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Post translational modifications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432761/protein-s-sulfhydration-by-hydrogen-sulfide-in-cardiovascular-system
#1
REVIEW
Guoliang Meng, Shuang Zhao, Liping Xie, Yi Han, Yong Ji
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), independent on any specific transporters, plays a number of biological effects on cardiovascular systems. However, the detailed mechanism of H2 S is not yet clear until now. Recently, a novel post-translational modification induced by H2 S, named S-sulfhydration, has been proposed. S-sulfhydration is a chemical modification on specific cysteine residues of target proteins by H2 S. There are several methods for S-sulfhydration detection, such as modified biotin switch assay, maleimide assay with fluorescent thiol modifying regents, tag-switch method and mass spectrometry...
April 22, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431895/hemolymph-proteins-of-anopheles-gambiae-larvae-infected-by-escherichia-coli
#2
Xuesong He, Xiaolong Cao, Yan He, Krishna Bhattarai, Janet Rogers, Steve Hartson, Haobo Jiang
Anopheles gambiae is a major vector of human malaria and its immune system in part determines the fate of ingested parasites. Proteins, hemocytes and fat body in hemolymph are critical components of this system, mediating both humoral and cellular defenses. Here we assessed differences in the hemolymph proteomes of water- and E. coli-pricked mosquito larvae by a gel-LC-MS approach. Among the 1756 proteins identified, 603 contained a signal peptide but accounted for two-third of the total protein amount on the quantitative basis...
April 18, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431276/enzymatic-activity-gene-expression-and-posttranslational-modifications-of-photosynthetic-and-non-photosynthetic-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-in-ammonium-stressed-sorghum-plants
#3
Cirenia Arias-Baldrich, Clara de la Osa, Nadja Bosch, Isabel Ruiz-Ballesta, José A Monreal, Sofía García-Mauriño
Sorghum plants grown with 5mM (NH4)2SO4 showed symptoms of stress, such as reduced growth and photosynthesis, leaf chlorosis, and reddish roots. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity, by supplying carbon skeletons for ammonium assimilation, plays a pivotal role in tolerance to ammonium stress. This work investigated the effect of ammonium nutrition on PPC and PPCK gene expression, on PEPC activity, and on post-translational modifications (PTMs) of PEPC in leaves and roots of sorghum plants. Ammonium increased PEPC kinase (PEPCk) activity and the phosphorylation state of PEPC in leaves, both in light and in the dark, due to increased PPCK1 expression in leaves...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430886/intrinsic-protein-disorder-reduces-small-scale-gene-duplicability
#4
Sanghita Banerjee, Felix Feyertag, David Alvarez-Ponce
Whereas the rate of gene duplication is relatively high, only certain duplications survive the filter of natural selection and can contribute to genome evolution. However, the reasons why certain genes can be retained after duplication whereas others cannot remain largely unknown. Many proteins contain intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs), whose structures fluctuate between alternative conformational states. Due to their high flexibility, IDRs often enable protein-protein interactions and are the target of post-translational modifications...
April 19, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429743/novel-sumo-protease-senp7s-regulates-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-and-mammary-epithelial-cell-transformation
#5
Samaneh Karami, Feng-Ming Lin, Santosh Kumar, Shaymaa Bahnassy, Hariprasad Thangavel, Maram Quttina, Yue Li, Jing Ren, Tasneem Bawa-Khalfe
SUMO post-translational modification of proteins or SUMOylation ensures normal cell function. Disruption of SUMO dynamics prompts various pathophysiological conditions, including cancer. The burden of deSUMOylating the large SUMO-proteome rests on 6 full-length mammalian SUMO-proteases or SENP. While multiple SENP isoforms exist, the function of these isoforms remains undefined. We now delineate the biological role of a novel SENP7 isoform SENP7S in mammary epithelial cells. SENP7S is the predominant SENP transcript in human mammary epithelia but is significantly reduced in precancerous ductal carcinoma in situ and all breast cancer subtypes...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428953/tetraspanins-function-as-regulators-of-cellular-signaling
#6
REVIEW
Christina M Termini, Jennifer M Gillette
Tetraspanins are molecular scaffolds that distribute proteins into highly organized microdomains consisting of adhesion, signaling, and adaptor proteins. Many reports have identified interactions between tetraspanins and signaling molecules, finding unique downstream cellular consequences. In this review, we will explore these interactions as well as the specific cellular responses to signal activation, focusing on tetraspanin regulation of adhesion-mediated (integrins/FAK), receptor-mediated (EGFR, TNF-α, c-Met, c-Kit), and intracellular signaling (PKC, PI4K, β-catenin)...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428430/collagen-beta-1-o-galactosyltransferase-1-glt25d1-is-required-for-the-secretion-of-high-molecular-weight-adiponectin-and-affects-lipid-accumulation
#7
Julie A Webster, Zhe Yang, Yu-Hee Kim, Dorothy Loo, Rasha M Mosa, Hongzhuo Li, Chen Chen
Secretion of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is dependent on post-translational modification (PTM) of conserved lysines in the collagenous domain. This work aims to characterize the enzymes responsible for the PTM of conserved lysines which leads to HMW adiponectin secretion, and to define its significance in relation to obesity.  Collagen beta (1- O ) galactosyltransferase 1 (GLT25D1) was knocked down in HEK cells modified for the stable expression of adiponectin (Adipo-HEK cells) as well as in Simpson Golabi-Behmel-Syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes...
April 20, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427997/distinct-sequences-and-post-translational-modifications-in-cardiac-atrial-and-ventricular-myosin-light-chains-revealed-by-top-down-mass-spectrometry
#8
Zachery R Gregorich, Wenxuan Cai, Ziqing Lin, Albert J Chen, Ying Peng, Takushi Kohmoto, Ying Ge
Myosin is the principal component of the thick filaments that, through interactions with the actin thin filaments, mediates force production during muscle contraction. Myosin is a hexamer, consisting of two heavy chains, each associated with an essential (ELC) and a regulatory (RLC) light chain, which bind the lever-arm of the heavy chain and play important modulatory roles in striated muscle contraction. Nevertheless, a comprehensive assessment of the sequences of the ELC and RLC isoforms, as well as their post-translational modifications, in the heart remains lacking...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427325/global-analysis-of-protein-lysine-succinylation-profiles-in-common-wheat
#9
Yumei Zhang, Guangyuan Wang, Limin Song, Ping Mu, Shu Wang, Wenxing Liang, Qi Lin
BACKGROUND: Protein lysine succinylation is an important post-translational modification and plays a critical regulatory role in almost every aspects of cell metabolism in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Common wheat is one of the major global cereal crops. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine succinylation in this plant. Here, we performed a global analysis of lysine succinylation in wheat and examined its overlap with lysine acetylation. RESULTS: In total, 330 lysine succinylated modification sites were identified in 173 proteins...
April 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427151/fine-tuning-of-vitamin-d-receptor-vdr-activity-by-post-transcriptional-and-post-translational-modifications
#10
REVIEW
Ondrej Zenata, Radim Vrzal
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. Activated VDR is responsible for maintaining calcium and phosphate homeostasis, and is required for proper cellular growth, cell differentiation and apoptosis. The expression of both phases I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes is also regulated by VDR, therefore it is clinically important.Post-translational modifications of NRs have been known as an important mechanism modulating the activity of NRs and their ability to drive the expression of target genes...
February 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427097/systematic-quantification-of-gpcr-camp-controlled-protein-kinase-a-interactions
#11
O Torres-Quesada, R Röck, E Stefan
The diffusible second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) originates from multiple G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) cascades activating the intracellular key effector protein kinase A (PKA). Spatially and temporally restricted cAMP-fluxes are directly sensed by macromolecular PKA complexes. The consequences are alterations of molecular interactions, which lead to activation of compartmentalized PKA phosphotransferase activities, regulating a vast array of cellular functions. To decode cell-type and cell-compartment specific PKA functions, the spatio-temporal dynamics of small molecule:protein interactions, protein:protein interactions (PPIs), cAMP-mobilization, and phosphotransferase activities need to be determined directly in the appropriate cellular context...
April 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426288/post-translational-modifications-of-rab-gtpases
#12
Swapnil Rohidas Shinde, Subbareddy Maddika
Rab GTPases, the highly conserved members of Ras GTPase superfamily are central players in the vesicular trafficking. They are critically involved in intracellular trafficking pathway, beginning from formation of vesicles on donor membranes, defining trafficking specificity to facilitating vesicle docking on target membranes. Given the dynamic roles of Rabs during different stages of vesicular trafficking, mechanisms for their spatial and temporal regulation are crucial for normal cellular function. Regulation of Rab GTPase activity, localization and function has always been focused in and around the association of GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI), Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEFs) and GTPase accelerating protein (GAP) to Rabs...
February 28, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426042/antibodies-to-h2a-and-h2b-histones-from-the-sera-of-hiv-infected-patients-catalyze-site-specific-degradation-of-these-histones
#13
Svetlana V Baranova, Pavel S Dmitrienok, Nikita V Ivanisenko, Valentina N Buneva, Georgy A Nevinsky
Histones and their post-translational modifications have key roles in chromatin remodeling and gene transcription. Besides intranuclear functions, histones act as damage-associated molecules when they are released into the extracellular space. Administration of histones to animals leads to systemic inflammatory and toxic responses. Autoantibodies with enzymatic activities (abzymes) are distinctive features of some autoimmune and viral diseases. Electrophoretically homogeneous IgGs containing no canonical enzymes were isolated from the sera of HIV-infected patients by chromatography on several affinity sorbents including anti-histone Sepharose...
April 20, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425971/%C3%AF-%C3%A2-cells-feature-de-ubiquitination-of-slc-transporters-and-increased-levels-and-fluxes-of-amino-acids
#14
André Bordinassi Medina, Marcin Banaszczak, Yang Ni, Ina Aretz, David Meierhofer
Solute carrier (SLC) transporters are a diverse group of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the cellular flux and distribution of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as ubiquitination, have recently emerged as one of the major regulatory mechanisms in protein function and localization. Previously, we showed that SLC amino acid transporters were on average 6-fold de-ubiquitinated and increased amino acid levels were detected in ρ⁰ cells (lacking mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA) compared to parental cells...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425870/ipreny-pseaac-identify-c-terminal-cysteine-prenylation-sites-in-proteins-by-incorporating-two-tiers-of-sequence-couplings-into-pseaac
#15
Yan Xu, Zu Wang, Chunhui Li, Kuo-Chen Chou
PURPOSE: Occurring at the cysteine residue in the C-terminal of a protein, prenylation is a special kind of post-translational modification (PTM), which may play a key role for statin in altering immune function. Therefore, knowledge of the prenylation sites in proteins is important for drug development as well as for in-depth understanding the biological process concerned. Given a query protein whose C-terminal contains some cysteine residues, which one can be of prenylation or none of them can be prenylated? METHODS: To address this problem, we have developed a new predictor, called "iPreny-PseAAC", by incorporating two tiers of sequence pair coupling effects into the general form of PseAAC (pseudo amino acid composition)...
April 19, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424976/the-involvement-of-nr2b-and-tau-protein-in-mg132-induced-creb-dephosphorylation
#16
Min Xie, Yuan Li, Shao-Hui Wang, Qun-Tao Yu, Xin Meng, Xiao-Mei Liao
Transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) plays a critical role in memory formation. Ubiquitin-proteasome system-dependent protein degradation affects the upstream signaling pathways which regulate CREB activity. However, the molecular mechanisms of proteasome inhibition on reductive CREB activity are still unclear. The current study demonstrated that MG132-inhibited proteasome activity resulted in a dose dependence of CREB dephosphorylation at Ser133 as well as decreased phosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit NR2B (Tyr1472) and its tyrosine protein kinase Fyn (Tyr416)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424515/structure-and-allosteric-inhibition-of-excitatory-amino-acid-transporter-1
#17
Juan C Canul-Tec, Reda Assal, Erica Cirri, Pierre Legrand, Sébastien Brier, Julia Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas Reyes
Human members of the solute carrier 1 (SLC1) family of transporters take up excitatory neurotransmitters in the brain and amino acids in peripheral organs. Dysregulation of the function of SLC1 transporters is associated with neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. Here we present crystal structures of a thermostabilized human SLC1 transporter, the excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1), with and without allosteric and competitive inhibitors bound. The structures reveal architectural features of the human transporters, such as intra- and extracellular domains that have potential roles in transport function, regulation by lipids and post-translational modifications...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423006/transcriptome-and-proteome-responses-in-rnalater-preserved-tissue-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#18
Colin P S Kruse, Proma Basu, Darron R Luesse, Sarah E Wyatt
Tissue preservation is a minimal requirement for the success of plant RNA and protein expression studies. The standard of snap-freezing in liquid nitrogen is not always practical or possible. RNAlater, a concentrated solution of ammonium and cesium sulfates, has become a standard preservative in the absence of liquid nitrogen. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of RNAlater in preserving both RNA and proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana tissues for use in RNAseq and LC-MS/MS analysis of proteins. While successful in preserving plant material, a transcriptomic and proteomic response is evident...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420604/a-digital-tool-to-promote-alcohol-and-drug-use-screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-to-treatment-skill-translation-a-mobile-app-development-and-randomized-controlled-trial-protocol
#19
Derek D Satre, Khanh Ly, Maria Wamsley, Alexa Curtis, Jason Satterfield
BACKGROUND: Translation of knowledge and skills from classroom settings to clinical practice is a major challenge in healthcare training, especially for behavioral interventions. For example, screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a highly-promoted approach to identifying and treating individuals at risk for alcohol or drug problems, yet effective, routine use of SBIRT has lagged. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe the development, pilot testing, and trial protocol of a mobile app based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to promote SBIRT skill translation and application...
April 18, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420414/integrated-genomic-analysis-of-mitochondrial-rna-processing-in-human-cancers
#20
Youssef Idaghdour, Alan Hodgkinson
BACKGROUND: The mitochondrial genome is transcribed as continuous polycistrons of RNA containing multiple genes. As a consequence, post-transcriptional events are critical for the regulation of gene expression and therefore all aspects of mitochondrial function. One particularly important process is the m(1)A/m(1)G RNA methylation of the ninth position of different mitochondrial tRNAs, which allows efficient processing of mitochondrial mRNAs and protein translation, and de-regulation of genes involved in these processes has been associated with altered mitochondrial function...
April 18, 2017: Genome Medicine
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