction of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, with subsequent decline in insulin sensitivity and endothelial function. Inorganic nitrate is converted into NO via a 2-step reduction process and may be an effective nutritional intervention to modify vascular and metabolic functions. OBJECTIVES: This study tested whether inorganic nitrate supplementation improved glucose disposal and attenuated the acute effects of hyperglycemia on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular function in young and old obese participants...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Felisa González, Enrique Morillas, Geoffrey Hall
In 3 experiments rats experienced 2 flavors, each paired with sucrose, in order to establish a conditioned preference to each. One (flavor Fe) was then presented alone (an extinction procedure) prior to a choice test between Fe and the flavor that did not undergo extinction (Fne). Hungry rats showed a preference for Fne over Fe (Experiment 1A), but rats that were not food-deprived showed no effect of extinction when given a choice between Fe and Fne immediately after extinction (Experiment 1B) or after an interval in which reexposure to sucrose was given (Experiment 2)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
Leslie Padrnos, Robert Bennett, Heidi Kosiorek, Amylou C Dueck, Donald Northfelt, Joseph Mikhael, Raoul Tibes, Nandita Khera, Ruben A Mesa
A cancer diagnosis requires significant information to facilitate health care decision making, understand management options, and health care system navigation. Patient knowledge deficit can decrease quality of life and health care compliance. Surveys were distributed to attendees of the Mayo Clinic "Living with and Surviving Cancer" patient symposium January 2015. Follow-up survey was sent to participants 3 months after the symposium. Surveys included demographic data and patient-reported disease comprehension, symptom burden, desired information, and quality-of-life assessment...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Gan-Bao Wei, Yao-Yong Lu, Rong-Wei Liao, Qing-Sheng Chen, Kun-Qiang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of Onodera's prognostic nutritional index (PNI) in patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: A total of 187 patients with metastatic NPC treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The PNI was calculated using the following formula: serum albumin level (gram per liter) +0.005× peripheral lymphocyte count (per cubic millimeter). A receiver operating characteristics curve for overall survival (OS) with the highest Youden index was determined to calculate the best cutoff value of PNI...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Ankita Mishra, Anuradha Singh, Monica Sharma, Pankaj Kumar, Joy Roy
BACKGROUND: Starch is a major part of cereal grain. It comprises two glucose polymer fractions, amylose (AM) and amylopectin (AP), that make up about 25 and 75 % of total starch, respectively. The ratio of the two affects processing quality and digestibility of starch-based food products. Digestibility determines nutritional quality, as high amylose starch is considered a resistant or healthy starch (RS type 2) and is highly preferred for preventive measures against obesity and related health conditions...
October 6, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Sarah Henderson, Tina Smith, Jenny Alexanders, Thomas Shaw, Lois Smith, Alan Nevill, Anna Anderson
OBJECTIVE: To investigate half marathon runners' frequency of use of recovery strategies, perceptions regarding the most beneficial recovery strategy and reasons for using recovery strategies. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS: 186 participants of the 13.1 mile BUPA Great North Run 2013. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed which required participants to indicate how frequently they used twelve different recovery strategies, identify which recovery strategy they believed to be most beneficial and rank six reasons for using recovery strategies in order of importance...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Jangwoo Lee, Seung Gu Shin, Jinmo Ahn, Gyuseong Han, Kwanghyun Hwang, Woong Kim, Seokhwan Hwang
Seven white rot fungal species were tested for growth as mycelia using swine wastewater (SW), an agro-waste with tremendous environmental footprint, as the sole nutrient source. The SW contained high concentrations of carbon and nitrogen components, which could support nutritional requirements for mycelial growth. Out of the seven species, Pleurotus ostreatus and Hericium erinaceus were successfully cultivated on the SW medium using solid-state fermentation. Response surface methodology was employed to determine the combination of pH, temperature (T), and substrate concentration (C) that maximizes mycelial growth rate (Kr) for the two species...
September 30, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Jari Rubbens, Joachim Brouwers, Jan Tack, Patrick Augustijns
This study investigated the impact of relevant gastrointestinal conditions on the intraluminal dissolution, supersaturation and precipitation behavior of the weakly basic drug indinavir. The influence of (i) concomitant PPI intake and (ii) the nutritional state on the gastrointestinal behavior of indinavir was assessed in order to identify the underlying mechanisms responsible for previously reported interactions. Five healthy volunteers were recruited into a cross-over study containing the following arms: fasted state, fed state and fasted state with concomitant proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Melissa Burton, Mike Reid, Anthony Worsley, Felix Mavondo
INTRODUCTION: Household food gatekeepers have the potential to influence the food attitudes and behaviours of family members, as they are mainly responsible for food-related tasks in the home. The aim of this study was to determine the role of gatekeepers' confidence in food-related skills and nutrition knowledge on food practices in the home. METHODS: An online survey was completed by 1059 Australian dietary gatekeepers selected from the Global Market Insite (GMI) research database...
September 28, 2016: Appetite
Evelyn G Reátegui-Zirena, Bridgette N Fidder, Christopher J Salice
Diet quality can have a strong impact on organismal fitness although diet quality is infrequently considered as a factor in toxicity tests. The purpose of this study was to assess how diets differing in nutritional content affect sensitivity to Cd as measured by several sublethal responses related directly to bioenergetics. We evaluated feeding rate, growth rate, behavior and macronutrient content in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to Cd and fed two different diets. Hatchlings were fed either lettuce or high-caloric pellets, and exposed to 5, 10, and 20 µg/L Cd for 12 days...
September 23, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Mugahid Faroug Mohamed Ali, Mohammed Osman Swar, Atika Mohamed Osman
Iron deficiency anaemia is frequently seen in the paediatric age group. Modifying the treatment options according to the affected area resources will help accessibility and compliance to treatment. Response of children with Iron deficiency anaemia to a natural hematinic (Carboadeim) versus iron syrup plus folic acid treatment was compared in this study. This is a prospective, interventional, controlled, hospital-based study conducted among children with iron deficiency anaemia residing in Hussein Village, Gezira State who attended Giad Hospital...
2016: Sudan J Paediatr
A Kassir
BACKGROUND: Iron plays an essential role in balancing the various metabolism in the body. It is also involved in the synthesis of several neurotransmitters. Nutritional iron deficiency is one of the most widespread worldwide; it poses a great health challenge due to the consequences it entails. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research study is to explore the percentage of psychiatric patients who have a deficiency in iron. In addition, the study investigates the efficacy of iron administered by oral treatment on psychiatric symptomatology among iron deficient patients...
September 16, 2016: L'Encéphale
Kim Linh Nguyen, Hoang Anh Nguyen, Otto Richter, Minh Thinh Pham, Van Phuoc Nguyen
Many mangrove forests have suffered from the contaminated environments near industrial areas. This study addresses the question how these environments influence the renewal of mangrove forests. To this end ecophysiological responses of the young mangrove species Rhizophora apiculata (Blume) grown under combinations of the factors heavy metals (here chromium), nutrition and soil/water environment were analyzed. We tested the hypothesis that soil/water conditions and nutrient status of the soil strongly influence the toxic effect of chromium...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Vlatka Periša, Lada Zibar, Ana Knezović, Igor Periša, Jasminka Sinčić-Petričević, Igor Aurer
BACKGROUND: The prognostic nutritional index (PNI), an indicator of nutritional status and systemic inflammation, is associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of various malignancies. The prognostic value of PNI in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the prognostic value of baseline PNI in DLBCL patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 103 DLBCL patients treated with R‑CHOP or R‑CHOP-like regimens...
September 8, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
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