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Mitochondria system

David Renault, Hesham Yousef, Amr A Mohamed
Antibiotics have been increasingly used over the past decades for human medicine, food-animal agriculture, aquaculture, and plant production. A significant part of the active molecules of antibiotics can be released into the environment, in turn affecting ecosystem functioning and biogeochemical processes. At lower organizational scales, these substances affect bacterial symbionts of insects, with negative consequences on growth and development of juveniles, and population dynamics. Yet, the multiple alterations of cellular physiology and metabolic processes have remained insufficiently explored in insects...
June 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yusuf Olgar, Sinan Degirmenci, Aysegul Durak, Deniz Billur, Belgin Can, Gizem Kayki Mutlu, Ebru Arioglu Inan, Belma Turan
Aging in humans represents declining in cardio-protective systems, however its mechanisms are not known yet. We aimed to analyse how aging affects key mechanisms responsible for contractile dysfunction via comparing the improperly synchrony between electrical and mechanical activities in male aged-rats (24-month old) comparison to those of adult-rats (6-month old). We determined significantly increased systemic oxidative stress with decreased antioxidant capacity, clear insulin resistance and hypertrophy in aged-rats with normal fasting blood glucose...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Kiriko Kaneko, Yoshiko Kubota, Kazumi Nomura, Haruka Hayashimoto, Taisei Chida, Naoto Yoshino, Marina Wayama, Katsutoshi Ogasawara, Yukio Nakamura, Ikuo Tooyama, Kazumichi Furuyama
ALAS2 gene mutations cause X-linked sideroblastic anemia. The presence of ring sideroblasts in a patient's bone marrow is the hallmark of sideroblastic anemia, but the precise mechanisms underlying sideroblast formation are largely unknown. Using a genome editing system, a mutation was introduced in the erythroid-specific enhancer of the ALAS2 gene in HUDEP2 cells, which were derived from human umbilical stem cells and can produce erythrocytes. The established cell line, termed HA2low, expressed less ALAS2 mRNA than did wild-type cells, even after erythroid differentiation...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Hematology
Vered Behar, Hadas Pahima, Adi Kozminsky-Atias, Nir Arbel, Emmanuel Loeb, Max Herzberg, Oren M Becker
Overexpression of hexokinase 2 (HK2), and its binding to VDAC1 on the outer mitochondrial membrane of cancer cells, is key to their metabolic reprogramming to aerobic glycolysis, which enables them to proliferate. We describe Comp-1, an allosteric small molecule that selectively detaches HK2 from the mitochondria. Detachment of HK2 reduces glycolysis and triggers apoptosis in cancer cells, without affecting HK1 expressing normal cells. The anti-cancer activity of Comp-1 was demonstrated in the UVB-damaged skin model in SKH-1 mice...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Zhaoxu Tu, Haishi Qiao, Yuting Yan, Guy Guday, Wei Chen, Mohsen Adeli, Rainer Haag
Multidrug resistance (MDR), which leads tumors resistance to traditional anticancer drugs, can cause the failure of chemotherapy treatments. In this work, we present a new way to overcome this problem using smart multifunctional graphene-based drug delivery systems which can target subcellular organelles and show synergistic hyperthermia and chemotherapy. Mitochondria-targeting ligands are conjugated onto the doxorubicin-loaded, polyglycerol-covered nanographene sheets to actively accumulate them inside the mitochondria after charge-mediated cellular internalization...
June 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Tao Shen, Hai-Zhen Li, Ai-Ling Li, Yan-Ru Li, Xiao-Ning Wang, Dong-Mei Ren
Excess intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is a significant causative factor of many diseases, exemplified by vascular diseases. Mitochondria are a major source of endogenous ROS, which simultaneously induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) represents an important intracellular defense system that protects cells against oxidative insults caused by ROS. Therefore, molecules with the capacities of inducing Nrf2, and preventing mitochondrial dysfunction can inhibit cell apoptosis, and thus are potential drug candidates for the therapy of ROS-mediated vascular diseases...
June 11, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Yu-Ting Wu, Kun-Ting Chi, Yueh-Wen Lan, Jui-Chi Chan, Yi-Shing Ma, Yau-Huei Wei
Upregulation of mitochondrial function and oxidative metabolism is a hallmark in the differentiation of stem cells. However, the mechanism underlying the metabolic reprogramming and upregulation of mitochondrial function during the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is largely unclear. Sirt3 has emerged as a sensor in regulating mitochondrial function and antioxidant defense system in cellular response to energy demand or environmental stimuli, but its roles in stem cell differentiation has not been fully understood...
June 14, 2018: Free Radical Research
Fang Wang, Lingyun Zhang, Xiufeng Bai, Xintao Cao, Xiangyu Jiao, Yan Huang, Yansheng Li, Yan Qin, Yongqiang Wen
Gene interference-based therapeutics represents a fascinating challenge and shows enormous potential for cancer treatment, in which microRNA is used to correct abnormal gene. Based on the above, we introduced microRNA-31 to bind to 3' untranslated region of mtEF4, resulting in the downregulation of its messenger RNA and protein to trigger cancer cells apoptosis through mitochondria-related pathway. To achieve better therapeutic effect, a mesoporous silica nanoparticles-based controlled nanoplatform had been developed...
June 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Indrakumar Janani, Rachita Lakra, Manikantan Syamala Kiran, Purna Sai Korrapati
Cancer nanomedicine has emerged as a revolution in the last decade opening up promising strides for the cancer treatment. The major challenge in these therapeutic approaches resides in the failure of clinical trials owing to the immunological cancer microenvironment. Therefore, the success of next generation nanomedicine depends on tunable physicochemical nanomaterial design and corresponding clinical trials by integrating targeted delivery with mitigated toxicity. The present study deals with the fabrication of nanofibrous scaffold impregnated with molybdenum nanoparticles for targeted skin cancer therapeutics...
September 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Piotr Pluta, Dorota Jesionek-Kupnicka, Joanna Kubicka-Wołkowska, Agnieszka Pluta, Kamil Brzozowski, Piotr Potemski, Janusz Piekarski, Radzisław Kordek, Arkadiusz Jeziorski
Preoperative systemic therapy including neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is standard treatment in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), the aim of which is to enable a radical surgery and to reduce the risk of local and distant recurrence. It has been established that NCT in LABC may effectively induce apoptosis. The study objective was to assess the role of a proapoptotic second mitochondria-derived activator of apoptosis (SMAC) in LABC. The study group comprised 56 patients with advanced non-metastatic breast cancer (stage IIB -node positive and III), who received NCT followed by surgery and adjuvant treatment...
2018: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
Mutsumi Watanabe, Takayuki Tohge, Alisdair R Fernie, Rainer Hoefgen
The gene family of serine acetyltransferases (SERATs) constitutes an interface between the plant pathways of serine and sulfur metabolism. SERATs provide the activated precursor, O -acetylserine for the fixation of reduced sulfur into cysteine by exchanging the serine hydroxyl moiety by a sulfhydryl moiety, and subsequently all organic compounds containing reduced sulfur moieties. We investigate here, how manipulation of the SERAT interface results in metabolic alterations upstream or downstream of this boundary and the extent to which the five SERAT isoforms exert an effect on the coupled system, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chinthasagar Bastian, Jane Zaleski, Katharine Stahon, Brandon Parr, Andrew McCray, Jerica Day, Sylvain Brunet, Selva Baltan
White matter (WM) damage following a stroke underlies a majority of the neurological disability that is subsequently observed. Although ischemic injury mechanisms are age-dependent, conserving axonal mitochondria provides consistent post-ischemic protection to young and aging WM. Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) activation is a major cause of oxidative and mitochondrial injury in gray matter during ischemia; therefore, we used a pure WM tract, isolated male mouse optic nerve, to investigate whether NOS inhibition provides post-ischemic functional recovery by preserving mitochondria...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jianye Dai, Kai Liang, Shan Zhao, Wentong Jia, Yuan Liu, Hongkun Wu, Jia Lv, Chen Cao, Tao Chen, Shentian Zhuang, Xiaomeng Hou, Shijie Zhou, Xiannian Zhang, Xiao-Wei Chen, Yanyi Huang, Rui-Ping Xiao, Yan-Ling Wang, Tuoping Luo, Junyu Xiao, Chu Wang
Obesity and related metabolic diseases are becoming worldwide epidemics that lead to increased death rates and heavy health care costs. Effective treatment options have not been found yet. Here, based on the observation that baicalin, a flavonoid from the herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis , has unique antisteatosis activity, we performed quantitative chemoproteomic profiling and identified carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), the controlling enzyme for fatty acid oxidation, as the key target of baicalin...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Khedidja Mosbahi, Marta Wojnowska, Amaya Albalat, Daniel Walker
Iron is an essential micronutrient for most bacteria and is obtained from iron-chelating siderophores or directly from iron-containing host proteins. For Gram-negative bacteria, classical iron transport systems consist of an outer membrane receptor, a periplasmic binding protein, and an inner membrane ABC transporter, which work in concert to deliver iron from the cell surface to the cytoplasm. We recently showed that Pectobacterium spp. are able to acquire iron from ferredoxin, a small and stable 2Fe-2S iron sulfur cluster containing protein and identified the ferredoxin receptor, FusA, a TonB-dependent receptor that binds ferredoxin on the cell surface...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chunping Yang, Yue Tian, Tianxing Lv, Xiaoli Chang, Min Zhang, Guoshu Gong, Liulan Zhao, Song Yang, Huabao Chen
Pedunsaponin A, a novel molluscicidal compound isolated from Pueraria peduncularis, exhibits strong toxicity against Pomacea canaliculata. To determine the mechanisms of Pedunsaponin A toxicity, its effects on the organs and hemocytes of P. canaliculata were examined in this study. The results showed that Pedunsaponin A had significant toxic effects on different organs of the snail, including the lungs, gills, mantle, siphon tube, ventricle, pericardial cavity, hepatopancreas, kidneys, and the major symptom of this toxicity was the loss of cilia in the lungs and gills...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Yasuhiro Watanabe, Takashi Matsuba, Mami Nakanishi, Mio Une, Ritsuko Hanajima, Kenji Nakashima
BACKGROUND: Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) is taken up at nerve terminals and undergoes retrograde migration. The toxic properties of TeNT reside in the toxin light chain (L), but like complete TeNT, the TeNT heavy chain (TTH) and the C-terminal domain (TTC) alone can bind and enter into neurons. Here, we explored whether atoxic fragments of TeNT could act as drug delivery vehicles in neurons. In this study, we used Bcl-2, a protein known to have anti-apoptotic properties in vivo and in vitro, as a parcel to couple to TeNT fragments...
June 11, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
Anthony L Berger, Angela M Henricks, Janelle M Lugo, Hayden R Wright, Collin R Warrick, Martin A Sticht, Maria Morena, Itziar Bonilla, Sarah A Laredo, Rebecca M Craft, Loren H Parsons, Pedro R Grandes, Cecilia J Hillard, Matthew N Hill, Ryan J McLaughlin
BACKGROUND: The ability to effectively cope with stress is a critical determinant of disease susceptibility. The lateral habenula (LHb) and the endocannabinoid (ECB) system have independently been shown to be involved in the selection of stress coping strategies, yet the role of ECB signaling in the LHb remains unknown. METHODS: Using a battery of complementary techniques in rats, we examined the localization of type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1 Rs) and assessed the behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of intra-LHb CB1 R manipulations...
May 8, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Jiao Jiao Zhang, Xian Zhong Wang, Huynh Luong Do, Nisansala Chandimali, Tae Yoon Kang, Nameun Kim, Mrinmoy Ghosh, Sang Baek Lee, Young Sun Mok, Seong Bong Kim, Taeho Kwon, Dong Kee Jeong
Non-thermal plasma treatment is an emerging innovative technique with a wide range of biological applications. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma technique on immature chicken Sertoli cell (SC) viability and the regulatory role of microRNA (miR)-7450. Results showed that plasma treatment increased SC apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Plasma-induced SC apoptosis possibly resulted from the excess production of reactive oxygen species via the suppression of antioxidant defense systems and decreased cellular energy metabolism through the inhibition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and respiratory enzyme activity in the mitochondria...
June 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Semen V Nesterov, Yulia A Skorobogatova, Alisa A Panteleeva, Lyubov L Pavlik, Irina B Mikheeva, Lev S Yaguzhinsky, Yaroslav R Nartsissov
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the presence of three more receptors in mitochondria. Two N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits (NR1 and NR2B) are found by protein immunoblot and immunogold labeling in mitochondria fraction isolated from rat heart. These data allow supposing NMDAR presence and functioning in the inner mitochondrial membrane. There are no signs of receptor presence obtained in heart tissue lysate, that indicates the receptor localization exactly in mitochondria. The possible receptor functions discussed are its participation in calcium transport and in excitation-metabolism coupling...
June 5, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Mitzi Nagarkatti, Sadiye Amcaoglu Rieder, Prakash S Nagarkatti
Immunotoxicity testing is important in determining the toxic effects of various chemicals on the immune system. The immune system is a direct target of numerous toxicants, and the adverse effects include serious health complications such as susceptibility to infections, cancer, allergic reactions, and autoimmune diseases. One way to investigate the harmful effects of different chemicals is to study apoptosis and/or proliferation in immune cells. Apoptosis is defined as programmed cell death, and in general, this process helps in development and maintenance of tolerance and homeostasis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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