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Nutrition response testing

C W C Gomes, G Funkler, I Andretta, M O Gonçalves, H F Santos, C E F Cruz
The breeding of wild birds in captivity assumes an increasingly important role in conservation due to the loss of species and their habitats. Providing the environmental and nutritional needs of species kept in captivity is the key for achieving success in such initiatives. Among the flock health practices, we highlight here wild bird vaccination, a scarcely studied subject. This study clinically and serologically evaluates the effect of applying a vaccination protocol against Newcastle disease in three groups of ornamental wild birds...
March 14, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Phillip Baker, Corinna Hawkes, Kate Wingrove, Alessandro Rhyl Demaio, Justin Parkhurst, Anne Marie Thow, Helen Walls
Introduction: Generating country-level political commitment will be critical to driving forward action throughout the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition (2016-2025). In this review of the empirical nutrition policy literature, we ask: what factors generate, sustain and constrain political commitment for nutrition, how and under what circumstances? Our aim is to inform strategic 'commitment-building' actions. Method: We adopted a framework synthesis method and realist review protocol...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Lauren M Dinour, Jacalyn Szaro, Renata Blumberg, Mousumi Bose
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of a community-engaged assignment on graduate student learning in the nutritional sciences. DESIGN: Convergent mixed-methods design with parallel data collection and terminal merging of data. Data were composed of grant proposals, reflection papers, and informal course evaluations from 2 semesters of the same course. Fall students wrote proposals on behalf of a community partner whereas spring students wrote fictitious grants to improve nutrition on their campus...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Ewelina K Wardzinski, Alina Kistenmacher, Uwe H Melchert, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Kerstin M Oltmanns
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that the brain's energy status is lowered in obesity despite of chronic hypercaloric nutrition. The underlying mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesized that the brain of obese people does not appropriately generate energy in response to a hypercaloric supply. METHODS: Glucose was intravenously infused in 17 normal weights and 13 obese participants until blood glucose concentrations reached the postprandial levels of 7 mmol/L and 10 mmol/L...
March 6, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Anna Galczak-Kondraciuk, Paweł Stempel, Jan Czeczelewski
Background: Children and youth constitute a group that is particularly prone to the effects of improper diet. In the puberty period, numerous significant lifestyle choices are made, for instance regarding particular nutritional behaviours which may be repeated later in life and may determine the state of health. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess nutritional behaviours of children aged 7-12 attending to primary schools in Biala Podlaska county (Eastern Region of Poland)...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Carmela Cosola, Maria Teresa Rocchetti, Adamasco Cupisti, Loreto Gesualdo
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), cardiovascular (CV) damage is present in parallel which leads to an increased risk of CV disease. Both traditional and non-traditional risk factors contribute to CV damage in CKD. The systemic role of the microbiota as a central player in the pathophysiology of many organs is progressively emerging in the literature: the microbiota is indeed involved in a complex, bi-directional network between many organs, including the kidney and heart connection, although many of these relationships still need to be elucidated through in-depth mechanistic studies...
March 5, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Ken Fujioka, Spencer Gordon
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 1 billion people in the world have a point mutation in the gene encoding the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) enzyme, the primary enzyme responsible for the metabolism of acetaldehyde. The presence of this mutation is called ALDH2 deficiency. Because of limited ability to metabolize acetaldehyde, individuals with ALDH2 deficiency experience elevated levels of blood acetaldehyde after exposure to various common sources such as recreational alcohol. Because of higher levels of acetaldehyde, individuals with ALDH2 deficiency are at higher risk for numerous diseases, including liver cirrhosis, esophageal and gastric cancer, osteoporosis, and Alzheimer disease...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
Anushree Algotar, Ala K Shaikhkhalil, Kim Siler-Wurst, Swetha Sitaram, Ish Gulati, Sudarshan R Jadcherla
BACKGROUND: Body composition is an important predictor of long-term outcomes in neonates and may be altered by several factors. Innovative methods like air displacement plethysmography (ADP) can safely and reliably measure body composition, potentially assisting in individualization of nutrition therapy. OBJECTIVES: 1) To characterize patterns of body composition change in convalescing neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and examine factors leading to variation...
January 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Sanaa Kamal, Khaled K Aldossari, Dhalia Ghoraba, Sara Mahmoud Abdelhakam, Amgad H Kamal, Mohamad Bedewi, Leila Nabegh, Khaled Bahnasy, Tamer Hafez
Objective: Concomitant non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and coeliac disease (CD) have not been adequately studied. This study investigated the frequency of CD among NAFLD patients and the clinicopathological and immunological patterns and outcome of concomitant NAFLD and CD. Design: This prospective longitudinal study screened patients with NAFLD for CD (tissue transglutaminase antibodies (TTGA); anti-TTGA and antiendomysial antibodies (EMA)). Patients with concomitant NAFLD and CD and patients with either NAFLD or CD were enrolled and followed...
2018: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
Anna E Greer, Ann Knausenberger
We examined the relative importance of 23 community issues among elected officials and health directors in Connecticut in 2016. For this cross-sectional study, 74 elected officials (40.7% response rate) and 47 health directors (62.7% response rate), who were purposively sampled, completed a questionnaire to rate their perceived importance of 23 community issues. Eight of these issues were related to active living, healthy eating, or obesity. We used χ2 tests to evaluate differences in responses. Compared with elected officials, health directors significantly more often perceived obesity, access to healthy groceries, poor nutrition, lack of pedestrian walkways, and pedestrian safety as important...
March 1, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Mousa Khosravani
Historically, rodents-ectoparasites are responsible for many diseases in human and domestic animal communities because they are well-adapted to the environment and nutritional resources. In addition, ectoparasites can affect the reproductive rates, ecological fitness and the dispersal pattern of their hosts. Data was compiled through all publications relating to ectoparasites fauna from Iranian rodents. Host specificity, rodent-parasites interaction, geographical distribution, ecological trends as well as the medical or veterinary importance of ectoparasites are considered in this review...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Hsun-Chin Chao
Background: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of picky eating among preschool children and to evaluate the association between eating behavior and growth, physical activity, development, and health status. Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to conduct a cross-sectional descriptive study of 300 primary caregivers of children aged 2-4 years in Taiwan. Data collected included: demographics, food preferences, eating behavior, body weight, and height, development, physical activity, and records of medical illness...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Takayo Tada, Paul Moritoshi, Kanae Sato, Takayo Kawakami, Yuko Kawakami
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of an adapted simulated patient (SP) intervention on self-efficacy in nutrition care process skills. DESIGN: A repeated-measures design using a 25-item survey divided into 7 nutrition professional practice competencies (PPCs) employing a 5-point self-efficacy scale (1 = lowest to 5 = highest) administered immediately before and after the intervention. SETTING: A private Japanese university. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety Japanese third-year dietetics undergraduates aged 20-38 years...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
K Maunder, K Walton, P Williams, M Ferguson, E Beck
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to determine the eHealth readiness and changes over time of dietitians in Australia. METHODS: Two cross-sectional analyses of Australian dietitians were conducted in 2013 and 2016, using a survey adapted from one conducted in 2011 by the US Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The survey encompassed 30 questions on eHealth readiness across five dimensions: access, standards, attitude, aptitude and advocacy. Descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, chi-squared tests and Z-tests were computed to compare responses from the 2013 and 2016 surveys...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Valérie Platzer, Guillaume Perez, Anne Galinier, Michèle Genestal, Béatrice Riu-Poulenc, Leslie Gonzalez, Eric Huyghe, Sylvie Caspar-Bauguil
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Haemorrhagic radiation cystitis (HRC) is a late complication of pelvic radiotherapy. Severe cases are difficult to treat due to persistent or recurrent bleeding, despite urological and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). However, wound healing requires a good nutritional status. In this respect, we aimed at analysing the nutritional status of patients with HRC prior to the onset of HBOT and at highlighting predictive nutritional factors of outcome. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from a cohort of 179 patients with HRC (between 2011 and 2015)...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Delia Goletti, Meng-Rui Lee, Jann-Yuan Wang, Nicholas Walter, Tom H M Ottenhoff
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a devastating disease, yet despite its enormous toll on global health, tools to control TB are insufficient and often outdated. TB Biomarkers (TB-BM) would constitute extremely useful tools to measure infection status and predict outcome of infection, vaccination or therapy. There are several types of TB-BM: Correlate of Infection; Correlate of TB Disease; Correlate of Increased Risk of Developing Active TB Disease; Correlate of the Curative Response to Therapy; and Correlate of Protection (CoP)...
February 18, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Asif Naeem, Muhammad Aslam, Asma Lodhi
BACKGROUND: The negative effect of soil applied phosphorus (P) on zinc (Zn) uptake by plants and concentration in food grains could be a possible reason of low dietary intake of Zn. Likewise its critical role in plant tolerance to other abiotic stresses, potassium (K) was thought to retrieve P induced decrease in grain Zn concentration of wheat. To test the above hypothesis, effect of K application (50 mg kg-1 soil) on Zn concentration in shoot/grains and its shoot-to-grain translocation was studied in wheat (Triticum aestivum L, cv Galaxy 2013) under low and optimal supply of both P (10 and 50 mg kg-1 ) and Zn (0 and 5 mg kg-1 )...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Naoyuki Ida, Keiichiro Nakamura, Masayuki Saijo, Tomoyuki Kusumoto, Hisashi Masuyama
Systemic inflammatory responses (SIRs) can help predict survival in various cancers. The present study investigated the accuracy of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) in predicting survival for patients with recurrent cervical cancer. A retrospective review of prognoses examined the associations among NLR, PLR, and PNI, and clinical characteristics and survival in 79 patients with recurrent cervical cancer after undergoing concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) or radical hysterectomies with or without CCRT...
February 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Pedro Mendoza-de-Gives, María Eugenia López-Arellano, Liliana Aguilar-Marcelino, Sara Olazarán-Jenkins, David Reyes-Guerrero, Gabriel Ramírez-Várgas, Vicente E Vega-Murillo
This research was performed to assess the Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospore dose/response administered in gastrointestinal parasitic nematode (GIN) naturally infected calves and its effect in reducing the GIN infective larvae (L3 ) population in faeces in a cattle farm in the Mexican tropics. This study was carried out at the experimental research station "Las Margaritas" in Hueytamalco Municipality, Puebla State, Mexico. Forty zebu calves, between 6 to 12 months of age were randomly distributed into four groups of ten calves each...
January 31, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Omar Ramos-Lopez, Jose I Riezu-Boj, Fermin I Milagro, Leticia Goni, Marta Cuervo, Jose A Martinez
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of two PPARGC1A gene polymorphisms on metabolic outcomes in response to two energy-restricted diets. METHODS: A 4-mo nutritional intervention was conducted that involved two different hypo-energetic diets based on low-fat (LF) and moderately high-protein (MHP) dietary patterns. Unrelated subjects with excessive weight were genotyped for two PPARGC1A polymorphisms: Rs8192678 (Gly482Ser) and rs3755863 (G > A)...
March 2018: Nutrition
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