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Nutrition response testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909840/variable-toxicity-of-silver-nanoparticles-to-daphnia-magna-effects-of-algal-particles-and-animal-nutrition
#1
Andrea L Conine, Paul C Frost
Aquatic environments vary widely in aspects other than their physicochemical properties that could alter the toxicity of novel contaminants. One factor that could affect chemical toxicity to aquatic consumers is their nutritional environment as it can strongly affect their physiology and life history. Nutrition has the potential to alter an organism's response to the toxin or how the toxin interacts with the consumer through its food. Here we determined how growth and survival responses of Daphnia to an emerging contaminant, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), are affected by the presence of food and its stoichiometric food quality...
December 1, 2016: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895755/inhibitory-effects-of-chinese-nutritional-herbs-in-isogenic-breast-carcinoma-cells-with-modulated-estrogen-receptor-function
#2
Nitin Telang, Guo Li, Meena Katdare, Daniel Sepkovic, Leon Bradlow, George Wong
In estrogen receptor (ER)+ MCF-7 cells, ER represents a ligand-activated transcription factor, and 17β-estradiol (E2) represents its physiological ligand. Maintenance of the human breast carcinoma-derived MCF-7 cells with 0.7% serum selected a proliferative sub-population of E2-responsive cells with transiently non-functional ER due to limited availability of E2. Culture of MCF-7 cells in the presence of either 0.7% serum, <1 nM E2 or 0.7% serum + 20 nM E2 selected isogenic cells with either non-functional ER (ER-NF) or functional ER (ER-F) phenotype...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884168/ataxia-telangiectasia-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Cynthia Rothblum-Oviatt, Jennifer Wright, Maureen A Lefton-Greif, Sharon A McGrath-Morrow, Thomas O Crawford, Howard M Lederman
DEFINITION OF THE DISEASE: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disorder primarily characterized by cerebellar degeneration, telangiectasia, immunodeficiency, cancer susceptibility and radiation sensitivity. A-T is often referred to as a genome instability or DNA damage response syndrome. EPIDEMIOLOGY: The world-wide prevalence of A-T is estimated to be between 1 in 40,000 and 1 in 100,000 live births. CLINICAL DESCRIPTION: A-T is a complex disorder with substantial variability in the severity of features between affected individuals, and at different ages...
November 25, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883361/adaptation-to-divergent-larval-diets-in-the-medfly-ceratitis-capitata
#4
Philip T Leftwich, William J Nash, Lucy A Friend, Tracey Chapman
Variation in diet can influence the timing of major life-history events and can drive population diversification and ultimately speciation. Proximate responses of life histories to diet have been well studied. However, there are scant experimental data on how organisms adapt to divergent diets over the longer term. We focused on this omission by testing the responses of a global pest, the Mediterranean fruitfly, to divergent selection on larval diets of different nutritional profiles. Tests conducted before and after 30 generations of nutritional selection revealed a complex interplay between the effects of novel larval dietary conditions on both plastic and evolved responses...
November 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872747/promoting-public-health-through-nutrition-labeling-a-study-in-brazil
#5
Sônia Maria Fernandes da Costa Souza, Kenio Costa Lima, Maria do Socorro Costa Feitosa Alves
BACKGROUND: Food and nutrition education allows individuals to build knowledge and values, reframe their food practices, and develop strategies for a healthy diet. Food choices within the diet represent a determinant of individual health status. Regardless of the food quality, the consumption of calorie-dense foods does not promote better health conditions for the population and can worsen emerging health problems. The present study aimed to describe and analyze the effectiveness of educational activities related to nutrition information for enabling healthy food choices, as a tool to promote public health...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870884/non-specific-root-transport-of-nutrient-gives-access-to-an-early-nutritional-indicator-the-case-of-sulfate-and-molybdate
#6
Anne Maillard, Elise Sorin, Philippe Etienne, Sylvain Diquélou, Anna Koprivova, Stanislav Kopriva, Mustapha Arkoun, Karine Gallardo, Marie Turner, Florence Cruz, Jean-Claude Yvin, Alain Ourry
Under sulfur (S) deficiency, crosstalk between nutrients induced accumulation of other nutrients, particularly molybdenum (Mo). This disturbed balanced between S and Mo could provide a way to detect S deficiency and therefore avoid losses in yield and seed quality in cultivated species. Under hydroponic conditions, S deprivation was applied to Brassica napus to determine the precise kinetics of S and Mo uptake and whether sulfate transporters were involved in Mo uptake. Leaf contents of S and Mo were also quantified in a field-grown S deficient oilseed rape crop with different S and N fertilization applications to evaluate the [Mo]:[S] ratio, as an indicator of S nutrition...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866147/benefits-potential-harms-and-optimal-use-of-nutritional-supplementation-for-preventing-progression-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#7
REVIEW
Carlos H Rojas-Fernandez, Kevin Tyber
OBJECTIVE: To briefly review age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the main findings from the Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) report number 8 on the use of nutritional supplements for AMD, and to focus on data suggesting that supplement use should be guided using genetic testing of AMD risk genes. DATA SOURCES: A literature search (January 2001 through October 26, 2016) was conducted using MEDLINE and the following MeSH terms: Antioxidants/therapeutic use, Genotype, Macular Degeneration/drug therapy, Macular degeneration/genetics, Dietary Supplements, Proteins/genetics, and Zinc Compounds/therapeutic use Bibliographies of publications identified were also reviewed...
November 19, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865497/invited-review-abomasal-emptying-in-calves-and-its-potential-influence-on-gastrointestinal-disease
#8
Johann Burgstaller, Thomas Wittek, Geof W Smith
Creating the ideal nutrition program for calves is a demanding task that has undergone tremendous change in recent years. Products and technologies including novel milk replacers and automated calf feeding systems have been developed to facilitate the ability of dairy producers to feed for higher growth rates before weaning. The creation of new feeding programs and milk replacers has to be looked at carefully, not only from a nutrition point of view but also from the perspective of a potential effect on physiologic digestion and calf health...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859814/black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis-and-domestic-horse-equus-caballus-hindgut-microflora-demonstrate-similar-fermentation-responses-to-grape-seed-extract-supplementation-in%C3%A2-vitro
#9
N F Huntley, H D Naumann, A L Kenny, M S Kerley
The domestic horse is used as a nutritional model for rhinoceros maintained under human care. The validity of this model for browsing rhinoceros has been questioned due to high prevalence of iron overload disorder (IOD) in captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Iron chelators, such as tannins, are under investigation as dietary supplements to ameliorate or prevent IOD in prone species. Polyphenolic compounds variably affect microbial fermentation, so the first objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE; a concentrated source of condensed tannins; CT) on black rhinoceros hindgut fermentation...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859157/density-constrains-cascading-consequences-of-warming-and-nitrogen-from-invertebrate-growth-to-litter-decomposition
#10
Jes Hines, Marta Reyes, Mark O Gessner
Smaller invertebrate body mass is claimed to be a universal response to climate warming. It has been suggested that body mass could also predict consumer influences on ecosystem processes in a warmer world because generalized rules describe relationships between body mass, temperature, and metabolism. However, the utility of this suggestion remains tenuous because the nutritional and physiological constraints underlying relationships between body mass and consumer-driven processes are highly variable in realistic settings...
July 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843003/-social-participation-after-childhood-craniopharyngioma
#11
C Olivari-Philiponnet, F Roumenoff, M Schneider, C Chantran, M Picot, P Berlier, C Mottolese, J-C Bernard, C Vuillerot
: Craniopharyngioma is a rare, benign central nervous system tumor, which may be a source of multiple complications, from endocrinology to vision, neurology and neurocognitive functions. This morbidity can lead to reduced participation in life activities, as described in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The primary objective of this study was to measure participation in life activities in a population of children and young adults affected by childhood craniopharyngioma, using the LIFE-H questionnaire (Assessment of Life Habits), validated as a social participation measurement tool in various pediatric disabilities...
November 10, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834866/staphylococcus-aureus-infection-reduces-nutrition-uptake-and-nucleotide-biosynthesis-in-a-human-airway-epithelial-cell-line
#12
Philipp Gierok, Manuela Harms, Karen Methling, Falko Hochgräfe, Michael Lalk
The Gram positive opportunistic human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus induces a variety of diseases including pneumonia. S. aureus is the second most isolated pathogen in cystic fibrosis patients and accounts for a large proportion of nosocomial pneumonia. Inside the lung, the human airway epithelium is the first line in defence with regard to microbial recognition and clearance as well as regulation of the immune response. The metabolic host response is, however, yet unknown. To address the question of whether the infection alters the metabolome and metabolic activity of airway epithelial cells, we used a metabolomics approach...
November 9, 2016: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829763/comparative-evaluation-of-serum-and-salivary-immunoglobulin-g-and-a-levels-with-total-serum-protein-in-oral-submucous-fibrosis-patients-a-case-control-study
#13
M Kandasamy, N Jaisanghar, Ravi David Austin, Kumar Chandan Srivastava, G Sai Anusuya, N Anisa
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA) levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821203/ageing-alters-the-impact-of-nutrition-on-immune-function
#14
Parveen Yaqoob
Immunosenescence during ageing is a major challenge which weakens the ability of older individuals to respond to infection or vaccination. There has been much interest in dietary strategies to improve immunity in older people, but there is an assumption that modulation of the immune response in older people will be based on the same principles as for younger adults. Recent evidence suggests that ageing fundamentally alters the impact of nutrition on immune function. As a result, interpretation of data from studies investigating the impact of diet on immune function is highly dependent on subject age...
November 8, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818216/estimation-of-iodine-nutrition-and-thyroid-function-status-in-late-gestation-pregnant-women-in-the-united-states-development-and-application-of-a-population-based-pregnancy-model
#15
A Lumen, N I George
Previously, a deterministic biologically-based dose-response (BBDR) pregnancy model was developed to evaluate moderate thyroid axis disturbances with and without thyroid-active chemical exposure in a near-term pregnant woman and fetus. In the current study, the existing BBDR model was adapted to include a wider functional range of iodine nutrition, including more severe iodine deficiency conditions, and to incorporate empirically the effects of homeostatic mechanisms. The extended model was further developed into a population-based model and was constructed using a Monte Carlo-based probabilistic framework...
November 3, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809764/cross-phenotype-association-tests-uncover-genes-mediating-nutrient-response-in-drosophila
#16
Christopher S Nelson, Jennifer N Beck, Kenneth A Wilson, Elijah R Pilcher, Pankaj Kapahi, Rachel B Brem
BACKGROUND: Obesity-related diseases are major contributors to morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Molecular diagnostics and targets of therapies to combat nutritional imbalance are urgently needed in the clinic. Invertebrate animals have been a cornerstone of basic research efforts to dissect the genetics of metabolism and nutrient response. We set out to use fruit flies reared on restricted and nutrient-rich diets to identify genes associated with starvation resistance, body mass and composition, in a survey of genetic variation across the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP)...
November 4, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795970/evaluation-of-the-strengths-and-weaknesses-of-community-based-education-from-the-viewpoint-of-students
#17
Sedigheh Mokhtarpour, Mitra Amini, Houri Mousavinezhad, Alireza Choobineh, Parisa Nabeiei
INTRODUCTION: Responsive medicine is an appropriate training method which trains the graduates who can act effectively in initial and secondary aspects of health issues in the society. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study which was done using quantitative method. The target population of this study was all the students of the Nutrition and Health School of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The sample was randomly selected in this study and 75 students were selected based on the methodologist's comments and similar studies and random-number table from a list obtained from the school's department of education...
October 2016: Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794078/clemens-von-pirquet-a-remarkable-life-and-career
#18
REVIEW
Stanford T Shulman
From 1908 to 1929, Clemens von Pirquet was one of the world's most acclaimed pediatricians. Von Pirquet (1874-1929) trained at Vienna's Universitäts Kinderklinic under Theodor Escherich, the first Pediatric Infectious Diseases physician [ 1], and became the first Professor and Chair of Pediatrics at Johns Hopkins in 1909. He then succeeded his mentor Escherich as Professor and Chair of Pediatrics in Vienna, the most prestigious European pediatric position, when Escherich died unexpectedly in 1911. He held that position in Vienna until his shocking double suicide at age 54 with his wife in 1929...
October 28, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793165/surviving-critical-illness-what-is-next-an-expert-consensus-statement-on-physical-rehabilitation-after-hospital-discharge
#19
M E Major, R Kwakman, M E Kho, B Connolly, D McWilliams, L Denehy, S Hanekom, S Patman, R Gosselink, C Jones, F Nollet, D M Needham, R H H Engelbert, M van der Schaaf
BACKGROUND: The study objective was to obtain consensus on physical therapy (PT) in the rehabilitation of critical illness survivors after hospital discharge. Research questions were: what are PT goals, what are recommended measurement tools, and what constitutes an optimal PT intervention for survivors of critical illness? METHODS: A Delphi consensus study was conducted. Panelists were included based on relevant fields of expertise, years of clinical experience, and publication record...
October 29, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787953/investigation-into-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-on-medical-nutrition-therapy-among-patients-with-diabetes-in-china-results-from-a-national-multicenter-cross-sectional-study
#20
Lu Lu Jing, Wei Chen, Zi Lin Sun, Sai Nan Zhu, Li Shen, Wen Xia Li, Jin Huang, Qing Qing Lou, Rong Wen Bian, Xiao Hui Guo
BACKGROUND: The study was aimed to investigate knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) associated with Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT) among Chinese adult patients with diabetes and pre-diabetes. METHODS: From May to August 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 40 hospitals across China. KAP of the respondents was investigated through a pre-tested structured questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Anthropometric and biochemical indicators were collected, and the KAP score was recorded according to patients' responses...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
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