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Post translational modifications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927261/hdac11-inhibits-myoblast-differentiation-through-repression-of-myod-dependent-transcription
#1
Sang Kyung Byun, Tae Hyeon An, Min Jeong Son, Da Som Lee, Hyun Sup Kang, Eun-Woo Lee, Baek Soo Han, Won Kon Kim, Kwang-Hee Bae, Kyoung-Jin Oh, Sang Chul Lee
Abnormal differentiation of muscle is closely associated with aging (sarcopenia) and diseases such as cancer and type II diabetes. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that regulate muscle differentiation will be useful in the treatment and prevention of these conditions. Protein lysine acetylation and methylation are major post-translational modification mechanisms that regulate key cellular processes. In this study, to elucidate the relationship between myogenic differentiation and protein lysine acetylation/methylation, we performed a PCR array of enzymes related to protein lysine acetylation/ methylation during C2C12 myoblast differentiation...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923365/mitochondrial-dynamics-at-the-interface-of-immune-cell-metabolism-and-function
#2
REVIEW
Angelika S Rambold, Erika L Pearce
Immune cell differentiation and function are crucially dependent on specific metabolic programs dictated by mitochondria, including the generation of ATP from the oxidation of nutrients and supplying precursors for the synthesis of macromolecules and post-translational modifications. The many processes that occur in mitochondria are intimately linked to their morphology that is shaped by opposing fusion and fission events. Exciting evidence is now emerging that demonstrates reciprocal crosstalk between mitochondrial dynamics and metabolism...
September 8, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922739/o-glcnac-transferase-regulates-transcriptional-activity-of-human-oct4
#3
Sandii Constable, Jae-Min Lim, Krithika Vaidyanathan, Lance Wells
O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a single sugar modification found on many different classes of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Addition of this modification, by the enzyme O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT), is dynamic and inducible. One major class of proteins modified by O-GlcNAc is transcription factors. O-GlcNAc regulates transcription factor properties through a variety of different mechanisms including localization, stability and transcriptional activation. Maintenance of embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency requires tight regulation of several key transcription factors, many of which are modified by O-GlcNAc...
October 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921635/prediction-of-phosphorylation-sites-based-on-krawtchouk-image-moments
#4
Xue Wang, Min Li Xu, Bao Qiong Li, Hong Lin Zhai, Jin Jin Liu, Shuyan Li
Protein phosphorylation is one of the most pervasive post-translational modifications and regulates diverse cellular processes in organisms. Under the catalysis of protein kinases, protein phosphorylation usually occurred in the residues serine (S), threonine (T) or tyrosine (Y). In this contribution, we proposed a novel scheme (named KMPhos) for the theoretical prediction of protein phosphorylation sites. First, the numerical matrix was obtained from a protein sequence fragment by replacing the characters of the residues with the chemical descriptors of amino acid molecules to approximately describe the chemical environment of the protein fragment, which was turned to the grayscale image...
September 18, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921125/exogenous-cannabinoid-efficacy-merely-a-pharmacokinetic-interaction
#5
Jennifer H Martin, Jennifer Schneider, Catherine J Lucas, Peter Galettis
Endocannabinoid pharmacology is now relatively well understood with a number of endocannabinoids and endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitters identified and the pharmacokinetics relatively well ascertained. Further, the cannabinoid receptors are now molecularly and pharmacologically characterised and the cell processes involved in endocannabinoid transcription, synthesis, post-translational modification and protein expression are reported. Endogenous cannabinoids have been shown to have key roles in immune and pain pathways and neuro-behavioural signalling including appetite regulation...
September 18, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920454/investigation-of-o-glycosylation-heterogeneity-of-recombinant-coagulation-factor-ix-using-lc-ms-ms
#6
Youngsuk Seo, Gyeong Mi Park, Myung Jin Oh, Hyun Joo An
AIM: Recombinant coagulation factor IX (rFIX) has extraordinarily multiple post-translational modifications including N-glycosylation and O-glycosylation which have a drastic effect on biological functions and in vivo recovery. Unlike N-glycosylation extensively characterized, there are a few studies on O-glycosylation due to its intrinsic complexity. In-depth O-glycosylation analysis is necessary to better understand and assess pharmacological activity of rFIX. RESULTS: We determined unusual O-glycosylations including O-fucosylation and O-glucosylation which were located at Serine 53 and 61, respectively in EGF domain...
September 18, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920440/unrestricted-mass-spectrometric-data-analysis-for-identification-localization-and-quantification-of-oxidative-protein-modifications
#7
Martin Rykær, Birte Svensson, Michael J Davies, Per Hägglund
Oxidation generates multiple diverse post-translational modifications resulting in changes in protein structure and function, associated with a wide range of diseases. Of these modifications, carbonylations have often been used as hallmarks of oxidative damage. However, accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that other oxidation products may be quantitatively more important under physiological conditions. To address this issue we have developed a holistic mass spectrometry-based approach for simultaneous identification, localization and quantification of a broad range of oxidative modifications based on so-called 'dependent peptides'...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919632/cd36-in-chronic-kidney-disease-novel-insights-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#8
REVIEW
Xiaochun Yang, Daryl M Okamura, Xifeng Lu, Yaxi Chen, John Moorhead, Zac Varghese, Xiong Z Ruan
CD36 (also known as scavenger receptor B2) is a multifunctional receptor that mediates the binding and cellular uptake of long-chain fatty acids, oxidized lipids and phospholipids, advanced oxidation protein products, thrombospondin and advanced glycation end products, and has roles in lipid accumulation, inflammatory signalling, energy reprogramming, apoptosis and kidney fibrosis. Renal CD36 is mainly expressed in tubular epithelial cells, podocytes and mesangial cells, and is markedly upregulated in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919529/acetylation-of-lysine-residues-in-apomyoglobin-structural-changes-amyloid-fibrillation-and-role-of-surface-charge
#9
Mehrnaz Azami-Movahed, Ali Akbar Meratan, Atiyeh Ghasemi, Azadeh Ebrahim-Habibi, Mohsen Nemat-Gorgani
Post-translational modifications play important roles in conformational properties and aggregation propensities of different peptides and proteins. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of acetylation of lysine residues on the structure and aggregation properties of apomyoglobin (apoMb).All of the 19 lysine residues were modified. Far-, near-UV CD, intrinsic and acrylamide quenching fluorescence studies indicated that acetylation significantly influences conformation of apoMb by altering both its secondary and tertiary structures...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919255/sumo-proteins-guardians-of-immune-system
#10
REVIEW
Sabrina Adorisio, Alessandra Fierabracci, Isabella Muscari, Anna Marina Liberati, Emira Ayroldi, Graziella Migliorati, Trinh Thi Thuy, Carlo Riccardi, Domenico V Delfino
Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins belong to the ubiquitin-like family and act to change the function of target proteins through post-translational modifications. Through their interactions with innate immune pathways, SUMOs promote an efficient immune response to pathogenic challenge avoiding, at the same time, an excess of immune response that could lead to the development of autoimmune diseases. This report discusses the general functions of SUMO proteins; highlights SUMO involvement in the innate immune response through their role in NF-κB and interferon pathways; the involvement of SUMO proteins in autoimmune diseases; and reviews bacterial, viral, and parasitic interactions with SUMO pathways...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919033/non-26s-proteasome-endomembrane-trafficking-pathways-in-aba-signaling
#11
REVIEW
Feifei Yu, Qi Xie
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a vital endogenous messenger that regulates diverse physiological processes in plants. The regulation of ABA signaling has been well studied at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Post-translational modification of key regulators in ABA signaling by the 26S ubiquitin proteasome pathway is well known. Recently, increasing evidence demonstrates that atypical turnover of key regulators by the endocytic trafficking pathway and autophagy also play vital roles in ABA perception, signaling, and action...
September 14, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918527/alterations-in-epididymal-proteomics-and-antioxidant-activity-of-mice-exposed-to-fluoride
#12
Zilong Sun, Sujuan Li, Yuxiang Yu, Hongyu Chen, Mohammad Mehdi Ommati, Ram Kumar Manthari, Ruiyan Niu, Jundong Wang
It is well known that high fluoride results in low fertility. Epididymis is the important place for spermatozoa maturation, which is essential for successful fertilization. In the previous studies, fluoride was reported to damage the epididymal structure of mouse and rabbit. However, the mechanism underlying sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced epididymal toxicity has not yet been well elucidated. The aim of this study is to explore the global protein alterations in epididymis of mice exposed to NaF using the iTRAQ technique...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917639/protein-oxidation-involved-in-cys-tyr-post-translational-modification
#13
Susan E Hromada, Adam M Hilbrands, Elysa M Wolf, Jackson L Ross, Taylor R Hegg, Andrew G Roth, Matthew T Hollowell, Carolyn E Anderson, David E Benson
Some post-translationally modified tyrosines can perform reversible redox chemistry similar to metal cofactors. The most studied of these tyrosine modifications is the intramolecular thioether-crosslinked 3'-(S-cysteinyl)-tyrosine (Cys-Tyr) in galactose oxidase. This Cu-mediated tyrosine modification in galactose oxidase involves direct electron transfer (inner-sphere) to the coordinated tyrosine. Mammalian cysteine dioxygenase enzymes also contain a Cys-Tyr that is formed, presumably, through outer-sphere electron transfer from a non-heme iron center ~6Å away from the parent residues...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915616/tdp-43-hdac6-axis-promoted-tumor-progression-and-regulated-nutrient-deprivation-induced-autophagy-in-glioblastoma
#14
Tzu-Wei Lin, Ming-Teh Chen, Liang-Ting Lin, Pin-I Huang, Wen-Liang Lo, Yi-Ping Yang, Kai-Hsi Lu, Yi-Wei Chen, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Cheng-Wen Wu
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a lethal primary brain tumor with poor survival lifespan and dismal outcome. Surgical resection of GBM is greatly limited due to the biological significance of brain, giving rise to tumor relapse in GBM patients. Transactive response DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a DNA/RNA-binding protein known for causing neurodegenerative diseases through post-translational modification; but little is known about its involvement in cancer development. In this study, we found that nutrient deprivation in GBM cell lines elevated TDP-43 expression by a mechanism of evasion from ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway, and subsequently activated the autophagy process...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915445/exploring-the-association-of-rs10490924-polymorphism-with-age-related-macular-degeneration-an-in-silico-approach
#15
Farhad Jahanfar, Hamed Hamishehkar
The polymorphism rs10490924 (A69S) in the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) gene is highly associated with age-related macular degeneration, which is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly population. The ARMS2 gene encodes a putative small (11kDa) protein, which the function and localization of the ARMS2 protein remain under debate. For a better understanding of functional impacts of the A69S mutation, we performed a detailed analysis of the ARMS2 sequence with a broad set of bioinformatics tools...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912786/co-infection-of-sweet-orange-with-severe-and-mild-strains-of-citrus-tristeza-virus-is-overwhelmingly-dominated-by-the-severe-strain-on-both-the-transcriptional-and-biological-levels
#16
Shimin Fu, Jonathan Shao, Changyong Zhou, John S Hartung
Citrus tristeza is one of the most destructive citrus diseases and is caused by the phloem-restricted Closterovirus, Citrus tristeza virus. Mild strain CTV-B2 does not cause obvious symptoms on indicators whereas severe strain CTV-B6 causes symptoms, including stem pitting, cupping, yellowing, and stiffening of leaves, and vein corking. Our laboratory has previously characterized changes in transcription in sweet orange separately infected with CTV-B2 and CTV-B6. In the present study, transcriptome analysis of Citrus sinensis in response to double infection by CTV-B2 and CTV-B6 was carried out...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912266/lysine-trimethylation-regulates-78-kda-glucose-regulated-protein-proteostasis-during-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#17
Jonas Sieber, Nicolas Wieder, Mauricio Ostrosky-Frid, Moran Dvela-Levitt, Ozan Aygün, Namrata D Udeshi, Steven A Carr, Anna Greka
The upregulation of chaperones such as the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78; also referred to as BiP or HSPA5) is part of the adaptive cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. GRP78 is widely used as a marker of the unfolded protein response, associated with sustained ER stress. Here, we report the discovery of a proteostatic mechanism involving GRP78 trimethylation in the context of ER stress. Using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we identified two GRP78 fractions, one homeostatic and one induced by ER stress...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911847/analysis-of-structural-features-contributing-to-weak-affinities-of-ubiquitin-protein-interactions
#18
REVIEW
Ariel Cohen, Eran Rosenthal, Julia M Shifman
Ubiquitin is a small protein that enables one of the most common post-translational modifications, where the whole ubiquitin molecule is attached to various target proteins, forming mono- or polyubiquitin conjugations. As a prototypical multispecific protein, ubiquitin interacts non-covalently with a variety of proteins in the cell, including ubiquitin modifying enzymes and ubiquitin receptors that recognize signals from ubiquitin-conjugated substrates. To enable recognition of multiple targets and to support fast dissociation from the ubiquitin modifying enzymes, ubiquitin/protein interactions are characterized with low affinities, frequently in the higher μM and lower mM range...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911820/regulation-of-pannexin-channels-in-the-cns-by-src-family-kinases
#19
REVIEW
Alexander W Lohman, Nicholas L Weilinger, Silva Mf Santos, Jennifer Bialecki, Allison C Werner, Connor L Anderson, Roger J Thompson
Pannexins form single membrane channels that regulate the passage of ions, small molecules and metabolites between the intra- and extracellular compartments. In the central nervous system, these channels are integrated into numerous signaling cascades that shape brain physiology and pathology. Post-translational modification of pannexins is complex, with phosphorylation emerging as a prominent form of functional regulation. While much is still not known regarding the specific kinases and modified amino acids, recent reports support a role for Src family tyrosine kinases (SFK) in regulating pannexin channel activity...
September 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911315/direct-quantification-of-protein-glycan-phosphorylation
#20
Stephanie A Ketcham, Muhammad Ashraf, Chikkathur N Madhavarao
Phosphorylation is an important post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins and a critical quality attribute for protein therapeutics, especially if it is required for protein function or sub-cellular targeting. Most current methods to quantify phosphorylation are time-consuming, indirect, or require specific instrumentation and technical skills. Here, we report the adaptation of a phosphate-specific binding dye and common laboratory instruments for quantification of relative amounts of phosphorylated glycans as well as phosphorylation of amino acid residues on the backbones of proteins...
September 1, 2017: BioTechniques
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