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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331591/brochosomins-and-other-novel-proteins-from-brochosomes-of-leafhoppers-insecta-hemiptera-cicadellidae
#1
Roman Rakitov, Alexander A Moysa, Arthur T Kopylov, Sergei A Moshkovskii, Ralph S Peters, Karen Meusemann, Bernhard Misof, Christopher H Dietrich, Kevin P Johnson, Lars Podsiadlowski, Kimberly K O Walden
Brochosomes (BS) are secretory granules resembling buckyballs, produced intracellularly in specialized glandular segments of the Malpighian tubules and forming superhydrophobic coatings on the integuments of leafhoppers (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae). Their composition is poorly known. Using a combination of SDS-PAGE, LC-MS/MS, next-generation sequencing (RNAseq) and bioinformatics we demonstrate that the major structural component of BS of the leafhopper Graphocephala fennahi Young is a novel family of 21-40-kDa secretory proteins, referred to herein as brochosomins (BSM), apparently cross-linked by disulfide bonds...
January 10, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315139/-dtpa-pabn-leu5-des-acyl-ghrelin-1-5-as-a-new-carrier-of-radionuclides-and-potential-precursor-of-radiopharmaceuticals
#2
Grzegorz Wójciuk, Marcin Kruszewski
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin is a peptide consisting of 28 aminoacids and an octadecyl side chain (acyl group) binding to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a). Its des-acylated form, des-acyl ghrelin (DAG) binds to the corticotropin releasing factor receptor type 2a (CRF2a) located on endocrine cancer cells such as the prostate carcinoma cell line DU 145. AIM: The aim of this study is to develop a new DAG-based carrier of radionuclides with potential application in therapy...
January 8, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290404/the-effects-of-recurrent-hypoglycaemia-and-opioid-antagonists-on-the-adrenal-catecholamine-synthetic-capacity-in-a-rat-model-of-haaf
#3
Manjula Senthilkumaran, Larisa Bobrovskaya
In this study, we investigated the effects of recurrent hypoglycaemia on the adrenal catecholamine synthetic enzymes in a rat model of hypoglycaemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF). We found that plasma adrenaline was significantly reduced by about 50% in response to recurrent hypoglycaemia versus single hypoglycaemia. However, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and phosphorylation at Ser31 and Ser40 were increased in HAAF; similarly, aromatic aminoacid decarboxylase protein was also increased indicating a likely increase in catecholamine synthesis in the adrenal gland...
December 16, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285352/evidence-for-in-vitro-antiophidian-properties-of-aqueous-buds-extract-of-eucalyptus-against-montivipera-bornmuelleri-venom
#4
Joseph Khoury, Ranin Dabbousy, Riyad Sadek, Sayed Antoun, Walid Hleihel, Christian Legros, Ziad Fajloun
Because snake venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive molecules, snake bites produce a large panel of symptoms which cannot be totally prevented by current antivenoms. Thus investigating plant extracts for antivenomics therapy approaches seemed relevant. Here, we evaluated the potency of the aqueous Buds extract of Eucalyptus (ABEE) to counteract the main enzymatic activities of Montivipera bornmuelleri venom. We showed that ABEE efficiently counteracts the proteolytic, Phospholipases A2 (PLA2), and L-aminoacid oxidase activities (LAAO) of M...
2017: Journal of Venom Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284203/severe-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-mthfr-deficiency-a-rare-treatable-cause-of-complicated-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia
#5
Alessia Perna, Marcella Masciullo, Anna Modoni, Elena Cellini, Elena Parrini, Enzo Ricci, Alice M Donati, Gabriella Silvestri
BACKGROUND: Juvenile or adult onset forms of severe 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency manifesting as complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia have been rarely described. METHODS: Two siblings with mental retardation developed a progressive spastic paraparesis in their late teens. Their diagnostic assessment included extensive neurophysiologic, neuroimaging and metabolic studies. RESULTS: Brain MRI showed occipital white matter alterations; EMG documented a mixed polyneuropathy...
December 28, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274012/predicting-substituent-effects-on-activation-energy-changes-by-static-catalytic-fields
#6
Martyna Chojnacka, Mikolaj Feliks, Wiktor Beker, W Andrzej Sokalski
Catalytic fields illustrate topology of the optimal charge distribution of a molecular environment reducing the activation energy for any process involving barrier crossing, like chemical reaction, bond rotation etc. Until now, this technique has been successfully applied to predict catalytic effects resulting from intermolecular interactions with individual water molecules constituting the first hydration shell, aminoacid mutations in enzymes or Si→Al substitutions in zeolites. In this contribution, hydrogen to fluorine (H→F) substitution effects for two model reactions have been examined indicating qualitative applicability of the catalytic field concept in the case of systems involving intramolecular interactions...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247732/amaranth-quinoa-and-chia-protein-isolates-physicochemical-and-structural-properties
#7
REVIEW
Débora N López, Micaela Galante, María Robson, Valeria Boeris, Darío Spelzini
An increasing use of vegetable protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods which can replace animal proteins in the human diet. Amaranth, chia and quinoa seeds contain proteins which have biological and functional properties that provide nutritional benefits due to their reasonably well-balanced aminoacid content. This review analyses these vegetable proteins and focuses on recent research on protein classification and isolation as well as structural characterization by means of fluorescence spectroscopy, surface hydrophobicity and differential scanning calorimetry...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247211/stim2-eb3-association-and-morphology-of-dendritic-spines-in-hippocampal-neurons
#8
Ekaterina Pchitskaya, Nina Kraskovskaya, Daria Chernyuk, Elena Popugaeva, Hua Zhang, Olga Vlasova, Ilya Bezprozvanny
Mushroom spines form strong synaptic contacts and are essential for memory storage. We have previously demonstrated that neuronal store-operated calcium entry (nSOC) in hippocampal neurons is regulated by STIM2 protein. This pathway plays a key role in stability of mushroom spines and is compromised in different mice models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Actin was thought to be the sole cytoskeleton compartment presented in dendritic spines, however, recent studies demonstrated that dynamic microtubules with EB3 capped plus-ends transiently enter spines...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239181/photolysis-of-tertiary-amines-in-the-presence-of-co2-the-paths-to-formic-acid-%C3%AE-aminoacids-and-1-2-diamines
#9
Mateo Berton, Rossella Mello, Rafael Acerete, María Elena González-Núñez
The photolysis of triethylamine (1a) in the presence of carbon dioxide leads to the hydrogenation of CO2, the α-C-C coupling of triethylamine (1a), and the CO2-insertion into the α-C-H σ-bond of amine 1a. The reaction is proposed to proceed through the radical ion pair [R3N·+·CO2·-] generated by the photoionization of amine 1a and the electron capture by CO2. The presence of lithium tetrafluoroborate in the reaction medium promotes the efficient and stereoselective α-C-C coupling of 1a by enhancing the production of α-dialkylamino radicals and the isomerization of N,N,N',N'-tetraethylbutane-2,3-diamine (4a)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232840/one-pot-lipase-catalyzed-enantioselective-synthesis-of-r-n-benzyl-3-benzylamino-butanamide-the-effect-of-solvent-polarity-on-enantioselectivity
#10
Marina A Ortega-Rojas, José Domingo Rivera-Ramírez, C Gabriela Ávila-Ortiz, Eusebio Juaristi, Fernando González-Muñoz, Edmundo Castillo, Jaime Escalante
The use of the solvent engineering has been applied for controlling the resolution of lipase-catalyzed synthesis of β-aminoacids via Michael addition reactions. The strategy consisted of the thermodynamic control of products at equilibrium using the lipase CalB as a catalyst. The enzymatic chemo- and enantioselective synthesis of (R)-(-)-N-benzyl-3-(benzylamino)butanamide is reported, showing the influence of the solvent on the chemoselectivity of the aza-Michael addition and the subsequent kinetic resolution of the Michael adduct; both processes are catalyzed by CalB and both are influenced by the nature of the solvent medium...
December 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210581/modelling-of-human-fatty-acid-synthase-and-in-silico-docking-of-acyl-carrier-protein-domain-and-its-partner-catalytic-domains
#11
Rui P P Neves, Maria João Ramos, Pedro A Fernandes, Matilde Viegas
Human Fatty Acid Synthase (hFAS) is a megasynthase whose main function is de novo biosynthesis of saturated fatty acids. Interest has been drawn to this enzyme beyond its physiological role due to the association between high levels of hFAS and clinical conditions such as obesity, diabetes and cancer. Thus, it has become an undeniably attractive pharmacological target. Until now, no crystal structure of the complete hFAS is available, hindering attempts to fully understand this protein. Using homology modelling, we built a model of the entire megasynthase, encompassing all of its domains, including the Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) and Thioesterase (TE) mobile domains absent in the crystal structure of mammalian Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201099/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-thiosemicarbazide-derivatives-endowed-with-high-activity-toward-mycobacterium-bovis
#12
Soroush Sardari, Samaneh Feizi, Ali Hossein Rezayan, Parisa Azerang, Seyyed Mohammad Shahcheragh, Ghazaleh Ghavami, Azizollah Habibi
Thiosemicarbazides are potent intermediates for the synthesis of pharmaceutical and bioactive materials and thus, they are used extensively in the field of medicinal chemistry. The imine bond (-N=CH-) in this compounds are useful in organic synthesis, in particular for the preparation of heterocycles and non-natural β-aminoacids. In this paper the synthesis of some new thiosemicarbazide derivatives by condensation reaction of various aldehydes or ketones with 4-phenylthiosemicarbazide or thiosemicarbazide is reported...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170251/clustered-f8-missense-mutations-cause-hemophilia-a-by-combined-alteration-of-splicing-and-protein-biosynthesis-activity
#13
Irving Donadon, John H McVey, Isabella Garagiola, Alessio Branchini, Mimosa Mortarino, Flora Peyvandi, Francesco Bernardi, Mirko Pinotti
Dissection of pleiotropic effects of missense mutations, scarcely investigated in inherited diseases, is fundamental to understanding genotype-phenotype relationships. Missense mutations might impair mRNA processing in addition to protein properties. As a model for haemophilia A (HA) we investigated the highly prevalent F8 p.R2016W/c.6046c>t (exon 19) mutation. In expression studies exploiting lentiviral vectors, we demonstrated that the aminoacid change impairs both secretion (FVIII:Ag 11.0+/-0.4% of wild-type) and activity (FVIII:C 6...
November 23, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168260/prosystemin-a-prohormone-that-modulates-plant-defense-barriers-is-an-intrinsically-disordered-protein
#14
Martina Buonanno, Mariangela Coppola, Ilaria Di Lelio, Donata Molisso, Marilisa Leone, Francesco Pennacchio, Emma Langella, Rosa Rao, Simona Maria Monti
Prosystemin, originally isolated from Lycopersicon esculentum, is a tomato pro-hormone of 200 aminoacid residues which releases a bioactive peptide of 18 aminoacids called Systemin. This signaling peptide is involved in the activation of defense genes in solanaceous plants in response to herbivore feeding damage. Using biochemical, biophysical and bioinformatics approaches we characterized Prosystemin, showing that it is an intrinsically disordered protein possessing a few secondary structure elements within the sequence...
November 23, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162893/intrinsic-short-tailed-azole-resistance-in-mucormycetes-is-due-to-an-evolutionary-conserved-aminoacid-substitution-of-the-lanosterol-14%C3%AE-demethylase
#15
Rita Caramalho, Joel D A Tyndall, Brian C Monk, Thomas Larentis, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Michaela Lackner
Mucormycoses are emerging and potentially lethal infections. An increase of breakthrough infections has been found in cohorts receiving short-tailed azoles prophylaxis (e.g. voriconazole (VCZ)). Although VCZ is ineffective in vitro and in vivo, long-tailed triazoles such as posaconazole remain active against mucormycetes. Our goal was to validate the molecular mechanism of resistance to short-tailed triazoles in Mucorales. The paralogous cytochrome P450 genes (CYP51 F1 and CYP51 F5) of Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, and Mucor circinelloides were amplified and sequenced...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160602/mitochondrial-ribosome-bl34-mutants-present-diminished-translation-of-cytochrome-c-oxidase-subunits
#16
Raquel Fonseca Guedes-Monteiro, José Ribamar Ferreira-Junior, Lucas Bleicher, Francisco G Nóbrega, Antoni Barrientos, Mario H Barros
Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitoribosomes are specialized in the translation of a few number of highly hydrophobic membrane proteins, components of the oxidative phosphorylation system. Mitochondrial characteristics, such as the membrane system and its redox state driven mitoribosomes evolution through great diversion from their bacterial and cytosolic counterparts. Therefore, mitoribosome presents a considerable number of mitochondrial-specific proteins, as well as new protein extensions. In this work we characterize temperature sensitive mutants of the subunit bL34 present in the 54S large subunit...
November 21, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137206/ancient-food-habits-dictate-that-food-can-be-medicine-but-medicine-cannot-be-food
#17
Hit Kishore Goswami, Hitendra Kumar Ram
Background: Extensive surveys of several population settlements in different parts of India-covering plains, mountains, valleys, river banks and deeper areas of forests at different altitudes-between 1968 and 2016 demonstrated that the basic vital need of hunger is being fulfilled since antiquity by plants in the wild. Methods: Based on collections, consultations with local population personnel and literature searches, this paper presents many plants that are commonly used as food and focuses on their products, which are rich in alkaloids, polysaccharides, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, aminoacids, fatty acids and antibiotics etc...
November 13, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127854/comparative-modeling-and-molecular-docking-analysis-of-white-brown-and-soft-rot-fungal-laccases-using-lignin-model-compounds-for-understanding-the-structural-and-functional-properties-of-laccases
#18
Ayyappa Kumar Sista Kameshwar, Richard Barber, Wensheng Qin
Extrinsic catalytic properties of laccase enable it to oxidize a wide range of aromatic (phenolic and non-phenolic) compounds which makes it commercially an important enzyme. In this study, we have extensively compared and analyzed the physico-chemical, structural and functional properties of white, brown and soft rot fungal laccases using standard protein analysis software. We have computationally predicted the three-dimensional comparative models of these laccases and later performed the molecular docking studies using the lignin model compounds...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110539/nutritional-and-bioactive-compounds-of-commercialized-algae-powders-used-as-food-supplements
#19
Ginés B Martínez-Hernández, Noelia Castillejo, María Del M Carrión-Monteagudo, Francisco Artés, Francisco Artés-Hernández
The main nutritional/bioactive compounds (protein; aminoacids, AA; fucose; minerals; vitamins B12 and C; and total phenolic content, TPC) of nine commercial algae powders, used as food supplements, were studied. Undaria pinnatifida showed the highest protein/aminoacid contents (51.6/54.4 g 100 g(-1)). Among brown macroalgae, Himanthalia elongata showed the highest fucose content (26.3 g kg(-1)) followed by Laminaria ochroleuca (22.5 g kg(-1)). Mineral contents of 15-24% were observed in the algae, being particularly excellent sources of iodine (69...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103681/phenotypic-characterization-of-a-highly-pathogenic-italian-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-type-1-subtype-1-isolate-in-experimentally-infected-pigs
#20
Elena Canelli, Alessia Catella, Paolo Borghetti, Luca Ferrari, Giulia Ogno, Elena De Angelis, Attilio Corradi, Benedetta Passeri, Valeria Bertani, Giampietro Sandri, Paolo Bonilauri, Frederick C Leung, Stefano Guazzetti, Paolo Martelli
Highly pathogenic (HP) isolates of the PRRS virus started emerging in North America and Asia in the late 1990s. More recently, they have emerged in Europe. These isolates are characterized by high viral loads, severe general clinical signs and high mortality, in sows, weaners and growers. Their genome shows a discontinuous aminoacids deletion in the non-structural protein 2 (NSP2). The present study was aimed at characterizing the clinical, pathological and immunological features of a highly pathogenetic, Italian PRRSV-1 subtype 1 isolate (PRRSV1_PR40/2014), following experimental infection in conventional 4-weeks-old pigs...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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