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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223141/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-choline-transporter-like-proteins-in-esophageal-cancer-cells-and-potential-therapeutic-targets
#1
Fumiaki Nagashima, Ryohta Nishiyama, Beniko Iwao, Yuiko Kawai, Chikanao Ishii, Tsuyoshi Yamanaka, Hiroyuki Uchino, Masato Inazu
In this study, we examined the molecular and functional characterization of choline uptake in the human esophageal cancer cells. In addition, we examined the influence of various drugs on the transport of [3H]choline, and explored the possible correlation between the inhibition of choline uptake and apoptotic cell death. We found that both choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) and CTL2 mRNAs and proteins were highly expressed in esophageal cancer cell lines (KYSE series). CTL1 and CTL2 were located in the plasma membrane and mitochondria, respectively...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222974/cold-atmospheric-plasma-cap-a-novel-physicochemical-source-induces-neural-differentiation-through-cross-talk-between-the-specific-rons-cascade-and-trk-ras-erk-signaling-pathway
#2
Ja-Young Jang, Young June Hong, Junsup Lim, Jin Sung Choi, Eun Ha Choi, Seongman Kang, Hyangshuk Rhim
Plasma, formed by ionization of gas molecules or atoms, is the most abundant form of matter and consists of highly reactive physicochemical species. In the physics and chemistry fields, plasma has been extensively studied; however, the exact action mechanisms of plasma on biological systems, including cells and humans, are not well known. Recent evidence suggests that cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), which refers to plasma used in the biomedical field, may regulate diverse cellular processes, including neural differentiation...
November 30, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222784/methods-for-quantitative-analysis-of-axonal-cargo-transport
#3
Matias Alloatti, Luciana Bruno, Tomas L Falzone
Neurons rely on complex axonal transport mechanisms that mediate the intracellular dynamics of proteins, vesicles, and mitochondria along their high polarized structure. The fast improvement of live imaging techniques of fluorescent cargos allowed the identification of the diverse motion properties of different transported molecules. These properties arise as the result of molecular interactions between many players involved in axonal transport. Motor proteins, microtubule tracks, cargo association, and even axonal viscosity contribute to the proper axonal dynamics of different cargos...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222029/rapid-regulation-of-substrate-use-for-oxidative-phosphorylation-during-a-single-session-of-high-intensity-interval-or-aerobic-exercises-in-different-rat-skeletal-muscles
#4
Eduarda Lopes Martins, Juliana Carvalho Ricardo, Eduardo de-Souza-Ferreira, Juliana Camacho-Pereira, Dionizio Ramos-Filho, Antonio Galina
Different exercise protocols lead to long-term adaptations that are related to increased mitochondrial content through the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis. However, immediate mitochondrial response to exercise and energetic substrate utilization is still unknown. We evaluate the mitochondrial physiology of two types rat skeletal muscle fibres immediately after a single session of high intensity interval exercise (HIIE) or aerobic exercise (AER). We found AER was able to reduce the ATP synthesis dependent oxygen flux in the tibialis (TA) when stimulated by complex I and II substrates...
December 5, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219180/laminar-shear-stress-promotes-mitochondrial-homeostasis-in-endothelial-cells
#5
Li-Hong Wu, Hao-Chun Chang, Pei-Ching Ting, Danny Ling Wang
Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are constantly subjected to flow-induced shear stress that is crucial for endothelial functions. Laminar shear stress (LSS) exerts atheroprotection to ECs. Mitochondrial homeostasis is essential for cellular survival. However, the effects of LSS on mitochondrial homeostasis in ECs remain unclear. Mitochondrial homeostasis in ECs exposed to LSS was examined. Cultured human umbilical vein ECs were subjected to LSS (12 dynes/cm2 ) generated by a parallel-plate flow chamber system...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219147/mitochondrial-metabolism-and-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Paolo Ettore Porporato, Nicoletta Filigheddu, José Manuel Bravo-San Pedro, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi
Glycolysis has long been considered as the major metabolic process for energy production and anabolic growth in cancer cells. Although such a view has been instrumental for the development of powerful imaging tools that are still used in the clinics, it is now clear that mitochondria play a key role in oncogenesis. Besides exerting central bioenergetic functions, mitochondria provide indeed building blocks for tumor anabolism, control redox and calcium homeostasis, participate in transcriptional regulation, and govern cell death...
December 8, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217202/cell-free-production-purification-and-characterization-of-human-mitochondrial-adp-atp-carriers
#7
Aleksandra Woznicka-Misaila, Céline Juillan-Binard, Delphine Baud, Eva Pebay-Peyroula, Stéphanie Ravaud
Mitochondrial Carriers (MCs) are responsible for fluent traffic of a variety of compounds that need to be shuttled via mitochondrial inner membranes to maintain cell metabolism. The ADP/ATP Carriers (AACs) are responsible for the import of ADP inside the mitochondria and the export of newly synthesized ATP. In human, four different AACs isoforms are described which are expressed in tissue-specific manner. They are involved in different genetic diseases and play a role in cancerogenesis. Up to now only the structures of the bovine (isoform 1) and yeast (isoforms 2 and 3) AAC have been determined in one particular conformation, obtained in complex with the CATR inhibitor...
December 4, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214897/ss-31-peptide-enables-mitochondrial-targeting-drug-delivery-a-promising-therapeutic-alteration-to-prevent-hair-cell-damage-from-aminoglycosides
#8
Xiao Kuang, Shuang Zhou, Weiling Guo, Zhenjie Wang, Yanhui Sun, Hongzhuo Liu
Aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss stems from damage or loss of mechanosensory hair cells in the inner ear. Intrinsic mitochondrial cell death pathway plays a key role in that cellular dysfunction for which no proven effective therapies against oto-toxicities exist. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a new mitochondrial targeting drug delivery system (DDS) that provided improved protection from gentamicin. Particularly, SS-31 peptide-conjugated geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles were constructed successfully via emulsion-solvent evaporation method...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212938/subcellular-localization-and-functional-characterization-of-gii-4-norovirus-encoded-ntpase
#9
Ju-Bei Yen, Ling-Huei Wei, Lee-Wen Chen, Li-Yu Chen, Chien-Hui Hung, Shie-Shan Wang, Pey-Jium Chang
The genotype GII.4 variants of human noroviruses (HuNVs) are recognized as the major agent of global gastroenteritis outbreaks. Due to the lack of an efficient cell culture system for HuNV propagation, the exact roles of HuNV-encoded non-structural proteins (including Nterm, NTPase, P22, VPg, Pro and RdRp) in viral replication or pathogenesis have not yet been fully understood. Here, we report the molecular characterization of the GII.4 HuNV-encoded NTPase (or designated as GII-NTPase). Results from our studies showed that GII-NTPase forms vesicular or non-vesicular textures in the cell cytoplasm, and the non-vesicular fraction of GII-NTPase significantly localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or mitochondria...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212875/imiq-a-novel-protein-quality-control-compartment-protecting-mitochondrial-functional-integrity
#10
Michael Bruderek, Witold Jaworek, Anne Wilkening, Cornelia Rüb, Giovanna Cenini, Arion Förtsch, Marc Sylvester, Wolfgang Voos
Aggregation processes can cause severe perturbations of cellular homeostasis and are frequently associated with diseases. We performed a comprehensive analysis of mitochondrial quality and function in presence of aggregation-prone polypeptides. Despite a significant aggregate formation inside mitochondria, we observed only a minor impairment of mitochondrial function. Detoxification of aggregated reporter polypeptides as well as endogenous proteins inside mitochondria takes place via their sequestration into a specific organellar deposit site we termed intra-mitochondrial protein quality control compartment (IMiQ)...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212227/shift-in-energy-metabolism-caused-by-glucocorticoids-enhances-the-effect-of-cytotoxic-anti-cancer-drugs-against-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells
#11
Shigeki Aoki, Michie Morita, Takuya Hirao, Masashi Yamaguchi, Reika Shiratori, Megumi Kikuya, Hiroji Chibana, Kousei Ito
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy. Treatments include glucocorticoids (GCs) such as dexamethasone (Dex) and prednisolone, which may be of value when used alongside cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs. To predict therapeutic efficacy of GCs, their activity against ALL cells is usually examined prior to chemotherapy; however, few studies have examined their effects when used in combination with other drugs. The paradox is that cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs that are effective against proliferating cancer cells show synergistic effects when used with GCs that prevent cell proliferation...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210666/a-newly-synthetized-ferrocenyl-derivative-selectively-induces-apoptosis-in-all-lymphocytes-through-mitochondrial-estrogen-receptors
#12
Marjan Aghvami, Jalal Pourahmad, Afshin Zarghi, Peyman Eshghi, Mohammad Hadi Zarei, Shabnam Farzaneh, Fatemeh Sattari
BACKGROUND: Estrogens, as the main female steroid hormones have multiple proven effects on reproductive and non- reproductive systems. Expression of ERα and ERβ, two dominant estrogen receptors, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in certain B-cell malignancies and the existence of estrogens receptors on mitochondria is open to question that estrogen likely has an impact on the cancerous lymphocytes life span. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the frequent pediatric malignity which is recurrent and hardly curable in many cases...
December 5, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210417/reactive-oxygen-species-ros-responsive-nanomedicine-for-rnai-based-cancer-therapy
#13
Yang Li, Hongzhen Bai, Hebin Wang, Youqing Shen, Guping Tang, Yuan Ping
Although much effort has been dedicated to the development of efficient siRNA delivery for cancer therapy, delivery nanomaterials that can particularly respond to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are overproduced in the tissue and mitochondria of cancer cells, are still rare for the clinical translation of RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapy. To this end, we developed a ROS-responsive boronic vehicle with a lipid envelope for systemic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) siRNA delivery so as to improve RNAi cancer therapy...
December 6, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205852/glycyrrhetinic-acid-functionalized-graphene-oxide-for-mitochondria-targeting-and-cancer-treatment-in-vivo
#14
Chao Zhang, Zunfeng Liu, Ying Zheng, Yadi Geng, Chao Han, Yamin Shi, Hongbin Sun, Can Zhang, Yijun Chen, Luyong Zhang, Qinglong Guo, Lei Yang, Xiang Zhou, Lingyi Kong
Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis (MMA) is a preferential option for cancer therapy due to the presence of cell-suicide factors in mitochondria, however, low permeability of mitochondria is a bottleneck for targeting drug delivery. In this paper, glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), a natural product from Glycyrrhiza glabra, is found to be a novel mitochondria targeting ligand, which can improve mitochondrial permeability and enhance the drug uptake of mitochondria. GA-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) is prepared and used as an effective carrier for targeted delivery of doxorubicin into mitochondria...
December 4, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205851/regulated-cell-death-of-lymphoma-cells-after-graded-mitochondrial-damage-is-differentially-affected-by-drugs-targeting-cell-stress-responses
#15
Tomás Lombardo, Martín Gil Folgar, Luciana Salaverry, Estela Rey-Roldán, Elida M Alvarez, María C Carreras, Laura Kornblihtt, Guillermo A Blanco
Collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) is often considered the initiation of regulated cell death (RCD). Carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) is an uncoupler of the electron transport chain (ETC) that facilitates the translocation of protons into the mitochondrial matrix leading to the collapse of the MMP. Several cell stress responses such as mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and the ubiquitin proteasome system, may differentially contribute to restrain the initiation of RCD depending on the extent of mitochondrial damage...
December 4, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203960/monascus-purpureus-induced-apoptosis-on-gastric-cancer-cell-by-scavenging-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species
#16
Hiromi Kurokawa, Hiromu Ito, Hirofumi Matsui
Monascus purpureus is a red dye derived from yeast rice and has been used as color additives for food in East Asia. Monascus purpureus consists of several bioactive components. Some of these components work as a radical scavenger, thus monascus purpureus would also eliminate reactive oxygen species. Cancer cells maintain the high level of reactive oxygen species than normal cell and are death by imbalance in pro-oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis. In this study, we investigated whether monascus purpureus induced cancer specific cell death by scavenging reactive oxygen species...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203613/nfe2l1-silenced-insulinoma-cells-acquire-aggressiveness-and-chemo-resistance
#17
Jingqi Fu, Hongzhi Zheng, Qi Cui, Chengjie Chen, Simeng Bao, Jing Sun, Lu Li, Bei Yang, Huihui Wang, Yongyong Hou, Yuanyuan Xu, Yuanhong Xu, Qiang Zhang, Jingbo Pi
The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 1 (NFE2L1 or NRF1) is involved in various critical cell processes such as maintenance of ubiquitin-proteasome system and regulation of the cellular antioxidant response. We previously determined that pancreatic β-cell-specific Nfe2l1-knockout mice had hyperinsulinemia, and that silencing of Nfe2l1 in mouse islets or MIN6 insulinoma β-cells induced elevated basal insulin release and altered glucose metabolism. Hypoglycemia is a major issue with aggressive insulinomas, although a role of NFE2L1 in this pathology is not defined...
December 4, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203327/ros-induced-ros-release-in-plant-and-animal-cells
#18
Sara I Zandalinas, Ron Mittler
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key signaling role in plant and animal cells. Among the many cellular mechanisms used to generate and transduce ROS signals, ROS-induced ROS release (RIRR) is emerging as an important pathway involved in different human pathologies and plant responses to environmental stress. RIRR is a process in which one cellular compartment or organelle generates or releases ROS, triggering the enhanced production or release of ROS by another compartment or organelle. It was initially described in animal cells and proposed to mediate mitochondria-to-mitochondria communication, but later expanded to include communication between mitochondria and plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases...
December 1, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198728/flumioxazin-metabolism-in-pregnant-animals-and-cell-based-protoporphyrinogen-ix-oxidase-ppo-inhibition-assay-of-fetal-metabolites-in-various-animal-species-to-elucidate-the-mechanism-of-the-rat-specific-developmental-toxicity
#19
Jun Abe, Naohiko Isobe, Kazuki Mikata, Hirohisa Nagahori, Yoshikazu Naito, Hideo Saji, Masahiro Ono, Satoshi Kawamura
Flumioxazin, an N-phenylimide herbicide, inhibits protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO), a key enzyme in heme biosynthesis in mammals, and causes rat-specific developmental toxicity. The mechanism has mainly been clarified, but no research has yet focused on the contribution of its metabolites. We therefore conducted in vivo metabolism studies in pregnant rats and rabbits, and found 6 major known metabolites in excreta. There was no major rat-specific metabolite. The most abundant component in rat fetuses was APF, followed by flumioxazin and 5 identified metabolites...
November 30, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197714/effect-of-cadmium-exposure-on-hepatopancreas-and-gills-of-the-estuary-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain-histopathological-changes-and-expression-characterization-of-stress-response-genes
#20
Qi-Hui Zhu, Zhong-Kai Zhou, Dan-Dan Tu, Yi-Lian Zhou, Cong Wang, Ze-Peng Liu, Wen-Bin Gu, Yu-Yin Chen, Miao-An Shu
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that accumulates easily in organisms and causes several detrimental effects, including tissue damage. Cd contamination from anthropogenic terrestrial sources flows into rivers, and through estuaries to the ocean. To evaluate the toxic effects of Cd on estuary crustaceans, we exposed the mud crab Scylla paramamosain to various Cd concentrations (0, 10.0, 20.0, and 40.0mg/L) for 24h. We also exposed mud crabs to a fixed Cd concentration (20.0mg/L) for various periods of time (0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72h)...
November 30, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
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