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Aminoacid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788075/effects-of-immunonutrition-in-advanced-hiv-disease-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-promaltia-study
#1
Sergio Serrano-Villar, María de Lagarde, Jorge Vázquez-Castellanos, Alejandro Vallejo, J Ignacio Bernadino, Nadia Madrid, Mariano Matarranz, Alberto Díaz-Santiago, Carolina Gutiérrez, Alfonso Cabello, Judit Villar-García, José Ramón Blanco, Otilia Bisbal, Talía Sainz, Andrés Moya, Santiago Moreno, María José Gosalbes, Vicente Estrada
Background: While nutritional interventions with prebiotics and probiotics seem to exert immunological effects, their clinical implications in HIV-infected subjects initiating ART at advanced HIV disease remain unclear. Methodology: Pilot multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in which 78 HIV-infected, ART-naive subjects with <350 CD4 T-cells/µl or AIDS were randomized to either daily PMT25341 (a mixture of prebiotics, probiotics, oligonutrients, DHA, EPA, GLA, and aminoacids) or placebo for 48 weeks, each in combination with first-line ART...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772175/systematic-excited-state-studies-of-reversibly-switchable-fluorescent-proteins
#2
Daryna Smyrnova, María Del Carmen Marín, Massimo Olivucci, Arnout Ceulemans
A set formed by five reversibly-switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFPs) display spread over 40~nm in absorption maxima and only 18~nm in emission. The five proteins -- Dronpa, rsFastLime, rsKame, Padron(anionic form) and bsDronpa -- carry exactly the same chromophore and differ just in a few mutations. Thus they form an ideal set for mechanistic investigation. Starting with the results of molecular dynamics simulations we use QM/MM calculations to investigate the effects controlling the spectral tuning . In this contribution we show that the models, which are based on CASPT2//CASSCF level of QM theory, reproduce the observed absorption trend with only a limited blue-shift of 4...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752946/effect-of-free-amino-acids-on-bovine-retinal-pericytes
#3
S Vidhya, R Ramya, K Coral, K N Sulochana, S R Bharathidevi
AIM: This study was conducted to estimate the aminoacid levels in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and to correlate it with the adiponectin levels. Secondly to test if these amino acids can alter or induce adiponectin levels and its related factors in retinal cells like pericyte as an in vitro model. METHODS: All human studies were done as per declaration of Helsinki with institutional approval and after obtaining consent from participating individuals...
May 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727772/basis-of-genetic-adaptation-to-heavy-metal-stress-in-the-acidophilic-green-alga-chlamydomonas-acidophila
#4
Fernando Puente-Sánchez, Silvia Díaz, Vanessa Penacho, Angeles Aguilera, Sanna Olsson
To better understand heavy metal tolerance in Chlamydomonas acidophila, an extremophilic green alga, we assembled its transcriptome and measured transcriptomic expression before and after Cd exposure in this and the neutrophilic model microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Genes possibly related to heavy metal tolerance and detoxification were identified and analyzed as potential key innovations that enable this species to live in an extremely acid habitat with high levels of heavy metals. In addition we provide a data set of single orthologous genes from eight green algal species as a valuable resource for comparative studies including eukaryotic extremophiles...
April 27, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704008/impact-of-late-onset-alzheimer-s-genetic-risk-factors-on-beta-amyloid-endocytic-production
#5
REVIEW
Cláudia Guimas Almeida, Farzaneh Sadat Mirfakhar, Catarina Perdigão, Tatiana Burrinha
The increased production of the 42 aminoacids long beta-amyloid (Aβ42) peptide has been established as a causal mechanism of the familial early onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). In contrast, the causal mechanisms of the late-onset AD (LOAD), that affects most AD patients, remain to be established. Indeed, Aβ42 accumulation has been detected more than 30 years before diagnosis. Thus, the mechanisms that control Aβ accumulation in LOAD likely go awry long before pathogenesis becomes detectable. Early on, APOE4 was identified as the biggest genetic risk factor for LOAD...
April 27, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702582/transient-sulfenic-acids-in-the-synthesis-of-biologically-relevant-products
#6
REVIEW
Anna Barattucci, Maria Chiara Aversa, Aurora Mancuso, Tania Maria Grazia Salerno, Paola Bonaccorsi
Sulfenic acids as small molecules are too unstable to be isolated and their transient nature offers the possibility to involve them in concerted processes that lead to the obtainment of functional groups such as sulfoxides, sulfones, and disulfides. All these functions are present in a number of natural and synthetic drugs and can represent structural motives inducing biologically relevant properties. In this small review the generation and reactions of sulfenic acid bearing naturally occurring residues are described...
April 27, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696033/redidb-3-0-a-comprehensive-collection-of-rna-editing-events-in-plant-organellar-genomes
#7
Claudio Lo Giudice, Graziano Pesole, Ernesto Picardi
RNA editing is an important epigenetic mechanism by which genome-encoded transcripts are modified by substitutions, insertions and/or deletions. It was first discovered in kinetoplastid protozoa followed by its reporting in a wide range of organisms. In plants, RNA editing occurs mostly by cytidine (C) to uridine (U) conversion in translated regions of organelle mRNAs and tends to modify affected codons restoring evolutionary conserved aminoacid residues. RNA editing has also been described in non-protein coding regions such as group II introns and structural RNAs...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693242/targeting-the-met-oncogene-by-concomitant-inhibition-of-receptor-and-ligand-via-an-antibody-decoy-strategy
#8
Cristina Basilico, Chiara Modica, Federica Maione, Elisa Vigna, Paolo M Comoglio
MET, a master gene sustaining "invasive growth," is a relevant target for cancer precision therapy. In the vast majority of tumors, wild-type MET behaves as a "stress-response" gene and relies on the ligand (HGF) to sustain cell "scattering," invasive growth and apoptosis protection (oncogene "expedience"). In this context, concomitant targeting of MET and HGF could be crucial to reach effective inhibition. To test this hypothesis, we combined an anti-MET antibody (MvDN30) inducing "shedding" (i...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688323/silac-based-phosphoproteomics-reveals-new-pp2a-cdc55-regulated-processes-in-budding-yeast
#9
Barbara Baro, Soraya Játiva, Inés Calabria, Judith Vinaixa, Joan-Josep Bech-Serra, Carolina de LaTorre, João Rodrigues, María Luisa Hernáez, Concha Gil, Silvia Barceló-Batllori, Martin R Larsen, Ethel Queralt
Background: Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a family of conserved serine/threonine phosphatases involved in several essential aspects of cell growth and proliferation. PP2ACdc55 phosphatase has been extensively related to cell cycle events in budding yeast, however few PP2ACdc55 substrates have been identified. Here, we performed a quantitative mass spectrometry approach to reveal new substrates of PP2ACdc55 phosphatase and new PP2A-related processes in mitotic arrested cells. Results: We identified 62 statistically significant PP2ACdc55 substrates involved mainly in actin-cytoskeleton organization...
April 24, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668276/synthesis-of-3-4-bis-hydroxymethyl-2-2-5-5-tetraethylpyrrolidin-1-oxyl-via-1-3-dipolar-cycloaddition-of-azomethine-ylide-to-activated-alkene
#10
Sergey A Dobrynin, Yuri I Glazachev, Yuri V Gatilov, Elena Ilinichna Chernyak, George E Salnikov, Igor A Kirilyuk
A simple method of synthesis of sterically shielded pyrrolidine nitroxides, including title compound, have been suggested. The key procedure implies assembling of pyrrolidine ring from α-aminoacid, ketone and activated alkene in a three-component domino process with following oxidation to nitrone and Grignard reagent addition. The new nitroxides demonstrate very high stability to reduction with ascorbate.
April 18, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629658/comparative-study-of-the-effects-exerted-by-n-valproyl-l-phenylalanine-and-n-valproyl-l-tryptophan-on-ca1-hippocampal-epileptiform-activity-in-rat
#11
Fabio Carletti, Valerio Rizzo, Giuditta Gambino, Viviana De Caro, Flavia Maria Sutera, Libero Italo Giannola, Giuseppe Ferraro, Pierangelo Sardo
BACKGROUND: Research about improvement of epilepsy therapy is constantly growing. Valproyl-L-Phenylalanine (VPA-Phen) and N-valproyl-L-tryptophan (VPA-Tryp) were synthesized to increase the antiepileptic valproic acid efficacy. METHODS: VPA-Phen and VPA-Tryp were comparatively tested on CA1 hippocampal epileptiform bursting activity obtained by increasing potassium and lowering calcium and magnesium concentrations in the fluid perfusing rat brain slices. Each slice was treated with a single concentration (0...
April 8, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621580/use-of-nutritional-supplements-contaminated-with-banned-doping-substances-by-recreational-adolescent-athletes-in-athens-greece
#12
Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Nassia Kioukia-Fougia, Petros Papalexis, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Dimitrios Kouretas, Flora Bacopoulou, Christina Tsitsimpikou
Although the use of nutritional supplements by adult athletes has been extensively studied, information on supplements consumption by adolescent athletes is still limited. The present study reports on the use of nutritional supplements contaminated with banned doping substances among 170 recreational adolescent athletes from eleven, randomly selected, gym centres, in Athens, Greece. Nutritional supplements consumption was reported by almost 60% of the study population, with proteins/amino acids and vitamins being the most popular...
April 2, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603566/generation-and-rearrangement-of-n-o-dialkenylhydroxylamines-for-the-synthesis-of-2-aminotetrahydrofurans
#13
Jongwoo Son, Tyler W Reidl, Ki Hwan Kim, Donald J Wink, Laura L Anderson
A new diastereoselective route to 2-aminotetrahydrofurans has been developed from N,O-dialkenylhydroxylamines. These intermediates undergo a spontaneous C-C bond-forming [3,3]-rearrangement followed by a C-O bond-forming cyclization. A copper-catalyzed N-alkenylation of an N-Boc-hydroxylamine with alkenyl iodides, and a base-promoted addition of the resulting N-hydroxyenamines to an electron-deficient allene, provide modular access to these novel rearrangement precursors. The scope of this de novo synthesis of simple nucleoside analogues has been explored to revel trends in diastereoselectivity and reactivity...
March 30, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603465/silica-metal-oxide-vesicles-catalyze-comprehensive-prebiotic-chemistry
#14
Bruno Mattia Bizzarri, Lorenzo Botta, Maritza Iveth Pérez-Valverde, Raffaele Saladino, Ernesto Di Mauro, Juan Manuel Garcia Ruiz
It has recently been demonstrated that mineral self-assembled structures catalyzing prebiotic chemical reactions may form in natural waters derived from serpentinization, a geological process widespread in the early stages of Earth-like planets. We have synthesized self-assembled membranes by mixing microdrops of metal solutions with alkaline silicate solutions in the presence of formamide (NH2CHO), a single carbon molecule, at 80ºC. We found that these bilayer membranes, made of amorphous silica and metal oxide-hydroxide nanocrystals, catalyze the condensation of formamide, yielding the four nucleobases of RNA, three aminoacids and several carboxylic acids in a single pot experiment...
March 30, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556562/zo-peroxidase-crystal-structure-and-sequence-of-a-highly-glycosylated-peroxidase-resistant-to-high-concentrations-of-h-2-o-2-from-japanese-radish
#15
Nizaá Jiménez-Arroyo, Paloma C Gil-Rodríguez, Adelaida Díaz-Vilchis, Sonia P Rojas-Trejo, Enrique Rudiño-Piñera
Understanding Peroxidase (PRXs) enzymatic diversity and functional significance from a three-dimensional point of view is a key point for structural and mechanistic studies. In this context, Zo-peroxidase (ZoPrx) a member of the class III peroxidases and secreted by plants, differs from all previously described PRXs because of its remarkable catalytic stability in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. In this work, we present the crystallographic structure of ZoPrx isolated from Japanese radish, at 2.05 Å resolution...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522850/dietary-therapy-for-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#16
Javier Molina-Infante, Alfredo J Lucendo
Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic, immune-mediated esophageal disease triggered predominantly, but not exclusively, by food antigens. Presently, available food allergy tests are suboptimal to predict food triggers for eosinophilic esophagitis, especially in adults. Elemental diets (exclusive feeding with amino acid-based formulas) and empiric 6-food elimination diets (withdrawing milk, wheat, egg, soy, nuts, and fish/seafood for 6 weeks) have consistently shown the best efficacy rates. However, their high level of restriction and need for multiple endoscopies have hampered their implementation in clinical practice...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496543/%C3%AE-adrenoceptors-activate-hepatic-glutathione-efflux-through-an-unreported-pathway
#17
Deyamira Matuz-Mares, Alain Hernández-Vázquez, Héctor Riveros-Rosas, Raquel Guinzberg, Tania Quesada-López, Alfonso Cárabez-Trejo, Ofelia Mora, Enrique Piña
The physiological regulation of hepatic glutathione efflux by catecholamines is poorly understood. The purpose of this work was to review the role of adrenergic receptors (AR) on total glutathione (GT ) efflux in rat liver. Two models were used: isolated hepatocytes and perfused livers. In hepatocytes 10 μM adrenaline (Adr), but not isoproterenol (Iso) a β-AR agonist, or phenylephrine (Phe) an α1 -AR agonist, (in a Krebs-Henseleit buffer (KHB) enriched with Ca2+ and some aminoacids) increased in 13% GT efflux...
April 15, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494772/ultrafast-charge-migration-in-xuv-photoexcited-phenylalanine-a-first-principles-study-based-on-real-time-nonequilibrium-green-s-functions
#18
E Perfetto, D Sangalli, A Marini, G Stefanucci
The early-stage density oscillations of the electronic charge in molecules irradiated by an attosecond XUV pulse takes place on femto- or subfemtosecond time scales. This ultrafast charge migration process is a central topic in attoscience because it dictates the relaxation pathways of the molecular structure. A predictive quantum theory of ultrafast charge migration should incorporate the atomistic details of the molecule, electronic correlations, and the multitude of ionization channels activated by the broad-bandwidth XUV pulse...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475006/glutamine-up-regulates-pancreatic-sodium-dependent-neutral-aminoacid-transporter-2-and-mitigates-islets-apoptosis-in-diabetic-rats
#19
Zekrayat J H Medras, Norhan M El-Sayed, Sawsan A Zaitone, Eman A Toraih, Manal M Sami, Yasser M Moustafa
BACKGROUND: Glutamine aminoacid regulates insulin exocytosis from pancreatic β-cells. Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue that has fascinated function in inhibiting β-cell apoptosis and preserving pancreatic β-cell mass. The present study investigated the benefit of adding glutamine to a regimen of liraglutide in diabetic rats focusing on their role in increasing insulin production and upregulation of the expression of sodium-dependent neutral aminoacid transporter-2 (SNAT2)...
April 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473413/expanding-one-pot-cell-free-protein-synthesis-and-immobilization-for-on-demand-manufacturing-of-biomaterials
#20
Ana I Benítez-Mateos, Irantzu Llarena, Ana Sánchez-Iglesias, Fernando López-Gallego
Fabrication of protein-based biomaterials is an arduous and time-consuming procedure with multiple steps. In this work, we describe a portable toolkit that integrates both cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) and protein immobilization in one pot just by mixing DNA, solid materials, and a CFPS system. We have constructed a modular set of plasmids that fuse the N-terminus of superfolded green fluorescent protein (sGFP) with different peptide tags (poly(6X)Cys, poly(6X)His, and poly(6X)Lys), which drive the immobilization of the protein on the tailored material (agarose beads with different functionalities, gold nanorods, and silica nanoparticles)...
March 16, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
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