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Aminoacid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089725/high-concentration-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-promotes-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-migration-of-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-via-mtorc1-activation
#1
Olha Zhenyukh, Esther Civantos, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, María Soledad Sánchez, Clotilde Vázquez, Concepción Peiró, Jesús Egido, Sebastián Mas
Leucine, isoleucine and valine are essential aminoacids termed branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) due to its aliphatic side-chain. In several pathological and physiological conditions increased BCAA plasma concentrations have been described. Elevated BCAA levels predict insulin resistance development. Moreover, BCAA levels higher than 2mmol/L are neurotoxic by inducing microglial activation in maple syrup urine disease. However, there are no studies about the direct effects of BCAA in circulating cells. We have explored whether BCAA could promote oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from healthy donors...
January 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045774/study-of-carnitine-acylcarnitine-and-aminoacid-profile-in-children-and-adults-with-acute-liver-failure
#2
Vikrant Sood, Dinesh Rawat, Rajeev Khanna, Shvetank Sharma, Prem K Gupta, Seema Alam, Shiv Kumar Sarin
OBJECTIVES: Fatty acid oxidation defects (FAODs) may underlie or modify the course of acute liver failure (ALF). Overall significance of carnitine/acylcarnitine and aminoacid profile in ALF is similarly undetermined. Thus, this study was undertaken to study the abnormalities in carnitine/acylcarnitine and aminoacid profile in ALF. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was performed including all cases of ALF and detailed evaluation including metabolic testing was done...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031172/prorenin-receptor-controls-renal-branching-morphogenesis-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#3
Renfang Song, Adam Janssen, Yuwen Li, Samir S El-Dahr, Ihor V Yosypiv
The prorenin receptor (PRR) is a receptor for renin and prorenin, and an accessory subunit of the vacuolar proton pump H+-ATPase. Renal branching morphogenesis, defined as growth and branching of the ureteric bud (UB), is essential for mammalian kidney development. Previously, we demonstrated that conditional ablation of the PRR in the UB in PRRUB-/- mice causes severe defects in UB branching, resulting in marked kidney hypoplasia at birth. Here, we investigated UB transcriptome using whole-genome-based analysis of gene expression in UB cells FACS-isolated from PRRUB-/- and control kidneys at birth (P0) to determine the primary role of the PRR in terminal differentiation and growth of UB-derived collecting ducts...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028471/refining-the-reaction-mechanism-of-o2-towards-its-co-substrate-in-cofactor-free-dioxygenases
#4
Pedro J Silva
Cofactor-less oxygenases perform challenging catalytic reactions between singlet co-substrates and triplet oxygen, in spite of apparently violating the spin-conservation rule. In 1-H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine-2,4-dioxygenase, the active site has been suggested by quantum chemical computations to fine tune triplet oxygen reactivity, allowing it to interact rapidly with its singlet substrate without the need for spin inversion, and in urate oxidase the reaction is thought to proceed through electron transfer from the deprotonated substrate to an aminoacid sidechain, which then feeds the electron to the oxygen molecule...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998193/update-on-dietary-therapy-for-eosinophilic-esophagitis-in-children-and-adults
#5
Javier Molina-Infante, Pedro Luis Gonzalez-Cordero, Angel Arias, Alfredo J Lucendo
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory esophageal disease triggered predominantly, but not excusively, by food antigens. Elimination diet thus remains the only therapy targeting the cause of the disease. Importantly, EoE is a unique form of non-IgE mediated food allergy, largely dependant upon delayed, cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Areas covered: A comprehensive review of literature to summarize and update the most relevant advances on dietary therapy for pediatric and adult EoE patients is conducted...
December 23, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997568/longipin-an-amyloid-antimicrobial-peptide-from-the-harvestman-acutisoma-longipes-arachnida-opiliones-with-preferential-affinity-for-anionic-vesicles
#6
Raphael Santa Rosa Sayegh, Isabel de Fátima Correia Batista, Robson Lopes de Melo, Karin A Riske, Sirlei Daffre, Guillermo Montich, Pedro Ismael da Silva Junior
In contrast to vertebrate immune systems, invertebrates lack an adaptive response and rely solely on innate immunity in which antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play an essential role. Most of them are membrane active molecules that are typically unstructured in solution and adopt secondary/tertiary structures upon binding to phospholipid bilayers. This work presents the first characterization of a constitutive AMP from the hemolymph of an Opiliones order animal: the harvestman Acutisoma longipes. This peptide was named longipin...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986730/the-sinorhizobium-ensifer-fredii-hh103-nodulation-outer-protein-nopi-is-a-determinant-for-efficient-nodulation-of-soybean-and-cowpea
#7
Irene Jiménez-Guerrero, Francisco Pérez-Montaño, Carlos Medina, Francisco Javier Ollero, Francisco Javier López-Baena
: The type 3 secretion system (T3SS) is a specialized secretion apparatus commonly used by many plant and animal pathogenic bacteria to deliver proteins, termed effectors, to the interior of the host cells. These effectors suppress host defenses and interfere with signal transduction pathways to promote infection. Some rhizobial strains possess a functional T3SS, which is involved in the suppression of host defense responses, host-range determination and symbiotic efficiency. The analysis of the genome of the broad host-range rhizobial strain Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 identified eight genes that code for putative T3SS effectors...
December 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983640/long-term-stability-of-new-co-amorphous-drug-binary-systems-study-of-glass-transitions-as-a-function-of-composition-and-shelf-time
#8
Luz María Martínez, Marcelo Videa, Nahida González Sosa, José Héctor Ramírez, Samuel Castro
The amorphous state is of particular interest in the pharmaceutical industry due to the higher solubility that amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients show compared to their respective crystalline forms. Due to their thermodynamic instability, drugs in the amorphous state tend to recrystallize; in order to avoid crystallization, it has been a common strategy to add a second component to hinder the crystalline state and form a thermally stable co-amorphous system, that is to say, an amorphous binary system which retains its amorphous structure...
December 14, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982682/acrylamide-a-common-food-toxin-related-to-physiological-functions-and-health
#9
M Semla, Z Goc, M Martinikova, R Omelka, G Formicki
Acrylamide (AA) is a highly reactive organic compound capable of polimeryzation to form polyacrylamide, which is commonly used throughout a variety of industries. Given its toxic effect on humans and animals, the last 20 years have seen an increased interest in research devoted to the AA. One of the main sources of AA is food. AA appears in heated food following the reaction between aminoacids and reduced sugars. Large concentrations of AA can be found in popular staples such as coffee, bread or potato products...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960258/mechanism-of-the-spontaneous-and-directional-membrane-insertion-of-a-2-transmembrane-ion-channel
#10
Steffen Altrichter, Maximilian Haase, Belinda Loh, Andreas Kuhn, Sebastian Leptihn
Protein insertion into membranes is a process occurring in every cell and every cellular compartment. Yet, many thermodynamic aspects of this fundamental biophysical process are not well understood. We investigated physicochemical parameters that influence protein insertion using the model protein KcsA, a 2-transmembrane ion channel. To understand what drives insertion and to identify individual steps of protein integration into a highly apolar environment, we investigated the contribution of electrostatic interactions and lipid composition on protein insertion on a single molecule level...
December 21, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958316/the-key-role-of-meteorites-in-the-formation-of-relevant-prebiotic-molecules-in-a-formamide-water-environment
#11
Luca Rotelli, Josep M Trigo-Rodríguez, Carles E Moyano-Cambero, Eleonora Carota, Lorenzo Botta, Ernesto Di Mauro, Raffaele Saladino
We show that carbonaceous chondrite meteorites actively and selectively catalyze the formation of relevant prebiotic molecules from formamide in aqueous media. Specific catalytic behaviours are observed, depending on the origin and composition of the chondrites and on the type of water present in the system (activity: thermal > seawater > pure). We report the one-pot synthesis of all the natural nucleobases, of aminoacids and of eight carboxylic acids (forming, from pyruvic acid to citric acid, a continuous series encompassing a large part of the extant Krebs cycle)...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927186/diet-as-a-system-an-observational-study-investigating-a-multi-choice-system-of-moderately-restricted-low-protein-diets
#12
Giorgina Barbara Piccoli, Marta Nazha, Irene Capizzi, Federica Neve Vigotti, Stefania Scognamiglio, Valentina Consiglio, Elena Mongilardi, Marilisa Bilocati, Paolo Avagnina, Elisabetta Versino
BACKGROUND: There is no single, gold-standard, low-protein diet (LPD) for CKD patients; the best compliance is probably obtained by personalization. This study tests the hypothesis that a multiple choice diet network allows patients to attain a good compliance level, and that, in an open-choice system, overall results are not dependent upon the specific diet, but upon the clinical characteristics of the patients. METHODS: Observational study: Three LPD options were offered to all patients with severe or rapidly progressive CKD: vegan diets supplemented with alpha-ketoacids and essential aminoacids; protein-free food in substitution of normal bread and pasta; other (traditional, vegan non supplemented and tailored)...
December 7, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890797/3-bromopyruvate-treatment-induces-alterations-of-metabolic-and-stress-related-pathways-in-glioblastoma-cells
#13
Davide Chiasserini, Magdalena Davidescu, Pier Luigi Orvietani, Federica Susta, Lara Macchioni, Maya Petricciuolo, Emilia Castigli, Rita Roberti, Luciano Binaglia, Lanfranco Corazzi
: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumour of adults. The metabolic phenotype of GBM cells is highly dependent on glycolysis; therefore, therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with glycolytic pathways are under consideration. 3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) is a potent antiglycolytic agent, with a variety of targets and possible effects on global cell metabolism. Here we analyzed the changes in protein expression on a GBM cell line (GL15 cells) caused by 3BP treatment using a global proteomic approach...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883075/direct-electrical-control-of-igg-conformation-and-functional-activity-at-surfaces
#14
Paola Ghisellini, Marialuisa Caiazzo, Andrea Alessandrini, Roberto Eggenhöffner, Massimo Vassalli, Paolo Facci
We have devised a supramolecular edifice involving His-tagged protein A and antibodies to yield surface immobilized, uniformly oriented, IgG-type, antibody layers with Fab fragments exposed off an electrode surface. We demonstrate here that we can affect the conformation of IgGs, likely pushing/pulling electrostatically Fab fragments towards/from the electrode surface. A potential difference between electrode and solution acts on IgGs' charged aminoacids modulating the accessibility of the specific recognition regions of Fab fragments by antigens in solution...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871938/the-role-of-gpi-anchored-axonal-glycoproteins-in-neural-development-and-neurological-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Gianfranco Gennarini, Antonella Bizzoca, Sabrina Picocci, Daniela Puzzo, Patrizia Corsi, Andrew J W Furley
This review article focuses on the Contactin (CNTN) subset of the Immunoglobulin supergene family (IgC2/FNIII molecules), whose components share structural properties (the association of Immunoglobulin type C2 with Fibronectin type III domains), as well as a general role in cell contact formation and axonal growth control. IgC2/FNIII molecules include 6 highly related components (CNTN 1-6), associated with the cell membrane via a Glycosyl Phosphatidyl Inositol (GPI)-containing lipid tail. Contactin 1 and Contactin 2 share ~50 (49...
November 18, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866936/current-applications-and-different-approaches-for-microbial-l-asparaginase-production
#16
REVIEW
Jorge Javier Muso Cachumba, Felipe Antonio Fernandes Antunes, Guilherme Fernando Dias Peres, Larissa Pereira Brumano, Júlio César Dos Santos, Silvio Silvério Da Silva
l-asparaginase (EC 3.5.1.1) is an enzyme that catalysis mainly the asparagine hydrolysis in l-aspartic acid and ammonium. This enzyme is presented in different organisms, such as microorganisms, vegetal, and some animals, including certain rodent's serum, but not unveiled in humans. It can be used as important chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of a variety of lymphoproliferative disorders and lymphomas (particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and Hodgkin's lymphoma), and has been a pivotal agent in chemotherapy protocols from around 30 years...
December 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854256/natural-deep-eutectic-solvents-nades-as-a-tool-for-bioavailability-improvement-pharmacokinetics-of-rutin-dissolved-in-proline-glycine-after-oral-administration-in-rats-possible-application-in-nutraceuticals
#17
Marta Faggian, Stefania Sut, Beatrice Perissutti, Valeria Baldan, Iztok Grabnar, Stefano Dall'Acqua
There is a need for innovation in plant-derived pharmaceuticals, food supplements and nutraceutical products regarding the use of more eco-sustainable solvents for their extraction. Furthermore, the poor oral bioavailability of several phytochemicals with health promoting effects stimulates the research in the field of pharmaceutical formulations. Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES) are formed by natural compounds, and can be considered as future solvents being especially useful for the preparation of nutraceuticals and food-grade extracts...
November 14, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815287/microbial-and-viral-like-rhodopsins-present-in-coastal-marine-sediments-from-four-polar-and-subpolar-regions
#18
J L López, M Golemba, E Hernández, M Lozada, H M Dionisi, J Jansson, J Carroll, L Lundgren, S Sjöling, W P Mac Cormack
Rhodopsins are broadly distributed. In this work we analyzed 23 metagenomes corresponding to marine sediment samples from four regions which share cold climate conditions (Norway; Sweden; Argentina and Antarctica). In order to investigate the genes evolution of viral-rodopsins, an initial set of 6224 bacterial rhodopsins sequences according COG5524 were retrieved from the 23 metagenomes. After selection by the presence of transmembrane domains and alignment 123 viral (51) and non-viral (72) sequences (>50 aminoacids) were finally included in further analysis...
November 3, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770947/molecular-level-interactions-in-brushite-aminoacids-composites
#19
Alberto Lagazzo, Fabrizio Barberis, Cristina Carbone, Gianguido Ramis, Elisabetta Finocchio
The interaction of aminoacids (Glycine, Proline, Lysine) with brushite based bone cements has been investigated by several techniques (FTIR spectroscopy, Thermogravimetry-TG, Scanning Electron Microscopy-SEM, mechanical properties studies), with the aim to elucidate the properties of the resulting composite materials and the interaction occurring at molecular level between the inorganic matrix and the organic moieties. Brushite phase is predominantly obtained also in the presence of aminoacids added during preparation of the bone cement...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752253/cytological-profile-of-antibacterial-ftsz-inhibitors-and-synthetic-peptide-mciz
#20
Lidia Araújo-Bazán, Laura B Ruiz-Avila, David Andreu, Sonia Huecas, José M Andreu
Cell division protein FtsZ is the organizer of the cytokinetic ring in almost all bacteria and a target for the discovery of new antibacterial agents that are needed to counter widespread antibiotic resistance. Bacterial cytological profiling, using quantitative microscopy, is a powerful approach for identifying the mechanism of action of antibacterial molecules affecting different cellular pathways. We have determined the cytological profile on Bacillus subtilis cells of a selection of small molecule inhibitors targeting FtsZ on different binding sites...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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