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Mitochondria system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458125/pluripotent-stem-cells-for-uncovering-the-role-of-mitochondria-in-human-brain-function-and-dysfunction
#1
REVIEW
Annika Zink, Josef Priller, Alessandro Prigione
Mitochondrial dysfunctions are a known pathogenetic mechanism of a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. At the same time, mutations in genes encoding for components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain cause mitochondrial diseases, which commonly exhibit neurological symptoms. Mitochondria are therefore critical for the functionality of the human nervous system. The importance of mitochondria stems from their key roles in cellular metabolism, calcium handling, redox and protein homeostasis, and overall cellular homeostasis through their dynamic network...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458112/compatible-osmolytes-modulate-mitochondrial-function-in-a-marine-osmoconformer-crassostrea-gigas-thunberg-1793
#2
Eugene P Sokolov, Inna M Sokolova
Salinity is an important environmental factor affecting physiology of marine organisms. Osmoconformers such as marine mollusks maintain metabolic function despite changes of the osmolarity and composition of the cytosol during salinity shifts. Currently, metabolic responses to the salinity-induced changes of the intracellular milieu are not well understood. We studied the effects of osmolarity (450 vs. 900 mOsm) and compatible osmolytes (70-590 mM of taurine or betaine) on isolated gill mitochondria of a marine osmoconformer, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas...
February 16, 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453096/design-of-mitochondria-targeted-colorimetric-and-ratiometric-fluorescent-probes-for-rapid-detection-of-so-2-derivatives-in-living-cells
#3
Yutao Yang, Tingting Zhou, Bozan Bai, Caixia Yin, Wenzhi Xu, Wei Li
Two mitochondria-targeted colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probes for SO 2 derivatives were constructed based on the SO 2 derivatives-triggered Michael addition reaction. The probes exhibit high specificity toward HSO 3 - /SO 3 2- by interrupting their conjugation system resulting in a large ratiometric blue shift of 46-121nm in their emission spectrum. The two well-resolved emission bands can ensure accurate detection of HSO 3 - . The detection limits were calculated to be 1.09 and 1.35μM. Importantly, probe 1 and probe 2 were successfully used to fluorescence ratiometric imaging of endogenous HSO 3 - in BT-474 cells...
February 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453086/pegylated-polyaminoacid-capped-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-for-mitochondria-targeted-delivery-of-celastrol-in-solid-tumors
#4
Ju Yeon Choi, Biki Gupta, Thiruganesh Ramasamy, Jee-Heon Jeong, Sung Giu Jin, Han-Gon Choi, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim
The major goal of cancer chemotherapy is to maximize the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs, while minimizing their associated side effects. Celastrol (CST), which is extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Tripterygium wilfordii, has been reported to exhibit significant anticancer effects in various in vitro and in vivo cancer models. Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems could be employed to preserve and enhance the pharmacological effects of CST in cancer cells. Among these, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are one of the most promising drug delivery systems...
February 11, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451034/cytochrome-p450-in-the-central-nervous-system-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#5
Cynthia Navarro-Mabarak, Rafael Camacho-Carranza, Jesús Javier Espinosa-Aguirre
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) constitute a family of enzymes that can be found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria or the cell surface of the cells. CYPs are characterized by carrying out the oxidation of organic compounds and they are mainly recognized as mediators of the biotransformation of xenobiotics to polar hydrophilic metabolites that can be eliminated from the organism. However, these enzymes play a key role in many other physiological processes, being involved in diverse indispensable metabolic pathways since they metabolize many endogenous substrates...
February 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449774/reactive-oxygen-species-a-key-constituent-in-cancer-survival
#6
REVIEW
Seema Kumari, Anil Kumar Badana, Murali Mohan G, Shailender G, RamaRao Malla
Background: Cancer is one of the major heterogeneous disease with high morbidity and mortality with poor prognosis. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), alteration in redox balance, and deregulated redox signaling are common hallmarks of cancer progression and resistance to treatment. Mitochondria contribute mainly in the generation of ROS during oxidative phosphorylation. Elevated levels of ROS have been detected in cancers cells due to high metabolic activity, cellular signaling, peroxisomal activity, mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of oncogene, and increased enzymatic activity of oxidases, cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and thymidine phosphorylases...
2018: Biomarker Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446653/cgas-mediated-autophagy-protects-the-liver-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-independent-of-sting
#7
Zhao Lei, Meihong Deng, Zhongjie Yi, Qian Sun, Richard A Shapiro, Hongbo Xu, Tunliang Li, Patricia A Loughran, John E Griepentrog, Hai Huang, Melanie J Scott, Feizhou Huang, Timothy R Billiar
Liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs through induction of oxidative stress and release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), including cytosolic DNA released from dysfunctional mitochondria or from the nucleus. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) is a cytosolic DNA sensor known to trigger stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and downstream type1 interferon (IFN-I) pathways, which are pivotal innate immune system responses to pathogen. However, little is known about the role of cGAS/STING in liver I/R injury...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445193/uncoupling-foxo3a-mitochondrial-and-nuclear-functions-in-cancer-cells-undergoing-metabolic-stress-and-chemotherapy
#8
Valentina Celestini, Tugsan Tezil, Luciana Russo, Candida Fasano, Paola Sanese, Giovanna Forte, Alessia Peserico, Martina Lepore Signorile, Giovanna Longo, Domenico De Rasmo, Anna Signorile, Raffaella Maria Gadaleta, Natasha Scialpi, Mineko Terao, Enrico Garattini, Tiziana Cocco, Gaetano Villani, Antonio Moschetta, Valentina Grossi, Cristiano Simone
While aberrant cancer cell growth is frequently associated with altered biochemical metabolism, normal mitochondrial functions are usually preserved and necessary for full malignant transformation. The transcription factor FoxO3A is a key determinant of cancer cell homeostasis, playing a dual role in survival/death response to metabolic stress and cancer therapeutics. We recently described a novel mitochondrial arm of the AMPK-FoxO3A axis in normal cells upon nutrient shortage. Here, we show that in metabolically stressed cancer cells, FoxO3A is recruited to the mitochondria through activation of MEK/ERK and AMPK, which phosphorylate serine 12 and 30, respectively, on FoxO3A N-terminal domain...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445084/the-carnitine-system-and-cancer-metabolic-plasticity
#9
REVIEW
Melone Mariarosa Anna Beatrice, Valentino Anna, Margarucci Sabrina, Galderisi Umberto, Giordano Antonio, Peluso Gianfranco
Metabolic flexibility describes the ability of cells to respond or adapt its metabolism to support and enable rapid proliferation, continuous growth, and survival in hostile conditions. This dynamic character of the cellular metabolic network appears enhanced in cancer cells, in order to increase the adaptive phenotype and to maintain both viability and uncontrolled proliferation. Cancer cells can reprogram their metabolism to satisfy the energy as well as the biosynthetic intermediate request and to preserve their integrity from the harsh and hypoxic environment...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444369/rotaviral-non-structural-protein-4-triggers-dynamin-related-protein-1-dependent-mitochondrial-fragmentation-during-infection
#10
Arpita Mukherjee, Upayan Patra, Rahul Bhowmick, Mamta Chawla-Sarkar
Dynamic equilibrium between mitochondrial fission and mitochondrial fusion serves as an important quality control system within cells ensuring cellular vitality and homeostasis. Viruses often target mitochondrial dynamics as a part of their obligatory cellular reprogramming. The present study was undertaken to assess the status and regulation of mitochondrial dynamics during rotavirus (RV) infection. Distinct fragmentation of mitochondrial syncytia was observed during late hours of RV (SA11, Wa, A5-13) infection...
February 14, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443540/targeted-elimination-of-peroxisomes-during-viral-infection-lessons-from-hiv-and-other-viruses
#11
Cheung Pang Wong, Zaikun Xu, Christopher Power, Tom C Hobman
Peroxisomes are membrane-bound organelles that are best known for their roles in lipid metabolism. Mounting evidence indicates that they are also important nodes for antiviral signaling. While research over the past few decades has revealed effective viral strategies to block antiviral signalling pathways from the plasma membrane, mitochondria and/or the nucleus, until recently, very little was known about how viruses interfere with peroxisome-based antiviral signaling. In this essay, we review how viruses use a variety of strategies to interfere with peroxisome biogenesis, a phenomenon that has implications for evasion of the host immune system as well as pathogenesis...
February 14, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442224/vitamin-c-and-sodium-bicarbonate-enhance-the-antioxidant-ability-of-h9c2-cells-and-induce-hsps-to-relieve-heat-stress
#12
Bin Yin, Shu Tang, Jiarui Sun, Xiaohui Zhang, Jiao Xu, Liangjiao Di, Zhihong Li, Yurong Hu, Endong Bao
Heat stress is exacerbated by global warming and affects human and animal health, leading to heart damage caused by imbalances in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant system, acid-base chemistry, electrolytes and respiratory alkalosis. Vitamin C scavenges excess ROS, and sodium bicarbonate maintains acid-base and electrolyte balance, and alleviates respiratory alkalosis. Herein, we explored the ability of vitamin C alone and in combination with equimolar sodium bicarbonate (Vitamin C-Na) to stimulate endogenous antioxidants and heat shock proteins (HSPs) to relieve heat stress in H9C2 cells...
February 13, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435647/the-unique-fold-and-lability-of-the-2fe-2s-clusters-of-neet-proteins-mediate-their-key-functions-in-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Ola Karmi, Henri-Baptiste Marjault, Luca Pesce, Paolo Carloni, Jose' N Onuchic, Patricia A Jennings, Ron Mittler, Rachel Nechushtai
NEET proteins comprise a new class of [2Fe-2S] cluster proteins. In human, three genes encode for NEET proteins: cisd1 encodes mitoNEET (mNT), cisd2 encodes the Nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1 (NAF-1) and cisd3 encodes MiNT (Miner2). These recently discovered proteins play key roles in many processes related to normal metabolism and disease. Indeed, NEET proteins are involved in iron, Fe-S, and reactive oxygen homeostasis in cells and play an important role in regulating apoptosis and autophagy. mNT and NAF-1 are homodimeric and reside on the outer mitochondrial membrane...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434802/an-investigation-of-the-mechanism-of-dexmedetomidine-in-improving-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-from-the-perspectives-of-alleviating-neuronal-mitochondrial-membrane-oxidative-stress-and-electrophysiological-dysfunction
#14
Jie Chen, Na Shen, Xiaohui Duan, Yaning Guo
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of dexmedetomidine in improving postoperative cognitive dysfunction from the perspectives of alleviating neuronal mitochondrial membrane oxidative stress and electrophysiological dysfunction. A total of 120 patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia from June 2013 to May, 2016 were selected as the subjects of the study and randomly divided into the propofol + remifentanil and dexmedetomidine groups. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were performed at day 1 before operation and at day 1, 3, 5 and 15 after operation...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432025/charge-reversible-and-mitochondria-nucleus-dual-target-lipid-hybrid-nanoparticles-to-enhance-antitumor-activity-of-doxorubicin
#15
Yan-Feng Song, Dao-Zhou Liu, Ying Cheng, Zeng-Hui Teng, Han Cui, Miao Liu, Bang-Le Zhang, Qi-Bing Mei, Si-Yuan Zhou
The experiment aims to increase anti-tumor activity while decreasing the systemic toxicity of doxorubicin (DOX). A charge reversible and mitochondria/nucleus dual target lipid hybrid nanoparticles (LNPs) was prepared. The in vitro experimental results indicated that LNPs released more amount of DOX in acidic environment and delivered more amount of DOX to the mitochondria and nucleus of tumor cells than free DOX did, which resulted in the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and the enhancement of cytotoxicity of LNPs on tumor cells...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428024/effect-of-systemic-triphenylphosphonium-on-organ-function-and-oxidative-stress
#16
Rebecca D Powell, Donna A Goodenow, A Britton Christmas, Iain H Mckillop, Susan L Evans
Conditions of systemic stress can lead to increased reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial dysfunction, systemic inflammation, and multiorgan dysfunction. Triphenylphosphonium (TPP+) is a lipophilic cation used to target therapeutics to mitochondria. We sought to determine the effects of TPP+ on mitochondrial integrity. Male rats were anesthetized and TPP+ (5 mg/kg) or vehicle (saline) was administered intravenously 30-minutes after anesthesia initiation and intraperitoneally (20 mg/kg) 60-minutes later...
January 1, 2018: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426933/a-conserved-r-type-methionine-sulfoxide-reductase-reverses-oxidized-grpel1-mge1-to-regulate-hsp70-chaperone-cycle
#17
Praveen Kumar Allu, Yerranna Boggula, Srinivasu Karri, Adinarayana Marada, Thanuja Krishnamoorthy, Naresh Babu V Sepuri
Cells across evolution employ reversible oxidative modification of methionine and cysteine amino acids within proteins to regulate responses to redox stress. Previously we have shown that mitochondrial localized methionine sulfoxide reductase (Mxr2) reversibly regulates oxidized yeast Mge1 (yMge1), a co-chaperone of Hsp70/Ssc1 to maintain protein homeostasis during oxidative stress. However, the specificity and the conservation of the reversible methionine oxidation mechanism in higher eukaryotes is debatable as human GrpEL1 (hGrpEL1) unlike its homolog yMge1 harbors two methionine residues and multiple cysteines besides the mammalian mitochondria hosting R and S types of Mxrs/Msrs...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425772/ultrastructure-and-function-of-the-seminal-vesicle-of-bittacidae-insecta-mecoptera
#18
Qi-Hui Lyu, Bei-Bei Zhang, Bao-Zhen Hua
The fine structure of the seminal vesicle and reproductive accessory glands was investigated in Bittacidae of Mecoptera using light and transmission electron microscopy. The male reproductive system of Bittacidae mainly consists of a pair of testes, a pair of vasa deferentia, and an ejaculatory sac. The vas deferens is greatly expanded for its middle and medio-posterior parts to form a well-developed seminal vesicle. The seminal vesicle is composed of layers of developed muscles and a mono-layered epithelium surrounding the small central lumen...
February 6, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423676/heat-shock-transcriptional-factor-mediates-mitochondrial-unfolded-protein-response
#19
Naoki Koike, Yuuki Hatano, Takashi Ushimaru
For maintenance of cytoplasmic protein quality control (PQC), cytoplasmic heat shock proteins (HSPs) negatively control heat shock transcriptional factor (HSF) in a negative feedback loop. However, how mitochondrial protein quality control (mtPQC) is maintained is largely unknown. Here we present evidence that HSF directly monitors mtPQC in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mitochondrial HSP70 (Ssc1) negatively regulated HSF activity. Importantly, HSF was localized not only in the nucleus but also on mitochondria...
February 8, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422939/associations-between-fatty-acid-oxidation-hepatic-mitochondrial-function-and-plasma-acylcarnitine-levels-in-mice
#20
Bodil Bjørndal, Eva Katrine Alterås, Carine Lindquist, Asbjørn Svardal, Jon Skorve, Rolf K Berge
Background: The 4-thia fatty acid tetradecylthiopropionic acid (TTP) is known to inhibit mitochondrial β-oxidation, and can be used as chemically induced hepatic steatosis-model in rodents, while 3-thia fatty acid tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) stimulates fatty acid oxidation through activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα). We wished to determine how these two compounds affected in vivo respiration and mitochondrial efficiency, with an additional goal to elucidate whether mitochondrial function is reflected in plasma acylcarnitine levels...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
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