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Nutrition response testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091998/palliative-effects-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil-gallic-acid-and-lemongrass-oil-dietary-supplementation-on-growth-performance-digestibility-carcass-traits-and-antioxidant-status-of-heat-stressed-growing-new-zealand-white-rabbits
#1
Adham A Al-Sagheer, Ahmed H Daader, Hassan A Gabr, Elham A Abd El-Moniem
This study explored the effects of supplemental dietary extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), gallic acid (GA), or lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass traits, lipid peroxidation, hematological, and antioxidative status in growing rabbits under heat stress conditions. A total of 48 male growing New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into four equal groups, which received a basal diet without any supplementation or supplemented with 15 g EVOO, 500 mg GA, or 400 mg LGEO/kg of diet, for eight consecutive weeks...
January 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081146/maternal-nutrition-during-pregnancy-affects-testicular-and-bone-development-glucose-metabolism-and-response-to-overnutrition-in-weaned-horses-up-to-two-years
#2
Morgane Robles, Camille Gautier, Luis Mendoza, Pauline Peugnet, Cédric Dubois, Michèle Dahirel, Jean-Philippe Lejeune, Isabelle Caudron, Isabelle Guenon, Sylvaine Camous, Anne Tarrade, Laurence Wimel, Didier Serteyn, Hélène Bouraima-Lelong, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer
INTRODUCTION: Pregnant mares and post-weaning foals are often fed concentrates rich in soluble carbohydrates, together with forage. Recent studies suggest that the use of concentrates is linked to alterations of metabolism and the development of osteochondrosis in foals. The aim of this study was to determine if broodmare diet during gestation affects metabolism, osteoarticular status and growth of yearlings overfed from 20 to 24 months of age and/or sexual maturity in prepubertal colts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077380/metabolomic-profiles-as-reliable-biomarkers-of-dietary-composition
#3
Tõnu Esko, Joel N Hirschhorn, Henry A Feldman, Yu-Han H Hsu, Amy A Deik, Clary B Clish, Cara B Ebbeling, David S Ludwig
BACKGROUND: Clinical nutrition research often lacks robust markers of compliance, complicating the interpretation of clinical trials and observational studies of free-living subjects. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine metabolomics profiles in response to 3 diets that differed widely in macronutrient composition during a controlled feeding protocol. DESIGN: Twenty-one adults with a high body mass index (in kg/m(2); mean ± SD: 34.4 ± 4.9) were given hypocaloric diets to promote weight loss corresponding to 10-15% of initial body weight...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076944/rice-variety-and-processing-contribution-to-glycaemic-response
#4
T U Nisanka, S Ekanayake
Introduction: Glycaemic index (GI) of different varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) commonly consumed in Sri Lanka are not widely studied even though it is the staple food. Objectives: To determine the proximate compositions and the GI of three different rice meals, namely Bg 360 Samba (raw), Basmati At 405 (raw) and parboiled Nadu Bg 352. Methods: The study was a randomised cross over study using healthy volunteers (n=11). GI was determined as the ratio between the incremental areas under curve obtained for the test food and the standard glucose (WHO/FAO method)...
30, 2016: Ceylon Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074888/a-review-of-the-carbohydrate-insulin-model-of-obesity
#5
REVIEW
K D Hall
The carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity theorizes that diets high in carbohydrate are particularly fattening due to their propensity to elevate insulin secretion. Insulin directs the partitioning of energy toward storage as fat in adipose tissue and away from oxidation by metabolically active tissues and purportedly results in a perceived state of cellular internal starvation. In response, hunger and appetite increases and metabolism is suppressed, thereby promoting the positive energy balance associated with the development of obesity...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068922/functional-changes-in-mrna-expression-and-alternative-pre-mrna-splicing-associated-with-the-effects-of-nutrition-on-apoptosis-and-spermatogenesis-in-the-adult-testis
#6
Yongjuan Guan, Guanxiang Liang, Graeme B Martin, Le Luo Guan
BACKGROUND: The effects of nutrition on testis mass in the sexually mature male have long been known, however, the cellular and molecular processes of the testis response to nutrition was not fully understood. METHODS: We tested whether the defects in spermatogenesis and increases in germ cell apoptosis in the testis that are induced by under-nutrition are associated with changes in mRNA expression and pre-mRNA alternative splicing using groups of 8 male sheep fed for a 10% increase or 10% decrease in body mass over 65 days...
January 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056959/morphological-densitometric-and-mechanical-properties-of-mandible-in-5-month-old-polish-merino-sheep
#7
Anna Szabelska, Marcin R Tatara, Witold Krupski
BACKGROUND: Among bones building the axial and appendicular skeleton, the mandible is characterized by unique morphological and functional traits. The aim of the study was to evaluate morphological, densitometric and mechanical properties of mandible in 5-month-old Polish Merino sheep. Using quantitative computed tomography, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and calcium hydroxyapatite density of the cortical bone (CbCa-HA), mean vBMD (MvBMD) and total bone volume were determined...
January 5, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054991/green-sonoextraction-of-protein-from-oleaginous-press-rapeseed-cake
#8
Meryem Boukroufa, Anne-Gaëlle Sicaire, Frederic Fine, Colette Larré, Aude Le Goff, Véronique Solé Jamault, Njara Rakotomanomana, Farid Chemat
In this study, extraction of soluble proteins from rapeseed cake using different conventional and innovative extraction processes in order to maximize the extraction yield has been investigated. Firstly, various extraction techniques including ultrasound, microwave, and percolation were tested to increase the protein recovery efficiency. Secondly, response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite design (CCD) approach was applied to investigate the influence of process variables on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE)...
January 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054426/relation-between-cognitive-and-hedonic-responses-to-a-meal
#9
B Ciccantelli, T Pribic, C Malagelada, A Accarino, F Azpiroz
BACKGROUND: Ingestion of a meal induces cognitive and hedonic sensations and our aim was to determine the relation between both dimensions. METHODS: In three groups of healthy non-obese men (n=10 per group) three types of meals with equivalent levels of palatability were tested: a liquid meal, a solid-liquid low-calorie meal, and a solid-liquid high-calorie meal. The cognitive and hedonic responses were measured on 10-cm scales before and during the 30-minute postprandial period...
January 5, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053173/the-indicator-amino-acid-oxidation-method-with-the-use-of-l-1-13c-leucine-suggests-a-higher-than-currently-recommended-protein-requirement-in-children-with-phenylketonuria
#10
Abrar Turki, Keiko Ueda, Barbara Cheng, Alette Giezen, Ramona Salvarinova, Sylvia Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Rajavel Elango
BACKGROUND: Phenylketonuria is characterized by mutations in the Phe hydroxylase gene that leads to the accumulation of Phe in plasma and the brain. The standard of care for phenylketonuria is nutritional management with dietary restriction of Phe and the provision of sufficient protein and energy for growth and health maintenance. The protein requirement in children with phenylketonuria is empirically determined based upon phenylketonuria nutritional guidelines that are adjusted individually in response to biochemical markers and growth...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051979/barriers-and-health-beliefs-related-to-weight-management-among-veterans-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#11
Shannon Munro, Emily Dinatale, Sarah Hartley, Monica St Jacques, Kris Ann Oursler
INTRODUCTION: The success of antiretroviral therapy has led to dramatic changes in causes of morbidity and mortality among U.S. Veterans with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Among the 25,000 Veterans treated for HIV, 70% are over age 50 and the rate of obesity has doubled in this population. Veterans with HIV have a 50% increased risk of myocardial infarction yet have limited presence in prevention-related programs designed to lower cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: This mixed methods study (focus groups, Schwarzer and Renner physical activity, and nutrition self-efficacy questionnaires) was used to explore factors related to health behavior and identify barriers that overweight Veterans with HIV face in enrolling in the MOVE weight management program...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049743/alternative-indexes-to-estimate-the-functional-capacity-from-the-6-minute-walk-test-in-children-and-adolescents-with-cystic-fibrosis
#12
Renata Tiemi Okuro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira Ribeiro, José Dirceu Ribeiro, Rafaela Coelho Minsky, Camila Isabel Santos Schivinski
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is a multi-systemic disease related to reduced functional capacity. The distance covered in the 6-min walk test (6MWT) has been known to assess functional capacity, but little is known about other indexes that can be derived. We sought to compare the performance during the 6MWT and the estimated indexes of functional capacity from the 6MWT between subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) and healthy individuals as well as to assess the relationship among these indexes and disease severity, pulmonary function, and nutritional status in CF...
January 3, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038428/ghrelin-upregulates-pept1-activity-in-the-small-intestine-epithelium-of-rats-with-sepsis
#13
Jingquan Liu, Bin Shi, Kai Shi, Guoguang Ma, Hongze Zhang, Xiaoli Lou, Hongxiang Liu, Shengxia Wan, Dongyu Liang
BACKGROUND: Sepsis causes nutritional substrate malabsorption; hence, preventing gut barrier problems and improving the nutritional status in sepsis is a compelling issue. AIMS: We tested whether ghrelin administration affects peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) activity in the intestinal epithelium of rats with sepsis. METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated, sepsis, and ghrelin-treated groups. The cecum of sham-operated rats was separated after laparotomy without ligation and perforation...
December 27, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035268/warming-mediates-the-relationship-between-plant-nutritional-properties-and-herbivore-functional-responses
#14
Meng Xu, Jaimie T A Dick, Anthony Ricciardi, Miao Fang, Canyu Zhang, Dangen Gu, Xidong Mu, Du Luo, Hui Wei, Yinchang Hu
Quantifying the per capita effects of invasive alien species is crucial for assessing their ecological impact. A major challenge to risk assessment of invasive species was to understand the factors that cause per capita effects to vary in different ecological contexts, particularly in a warming world. By conducting functional response experiments, we estimated the per capita effects (attack rate and maximum feeding rate) of an invasive herbivorous snail, Pomacea canaliculata, toward ten host plant species. We tested whether variation in these effects is related to plant nutritional and physical properties (total N and dry matter content (DMC)) and examined how increasing temperature can shift these relationships...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028939/mechanism-based-modeling-of-gastric-emptying-rate-and-gallbladder-emptying-in-response-to-caloric-intake
#15
B Guiastrennec, D P Sonne, M Hansen, J I Bagger, A Lund, J F Rehfeld, O Alskär, M O Karlsson, T Vilsbøll, F K Knop, M Bergstrand
Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism-based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma concentrations, and GBE was developed on data from 33 patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched nondiabetic individuals who were administered various test drinks. A feedback action of the caloric content entering the proximal small intestine was identified for the rate of GE...
December 2016: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027591/tm6sf2-rs58542926-impacts-lipid-processing-in-liver-and-small-intestine
#16
Elizabeth A O'Hare, Rongze Yang, Laura Yerges-Armstrong, Urmilla Sreenivasan, Rebecca McFarland, Carmen C Leitch, Meredith H Wilson, Shilpa Narina, Alexis Gorden, Kathy Ryan, Alan R Shuldiner, Steve A Farber, G Craig Wood, Christopher D Still, Glenn S Gerhard, Janet D Robishaw, Carole Sztalryd, Norann A Zaghloul
: The transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) loss-of-function variant, rs58542926, is a genetic risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to fibrosis, but is paradoxically associated with lower levels of hepatic-derived triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs). TM6SF2 is expressed predominately in liver and small intestine, sites for triglyceride rich lipoprotein biogenesis and export. In light of this, we hypothesized that TM6SF2 may exhibit analogous effects on both liver and intestine lipid homeostasis...
December 27, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998696/food-insecurity-experience-building-empathy-in-future-food-and-nutrition-professionals
#17
Alison Harmon, Kara Landolfi, Carmen Byker Shanks, Leanna Hansen, Laura Iverson, Melody Anacker
OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in empathy in students completing a food insecurity experience. DESIGN: Mixed methods; quantitative data from survey in years 1 and 2; qualitative data extracted from students' workbooks in years 2-5. This study was conducted over 10 weeks annually for 5 years. SETTING: Northwest US land-grant university. PARTICIPANTS: Students enrolled in a community nutrition course who chose to complete the food insecurity exercise...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966574/acute-increases-in-serum-colonic-short-chain-fatty-acids-elicited-by-inulin-do-not-increase-glp-1-or-pyy-responses-but-may-reduce-ghrelin-in-lean-and-overweight-humans
#18
S Rahat-Rozenbloom, J Fernandes, J Cheng, T M S Wolever
BACKGROUND: Colonic fermentation of dietary fibre to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) influences appetite hormone secretion in animals, but SCFA production is excessive in obese animals. This suggests there may be resistance to the effect of SCFA on appetite hormones in obesity. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of inulin (IN) and resistant starch (RS) on postprandial SCFA, and gut hormone (glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), peptide-tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and ghrelin) responses in healthy overweight/obese (OWO) vs lean (LN) humans...
December 14, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966572/genetic-ancestry-in-relation-to-the-metabolic-response-to-a-us-versus-traditional-mexican-diet-a-randomized-crossover-feeding-trial-among-women-of-mexican-descent
#19
M Santiago-Torres, J De Dieu Tapsoba, M Kratz, J W Lampe, K L Breymeyer, L Levy, X Song, A Villaseñor, C-Y Wang, L Fejerman, M L Neuhouser, C S Carlson
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Certain populations with a large proportion of indigenous American (IA) genetic ancestry may be evolutionarily adapted to traditional diets high in legumes and complex carbohydrates, and may have a detrimental metabolic response to US diets high in refined carbohydrates and added sugars. We tested whether IA ancestry modified the metabolic response to a US versus traditional Mexican diet in a controlled dietary intervention. SUBJECTS/METHODS: First and second generation Mexican immigrant women (n=53) completed a randomized crossover feeding trial testing the effects of a US versus traditional Mexican diet...
December 14, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966565/the-acute-effects-of-inulin-and-resistant-starch-on-postprandial-serum-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-second-meal-glycemic-response-in-lean-and-overweight-humans
#20
S Rahat-Rozenbloom, J Fernandes, J Cheng, G B Gloor, T M S Wolever
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Colonic fermentation of dietary fiber to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) may protect against obesity and diabetes, but excess production of colonic SCFA has been implicated in the promotion of obesity. We aimed to compare the effects of two fermentable fibers on postprandial SCFA and second-meal glycemic response in healthy overweight or obese (OWO) vs lean (LN) participants. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Using a randomized crossover design, 13 OWO and 12 LN overnight fasted participants were studied for 6 h on three separate days after consuming 300 ml water containing 75 g glucose (GLU) as control or with 24 g inulin (IN) or 28 g resistant starch (RS)...
December 14, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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