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Koonal K Shah, Aki Tsuchiya, Allan J Wailoo
A source of debate in the health care priority setting literature is whether to weight health gains to account for equity considerations, such as concern for those with very short life expectancy. This paper reviews the empirical evidence in the published social sciences literature relevant to the following research question: do members of the public wish to place greater weight on a unit of health gain for end-of-life patients than on that for other types of patients? An electronic search of the Social Sciences Citation Index for articles published until October 2017 was conducted, with follow-up of references to obtain additional data...
March 7, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Elizabeth Prout Parks, Reneé H Moore, Ziyi Li, Chanelle T Bishop-Gilyard, Andrew R Garrett, Douglas L Hill, Yasmeen P Bruton, David B Sarwer
BACKGROUND: Severe obesity in adolescents has deleterious physical and psychological complications necessitating frequent multi-disciplinary clinic visits. Greater treatment engagement has been equated with weight-loss. However, traditional medical weight-loss programs for adolescents have high attrition rates. Social media is widely used by adolescents and may enhance medical weight management engagement and success. OBJECTIVE: The first objective was to examine the acceptability and feasibility of using a private social media group as an adjunct to medical weight management in youth ages 14 to 20 years with severe obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2]...
March 19, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Ryan Rosenberry, Susie Chung, Michael D Nelson
Exercise represents a major hemodynamic stress that demands a highly coordinated neurovascular response in order to match oxygen delivery to metabolic demand. Reactive hyperemia (in response to a brief period of tissue ischemia) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and provides important insight into vascular health and vasodilatory capacity. Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity is equally important in health and disease, as it determines the energy supply for myocellular processes. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive approach using near-infrared spectroscopy to assess each of these major clinical endpoints (reactive hyperemia, neurovascular coupling, and muscle oxidative capacity) during a single clinic or laboratory visit...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Samah W Al-Jabi, Ansam Sous, Fatimah Jorf, Mahmoud Taqatqa, Mahdi Allan, Lamees Sawalha, Enas Lubadeh, Sa'ed H Zyoud, Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of end-stage renal disease in the Palestinian population and the effect of the disease on the psychological status of the patient underlie the importance of increasing knowledge about the mental health status of patients with end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depression in Palestinian patients treated with haemodialysis and its correlation with patients' clinical characteristics, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and adherence to medications...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Yasin Yurt, Gül Şener, Yavuz Yakut
BACKGROUND: Foot orthoses are widely used in conservative treatment of painful flexible flatfoot however research is limited to choose the best option in orthotic treatment. AIM: We aimed to compare the effects of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) and conventional insole types in comparison with sham insole, on pain and health related quality of life in patients with painful flexible flatfoot. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Helton O Campos, Lucas R Drummond, Quezia T Rodrigues, Frederico S M Machado, Washington Pires, Samuel P Wanner, Cândido C Coimbra
Nitrate (NO3 -) is an ergogenic nutritional supplement that is widely used to improve physical performance. However, the effectiveness of NO3 - supplementation has not been systematically investigated in individuals with different physical fitness levels. The present study analysed whether different fitness levels (non-athletes v. athletes or classification of performance levels), duration of the test used to measure performance (short v. long duration) and the test protocol (time trials v. open-ended tests v...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Michael R Deschenes, Shuhan Li, Matthew A Adan, Jane J Oh, Hailey C Ramsey
BACKGROUND: This project aimed to determine the adaptability of the neuromuscular system to the stimuli of exercise training, and aging. METHODS: Young adult, and aged male rats were randomly assigned to either exercise training, or sedentary control groups. Exercise training featured an 8 week program of treadmill running. At the end of the intervention period, neuromuscular function was quantified with ex vivo stimulation procedures on isolated soleus muscles...
March 14, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Mark Waldron, Francesca Knight, Jamie Tallent, Stephen Patterson, Owen Jeffries
This study investigated the effects of taurine on repeated sprint exercise, performed after fixed incremental ramp exercise to exhaustion at isokinetic high (90 r/min) or low (50 r/min) cadences. In a double-blind, repeated measures design, nine females completed an incremental ramp test to volitional exhaustion, followed by 2 min active recovery and 6 × 10 s sprints on a cycle ergometer, in one of four conditions: high cadence (90 r/min) + taurine (50 mg/kg body mass); high cadence + placebo (3 mg/kg body mass maltodextrin); low cadence (50 r/min) + taurine; low cadence + placebo...
March 17, 2018: Amino Acids
Nuria Farré, Ramon Farré, David Gozal
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) has emerged as a highly prevalent public health problem that imposes important mid-term and long-term consequences, namely cardiovascular, metabolic, cognitive and cancer-related alterations. OSA is characterized by increased upper airway resistance, alveolar hypoventilation, and recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. Recurrent collapse of the upper airway develops with sleep onset, and is associated with both intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation. The microbiome is a vast and complex polymicrobial ecosystem that coexists with the human organism, and has been identified as playing significant roles in the development of host immunological phenotypes...
March 13, 2018: Chest
Morad Chughtai, John J Kelly, Jared M Newman, Assem A Sultan, Anton Khlopas, Nipun Sodhi, Anil Bhave, Michael C Kolczun, Michael A Mont
This study evaluated the use of telerehabilitation during the postoperative period for patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). Specifically, this study evaluated the following: (1) patient compliance and adherence to the program, (2) time spent performing physical therapy exercises, (3) the usability of the virtual rehabilitation platform, and (4) clinical outcome scores in a selected primary knee arthroplasty cohort. A total of 157 consecutive patients underwent TKA ( n  = 18) or UKA ( n  = 139)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
Mursel Bicer, Saltuk Bugra Baltaci, Suleyman Patlar, Rasim Mogulkoc, Abdulkerim Kasim Baltaci
Aim The present study aimed to examine the effects of melatonin supplementation on lipid peroxidation in the bone tissue of diabetic rats subjected to acute swimming exercise. Methods The study was conducted on 80 Sprague-Dawley type adult male rats which were equally allocated to eight groups: group 1, general control; group 2, melatonin-supplemented control; group 3, melatonin-supplemented diabetic control; group 4, swimming control; group 5, melatonin-supplemented swimming; group 6, melatonin-supplemented diabetic swimming; group 7, diabetic swimming; group 8, diabetic control...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Mark Waldron, Luke Waldron, Craig Lawlor, Adrian Gray, Jamie Highton
PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of an acute 24-h nitrate-rich beetroot juice supplement (BR) on the energy cost, exercise efficiency and blood pressure responses to intermittent walking at different gradients. METHODS: In a double-blind, cross-over design, eight participants were provided with a total of 350 ml of nitrate-rich (~ 20.5 mmol nitrate) BR or placebo (PLA) across 24 h before completing intermittent walking at 3 km/h on treadmill at gradients of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20%...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Maria Lucia Campos Gonçalves, Samantha Fernandes, João Batista de Sousa
[Purpose] To assess the influence of moderate physical exercise on pelvic floor muscle electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback signal in female non-athletes. [Subjects and Methods] A prospective, non-randomized study of 90 adult females (age ≥18 years) divided into three groups: Intervention (I), which began physical exercise upon study enrollment; Moderate Exercise (ME), comprising those who already engaged in physical activity; and Sedentary (S), comprising those who had a sedentary lifestyle. All participants underwent EMG biofeedback of the pelvic floor muscles upon study enrollment (T1) and at the end of the third subsequent month (T2)...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Alexander R Opotowsky, Jonathan Rhodes, Michael J Landzberg, Ami B Bhatt, Keri M Shafer, Doreen DeFaria Yeh, Scott E Crouter, Ana Ubeda Tikkanen
BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves exercise capacity and quality of life while reducing mortality in adults with acquired heart disease. Cardiac rehabilitation has not been extensively studied in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). METHODS: We performed a prospective, randomized controlled trial (NCT01822769) of a 12-week clinical CR program compared with standard of care (SOC). Participants were ≥16 years old, had moderate or severe CHD, had O2 saturation ≥92%, and had peak O2 consumption ([Formula: see text]) < 80% predicted...
March 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Alexa M Bouts, Lauren Brackman, Elizabeth Martin, Adam M Subasic, Edward S Potkanowicz
People use their smartphones for everything from web browsing to tracking fitness metrics. However, it is unclear whether smartphone-based apps that use photoplethysmography to measure heart rate are an accurate or valid measure of exercise intensity. Purpose was to determine the accuracy and validity of two iOS-based heart rate monitors, Runtastic Heart Rate Monitor and Pulse Tracker PRO by Runtastic (Runtastic) and Instant Heart Rate+: Heart Rate and Pulse Monitor by Azumio (Instant Heart Rate), when compared to the electrocardiogram (ECG) and Polar® T31 uncoded heart rate monitor from moderate to vigorous intensity exercise...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Guner Cicek, Osman Imamoglu, Abdullah Gullu, Oguzhan Celik, Oguzhan Ozcan, Esin Gullu, Faruk Yamaner
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of 16 weeks step-aerobic exercises and core exercises on left ventricular structure and function with some physiological parameters in sedentary women. Methods: To achieve the purpose of this study, a total of 45 volunteers including (step-aerobic group (SAG, n = 25), core exercise group (CEG, n = 20) were selected as participants. Two different exercises were applied for 4 days a week, throughout 16 weeks, within 60 minutes for each exercise with the intensity of heart rate (HR) 60-70 percent...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Leandro C Felippe, Guilherme A Ferreira, Fernando De-Oliveira, Flavio O Pires, Adriano E Lima-Silva
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference between arterialized and venous blood lactate concentrations [La] during constant-load exercises at different intensities. Methods: Fifteen physically active men cycled for 30 minutes (or until exhaustion) at the first lactate threshold (LT1 ), at 50% of the difference between the first and second lactate threshold (TT50% ), at the second lactate threshold (LT2 ), and at 25% of the difference between LT2 and maximal aerobic power output (TW25% )...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Sherrie L Kelly, Rowan Martin-Hughes, Robyn M Stuart, Xiao F Yap, David J Kedziora, Kelsey L Grantham, S Azfar Hussain, Iyanoosh Reporter, Andrew J Shattock, Laura Grobicki, Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Zofia Baranczuk, Olivia Keiser, Janne Estill, Janka Petravic, Richard T Gray, Clemens J Benedikt, Nicole Fraser, Marelize Gorgens, David Wilson, Cliff C Kerr, David P Wilson
BACKGROUND: To move towards ending AIDS by 2030, HIV resources should be allocated cost-effectively. We used the Optima HIV model to estimate how global HIV resources could be retargeted for greatest epidemiological effect and how many additional new infections could be averted by 2030. METHODS: We collated standard data used in country modelling exercises (including demographic, epidemiological, behavioural, programmatic, and expenditure data) from Jan 1, 2000, to Dec 31, 2015 for 44 countries, capturing 80% of people living with HIV worldwide...
March 9, 2018: Lancet HIV
Lindsey Realmuto, Alexandra Kamler, Linda Weiss, Tiffany L Gary-Webb, Michael E Hodge, José A Pagán, Elizabeth A Walker
The National Diabetes Prevention Program (NDPP) has been effectively translated to various community and clinical settings; however, regardless of setting, enrollment among men and lower-income populations is low. This study presents participant perspectives on Power Up for Health, a novel NDPP pilot adaption for men residing in low-income communities in New York City. We conducted nine interviews and one focus group with seven participants after the program ended. Interview and focus group participants had positive perceptions of the program and described the all-male aspect of the program and its reliance on male coaches as major strengths...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Elizabeth A Walker, Linda Weiss, Tiffany L Gary-Webb, Lindsey Realmuto, Alexandra Kamler, Joseph Ravenell, Carlos Tejeda, Jennifer Lukin, Clyde B Schechter
There is a significant evidence base for the Diabetes Prevention Program, a lifestyle intervention to prevent onset of type 2 diabetes among high-risk individuals; however, translation of this intervention for men has been challenging. This report presents outcomes of the pilot study of an adapted 16-week diabetes prevention program entitled " Power Up for Health." The study goal was to better engage men of color with prediabetes from disadvantaged neighborhoods of New York City. It was implemented at five different recreation centers located in predominantly low-income neighborhoods across New York City...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
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