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Lidia Araújo-Bazán, Laura B Ruiz-Avila, David Andreu, Sonia Huecas, José M Andreu
Cell division protein FtsZ is the organizer of the cytokinetic ring in almost all bacteria and a target for the discovery of new antibacterial agents that are needed to counter widespread antibiotic resistance. Bacterial cytological profiling, using quantitative microscopy, is a powerful approach for identifying the mechanism of action of antibacterial molecules affecting different cellular pathways. We have determined the cytological profile on Bacillus subtilis cells of a selection of small molecule inhibitors targeting FtsZ on different binding sites...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jonathan Coronel-León, Aurora Pinazo, Lourdes Pérez, Mª José Espuny, Ana Mª Marqués, Angeles Manresa
Recently it has been demonstrated that catanionic mixtures of oppositely charged surfactants have improved physicochemical-biological properties compared to the individual components. Isotherms of mixtures of an anionic biosurfactant (lichenysin) and a cationic aminoacid surfactant (C3(LA)2) indicate a strong interaction suggesting the formation of a new "pseudo-surfactant". The antimicrobial properties of the mixture lichenysin and C3(LA)2 M80:20, indicate a synergistic effect of the components. The mechanism of action on the bacterial envelope was assessed by flow cytometry and Transmission Electron Microscopy...
October 4, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Michela Schiavon, Chiara Berto, Mario Malagoli, Annarita Trentin, Paolo Sambo, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Elizabeth A H Pilon-Smits
Two selenium (Se) fertilization methods were tested for their effects on levels of anticarcinogenic selenocompounds in radish (Raphanus sativus), as well as other nutraceuticals. First, radish was grown on soil and foliar selenate applied 7 days before harvest at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg Se per plant. Selenium levels were up to 1200 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 120 mg Se/kg DW in roots. The thiols cysteine and glutathione were present at 2-3-fold higher levels in roots of Se treated plants, and total glucosinolate levels were 35% higher, due to increases in glucoraphanin...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Andrea Petretto, Grazia Carbotti, Elvira Inglese, Chiara Lavarello, Maria Pia Pistillo, Valentina Rigo, Michela Croce, Luca Longo, Stefania Martini, Paola Vacca, Silvano Ferrini, Marina Fabbi
IL-27, a member of the IL-12-family of cytokines, has shown anti-tumor activity in several pre-clinical models due to anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic and immune-enhancing effects. On the other hand, IL-27 demonstrated immune regulatory activities and inhibition of auto-immunity in mouse models. Also, we reported that IL-27, similar to IFN-γ, induces the expression of IL-18BP, IDO and PD-L1 immune regulatory molecules in human cancer cells. Here, a proteomic analysis reveals that IL-27 and IFN-γ display a broad overlap of functions on human ovarian cancer cells...
September 24, 2016: Oncotarget
A Jamroz-Wiśniewska, J Bełtowski, H Bartosik-Psujek, G Wójcicka, K Rejdak
BACKGROUND: Homocysteine thiolactone (HTL) is a cyclic thioester of homocysteine (Hcy) contributing to the toxicity of this amino acid. HTL spontaneously reacts with protein lysine residues leading to altered properties of target proteins and induction of immune response. HTL is hydrolyzed to Hcy by plasma enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Although both Hcy and PON1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), protein modification by HTL in this disease has not been studied so far...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Daniela Fico, Antonio Pennetta, Giuseppe E De Benedetto
This chapter illustrates the usefulness of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for the analysis of amino acids, and both normal and chiral separations are covered. In order to provide a general description of the main results and challenges in the biomedical field, some relevant applications and reviews on CE of amino acids are tabulated. Furthermore, some detailed experimental procedures are shown, regarding the CE analysis of amino acids in body fluids, in microdialysate, and released upon hydrolysis of proteins...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Diana Wojtkowiak, Andrzej F Frydrychowski, Jakub Hadzik, Marzena Dominiak
BACKGROUND: Low-temperature techniques that prevent protein denaturation are being used to extract collagen from fish skin for cosmetic purposes. These extracts contain collagen with its triple helix structure preserved, as well as a number of other proteins. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate collagen extracts from the skin of silver carp for the presence of small-molecule peptides. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was performed to analyze collagen extracts from silver carp skin for the presence of small-molecule peptides...
March 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Sara Poletti, Aye Mu Myint, Gregor Schüetze, Irene Bollettini, Elena Mazza, Doris Grillitsch, Clara Locatelli, Markus Schwarz, Cristina Colombo, Francesco Benedetti
Decreased availability of serotonin in the central nervous system has been suggested to be a central factor in the pathogenesis of depression. Activation of indoleamine 2-3 dioxygenase following a pro-inflammatory state could reduce the amount of tryptophan converted to serotonin and increase the production of tryptophan catabolites such as kynurenic acid, an antagonist of ionotropic excitatory aminoacid receptors, whose levels are reduced in bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in white matter (WM) integrity have been widely reported in BD...
September 12, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
J Bełtowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2016: Acta Physiologica
Alejandra C Schoijet, Tamara Sternlieb, Guillermo D Alonso
Autophagy is a degradative process by which eukaryotic cells digest their own components to provide aminoacids that may function as energy source under nutritional stress conditions. There is experimental evidence for autophagy in parasitic protists belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae. However, few proteins implicated in this process have been characterized so far in these parasites. Moreover, it has been shown that autophagy is involved in Trypanosoma cruzi differentiation and thus might have a role in pathogenicity...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Jignesh Lunagariya, Shenghui Zhong, Jianwei Chen, Defa Bai, Poonam Bhadja, Weili Long, Xiaojian Liao, Xiaoli Tang, Shihai Xu
Herein, we report design and synthesis of novel 26 galaxamide analogues with N-methylated cyclo-pentapeptide, and their in vitro anti-tumor activity towards the panel of human tumor cell line, such as, A549, A549/DPP, HepG2 and SMMC-7721 using MTT assay. We have also investigated the effect of galaxamide and its representative analogues on growth, cell-cycle phases, and induction of apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells in vitro. Reckon with the significance of conformational space and N-Me aminoacid (aa) comprising this compound template, we designed the analogues with modification in N-Me-aa position, change in aa configuration from l to d aa and substitute one Leu-aa to d/l Phe-aa residue with respective to the parent structure...
September 3, 2016: Marine Drugs
Maciej Grzybek, Wirginia Kukula-Koch, Aneta Strachecka, Aleksandra Jaworska, Andrew M Phiri, Jerzy Paleolog, Krzysztof Tomczuk
UNLABELLED: A significant number of studies report growing resistance in nematodes thriving in both humans and livestock. This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficiency of Curcubita pepo (C. pepo) L. hot water extract (HWE), cold water extract (CWE) or ethanol extract (ETE) on two model nematodes: Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and Heligmosoides bakeri (H. bakeri). METHODS: Raman, IR and LC-MS spectroscopy analyses were performed on the studied plant material to deliver qualitative and quantitative data on the composition of the obtained extracts: ETE, HWE and CWE...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
A M Shackira, Jos T Puthur
Heavy metal pollution in mangrove wetlands has become a growing matter of concern as it serves as sink and source for toxic heavy metals including cadmium (Cd). The present study evaluates the phytostabilization potential of a halophyte, A. ilicifolius L. towards Cd under hydroponic culture conditions. Accumulation, translocation and effects of Cd on the anti-oxidant system of A. ilicifolius were studied. Results indicated that A. ilicifolius accumulated Cd mainly in roots (96.4%) as compared to stem (1.4%) and leaves (0...
September 3, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Pierre Barbier Saint Hilaire, Anna Warnet, Yves Gimbert, Ulli Martin Hohenester, Gianluca Giorgi, Marie-Françoise Olivier, François Fenaille, Benoît Colsch, Christophe Junot, Jean-Claude Tabet
The aims of this study were to highlight the impact of minor structural differences (e.g. an aminoacid side chain enlargement by one methylene group), on ion dissociation under collision-induced dissociation conditions, and to determine the underlying chemical mechanisms. Therefore, we compared fragmentations of deprotonated aspartic and glutamic acids generated in negative electrospray ionization. Energy-resolved mass spectrometry breakdown curves were recorded and MS(3) experiments performed on an Orbitrap Fusion for high-resolution and high-mass accuracy measurements...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Luís C S Filipe, Sara R R Campos, Miguel Machuqueiro, Tamis Darbre, António M Baptista
Dendrimers are a family of ramified synthetic molecules. pH effects and electrostatic interactions are known to be crucial players to explain the conformational and functional behaviors observed in these systems. Nonetheless, to date, no computational study involving these systems has explicitly addressed the protonation equilibrium taking place at different pH values for dendrimers containing multiple ionizable sites. Herein, we present the results of constant-pH molecular dynamics simulations performed at several pH values for four peptide dendrimers of different generations (from one to four) composed of the same type of aminoacids: histidines, serines and diaminopropionic acid...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Pierre Archirel, Jacqueline Bergès, Chantal Houée-Lévin
Oxidation of peptides or proteins by the OH(•) radicals produced by pulse radiolysis yields species identified by their absorption spectra in the UV-visible domain. However, the case of methionine (Met) in peptides is complex because its oxidation can lead to various free radicals with 2 center-3 electron (2c-3e) bonds. We have performed Monte Carlo/density functional theory molecular simulations of the radical cation of the methylated methionine aminoacid, Met(•+), taken as a model of the methonine residue of peptides, and of the radical cation of its van der Waals dimer, Met2(•+)...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
J M Gonçalves, L R Lima, M L Moraes, S J L Ribeiro
Layer-by-Layer (LbL) films containing silk fibroin (SF) and the 40 aminoacid-long amyloid-β peptide (Aβ1-40) were prepared with the purpose of developing a new prototype of an electrochemical immunosensor. The film showed a satisfactory growth in quartz substrate and screen-printed carbon electrodes, as observed by UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric, respectively. The peptide immobilized in LbL films in junction with SF shows secondary structure induced, as shown by circular dichroism measurements, favoring the interaction SF/peptide LbL film with the specific antibody...
November 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
S Rezania, S Kammerer, C Li, B Steinecker-Frohnwieser, A Gorischek, T T J DeVaney, S Verheyen, C A Passegger, N Ghaffari Tabrizi-Wizsy, H Hackl, D Platzer, A H Zarnani, E Malle, S W Jahn, T Bauernhofer, W Schreibmayer
BACKGROUND: Overexpression the KCNJ3, a gene that encodes subunit 1 of G-protein activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (GIRK1) in the primary tumor has been found to be associated with reduced survival times and increased lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients. METHODS: In order to survey possible tumorigenic properties of GIRK1 overexpression, a range of malignant mammary epithelial cells, based on the MCF-7 cell line that permanently overexpress different splice variants of the KCNJ3 gene (GIRK1a, GIRK1c, GIRK1d and as a control, eYFP) were produced...
2016: BMC Cancer
Raju Subramanian, Xiaochun Zhu, M Benjamin Hock, Bethlyn J Sloey, Benjamin Wu, Sarah F Wilson, Ogo Egbuna, J Greg Slatter, Jim Xiao, Gary L Skiles
Etelcalcetide (AMG 416) is a novel synthetic peptide calcium-sensing receptor activator in clinical development as an intravenous calcimimetic for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on hemodialysis. Etelcalcetide is composed of seven D-aminoacids with an L-cysteine linked to a D-cysteine by a disulfide bond. A single intravenous dose of [(14)C]etelcalcetide (10 mg; 26.3 kBq; 710 nCi) was administered to patients with CKD on hemodialysis to elucidate the pharmacokinetics, biotransformation, and excretion of etelcalcetide in this setting...
August 12, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
V Ravarotto, D Loffing-Cueni, E Pagnin, L A Calo', G P Rossi, L Loffing
OBJECTIVE: Gitelman's syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal disease characterized by electrolytic alterations. Clinical features are hyperkalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria, and hypo- or normotension notwithstanding marked activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. These abnormalities are due to mutations affecting the thiazide sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), which reabsorbs sodium in the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron. Over 100 mutations are known, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the impaired function remained unclear...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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