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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662496/assembly-and-transfer-of-iron-sulfur-clusters-in-the-plastid
#1
REVIEW
Yan Lu
Iron-Sulfur (Fe-S) clusters and proteins are essential to many growth and developmental processes. In plants, they exist in the plastids, mitochondria, cytosol, and nucleus. Six types of Fe-S clusters are found in the plastid: classic 2Fe-2S, NEET-type 2Fe-2S, Rieske-type 2Fe-2S, 3Fe-4S, 4Fe-4S, and siroheme 4Fe-4S. Classic, NEET-type, and Rieske-type 2Fe-2S clusters have the same 2Fe-2S core; similarly, common and siroheme 4Fe-4S clusters have the same 4Fe-4S core. Plastidial Fe-S clusters are assembled by the sulfur mobilization (SUF) pathway, which contains cysteine desulfurase (EC 2...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658330/comparative-cytotoxicity-and-apoptotic-pathways-induced-by-nanosilver-in-human-liver-hepg2-and-l02-cells
#2
Y Xue, J Wang, Y Huang, X Gao, L Kong, T Zhang, M Tang
Silver nanoparticles are used in many commercial products in daily life. Exposure to nanosilver has hepatotoxic effects in animals. This study investigated the cytotoxicity associated with polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated nanosilver (23.44 ± 4.92 nm in diameter) exposure in the human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and normal hepatic cell line (L02), and the molecular mechanisms induced by nanosilver in HepG2 cells. Nanosilver, in doses of 20-160 μg mL-1 for 24 and 48 h, reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced cell membrane leakage and mitochondria injury in both cell lines; these effects were more pronounced in HepG2 cells than in L02 cells...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656925/dynamics-of-parkin-dependent-mitochondrial-ubiquitylation-in-induced-neurons-and-model-systems-revealed-by-digital-snapshot-proteomics
#3
Alban Ordureau, Joao A Paulo, Wei Zhang, Tim Ahfeldt, Jiuchun Zhang, Erin F Cohn, Zhonggang Hou, Jin-Mi Heo, Lee L Rubin, Sachdev S Sidhu, Steven P Gygi, J Wade Harper
Flux through kinase and ubiquitin-driven signaling systems depends on the modification kinetics, stoichiometry, primary site specificity, and target abundance within the pathway, yet we rarely understand these parameters and their spatial organization within cells. Here we develop temporal digital snapshots of ubiquitin signaling on the mitochondrial outer membrane in embryonic stem cell-derived neurons, and we model HeLa cell systems upon activation of the PINK1 kinase and PARKIN ubiquitin ligase by proteomic counting of ubiquitylation and phosphorylation events...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655867/short-term-sleep-deprivation-with-exposure-to-nocturnal-light-alters-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-in-drosophila
#4
Nathane Rosa Rodrigues, Giulianna Echeverria Macedo, Illana Kemmerich Martins, Karen Kich Gomes, Nélson Rodrigues de Carvalho, Thaís Posser, Jeferson Luis Franco
Many studies have shown the effects of sleep deprivation in several aspects of health and disease. However, little is known about how mitochondrial bioenergetics function is affected under this condition. To clarify this, we developed a simple model of short-term sleep deprivation, in which fruit-flies were submitted to a nocturnal light condition and then mitochondrial parameters were assessed by high resolution respirometry (HRR). Exposure of flies to constant light was able to alter sleep patterns, causing locomotor deficits, increasing ROS production and lipid peroxidation, affecting mitochondrial activity, antioxidant defense enzymes and caspase activity...
April 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653126/mitochondria-in-the-nervous-system-from-health-to-disease-part-ii
#5
EDITORIAL
Maria Teresa Carrì, Brian M Polster, Philip M Beart
In Part II of this Special Issue on "Mitochondria in the Nervous System: From Health to Disease", the editors bring together more reviews and original articles from researchers in the field of mitochondrial metabolism in the healthy and diseased nervous system. Subjects span from basic mitochondrial physiology to papers on mitochondrial dynamics and to those altered states of the nervous system that can be considered "mitopathologies". Finally, a few papers approach aspects of mitochondrial biology linked to the feasibility and validity of a mitochondrial therapy...
April 10, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651426/4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-alkylated-and-peroxynitrite-nitrated-proteins-localize-to-the-fused-mitochondria-in-malpighian-epithelial-cells-of-type-iv-collagen-drosophila-mutants
#6
András A Kiss, Nikoletta Popovics, Zsolt Boldogkői, Katalin Csiszár, Mátyás Mink
Background . Human type IV collagenopathy is associated with mutations within the COL4A1 and to a less extent the COL4A2 genes. The proteins encoded by these genes form heterotrimers and are the highest molar ratio components of the ubiquitous basement membrane. The clinical manifestations of the COL4A1/A2 mutations are systemic affecting many tissues and organs among these kidneys. In order to uncover the cellular and biochemical alterations associated with aberrant type IV collagen, we have explored the phenotype of the Malpighian tubules, the secretory organ and insect kidney model, in col4a1 collagen gene mutants of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster ...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650042/dental-pulp-stem-cells-used-to-deliver-the-anticancer-drug-paclitaxel
#7
Hamideh Salehi, Siham Al-Arag, Elodie Middendorp, Csilla Gergely, Frederic Cuisinier, Valerie Orti
BACKGROUND: Understanding stem cell behavior as a delivery tool in cancer therapy is essential for evaluating their future clinical potential. Previous in-vivo studies proved the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for local delivery of the commonest anticancer drug, paclitaxel (PTX). Dental pulp is a relatively abundant noninvasive source of MSCs. We assess dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), for the first time, as anticancer drug carriers. Confocal Raman microscopy is a unique tool to trace drug and cell viability without labeling...
April 12, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643809/examination-of-the-role-of-mitochondrial-morphology-and-function-in-the-cardioprotective-effect-of-sodium-nitrite-administered-24-h-before-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#8
Vivien Demeter-Haludka, Mária Kovács, Alexandra Petrus, Roland Patai, Danina M Muntean, László Siklós, Ágnes Végh
Background: We have previous evidence that in anesthetized dogs the inorganic sodium nitrite protects against the severe ventricular arrhythmias, resulting from coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion, when administered 24 h before. The present study aimed to examine, whether in this effect changes in mitochondrial morphology and function would play a role. Methods: Thirty dogs were infused intravenously either with saline ( n = 15) or sodium nitrite (0.2 μmol/kg/min; n = 15) for 20 min, and 24 h later, 10 dogs from each group were subjected to a 25 min period of occlusion and then reperfusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626647/multiple-pathways-for-mitophagy-a-neurodegenerative-conundrum-for-parkinson-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Charleen T Chu
It has been nearly a decade since the first landmark studies implicating familial recessive Parkinson's disease genes in the regulation of selective mitochondrial autophagy. The PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin (encoded by the PARK2 gene) act together to mark depolarized mitochondria for degradation. There is now an extensive body of literature detailing key mediators and steps in this pathway, based mostly on work in transformed cell lines. However, the degree to which PINK1-triggered mitophagy contributes to mitochondrial quality control in the mammalian brain, and the extent to which its disruption contributes to Parkinson's disease pathogenesis remain uncertain...
April 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625543/mechanisms-of-mitochondrial-dna-repair-in-mammals
#10
REVIEW
L A Zinovkina
Accumulation of mutations in mitochondrial DNA leads to the development of severe, currently untreatable diseases. The contribution of these mutations to aging and progress of neurodegenerative diseases is actively studied. Elucidation of DNA repair mechanisms in mitochondria is necessary for both developing approaches to the therapy of diseases caused by mitochondrial mutations and understanding specific features of mitochondrial genome functioning. Mitochondrial DNA repair systems have become a subject of extensive studies only in the last decade due to development of molecular biology methods...
March 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624777/de-novo-tetrahydrobiopterin-biosynthesis-is-impaired-in-the-inflammed-striatum-of-parkin-mice
#11
Roberta de Paula Martins, Viviane Glaser, Aderbal S Aguiar, Priscila Maximiliano de Paula Ferreira, Karina Ghisoni, Débora da Luz Scheffer, Laurence Lanfumey, Rita Raisman-Vozari, Olga Corti, Ana Lucia De Paul, Rodrigo Augusto da Silva, Alexandra Latini
Parkinson's disease (PD), the second-most prevalent neurodegenerative disease, is primarily characterized by neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra pars compacta, resulting in motor impairment. Loss-of-function mutations in parkin are the major cause of the early-onset familial form of the disease. Although rodents deficient in parkin (parkin(-/-)) have some dopaminergic system dysfunction associated with central oxidative stress and energy metabolism deficiencies, these animals only display nigrostriatal pathway degeneration under inflammatory conditions...
April 6, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624494/pesticides-impact-on-clavibacter-michiganensis-ssp-sepedonicus-biofilm-formation
#12
Alla I Perfileva, Antonina G Pavlova, Baira B Bukhyanova, Olga M Tsivileva
The effect of various pesticides on the biofilm formation by the phytopathogenic bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms), the potato ring rot causative agent, was explored for the first time. Systemic herbicides: 2,4-D, diuron, glyphosate, clopyralid, fluorodifen, as well as the commercial preparations "Lazurite," "Ridomil Gold," and the mitochondria inhibiting pesticides analog, sodium monoiodoacetate, were studied. These pesticides' effect on the Cms biofilm formation was shown to be distinct and dependent on the agent under question...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623826/targeting-ampk-in-diabetes-and-diabetic-complications-energy-homeostasis-autophagy-and-mitochondrial-health
#13
Y V Madhavi, Nikhil Gaikwad, Veera Ganesh Yerra, Anil Kumar Kalvala, Srinivas Nanduri, Ashutosh Kumar
Adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key enzymatic protein involved in linking the energy sensing to the metabolic manipulation. It is a serine/threonine kinase activated by several upstream kinases. AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein complex regulated by AMP, ADP, and ATP allosterically. AMPK is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues of the living system such as heart, kidney, liver, brain and skeletal muscles. Thus malfunctioning of AMPK is expected to harbor several human pathologies especially diseases associated with metabolic and mitochondrial dysfunction...
April 6, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619669/longitudinal-associations-of-lifetime-adiposity-with-leukocyte-telomere-length-and-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number
#14
Dong Hang, Hongmei Nan, Ane Sørlie Kværner, Immaculata De Vivo, Andrew Tan Chan, Zhibin Hu, Hongbing Shen, Edward Giovannucci, Mingyang Song
Adiposity may cause adverse health outcomes by increasing oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, which can be reflected by altered telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtCN) in peripheral blood leukocytes. However, little is known about the influence of lifetime adiposity on TL and mtCN in later life. This study was performed to investigate the associations of lifetime adiposity with leukocyte TL and mtCN in 9613 participants from the Nurses' Health Study. A group-based trajectory modelling approach was used to create trajectories of body shape from age 5 through 60 years, and a genetic risk score (GRS) was created based on 97 known adiposity susceptibility variants...
April 4, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619366/targeting-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-or-mitochondrial-ca-2-fluxes-as-therapeutic-strategy-for-hcv-infection
#15
Rosella Scrima, Claudia Piccoli, Darius Moradpour, Nazzareno Capitanio
Chronic hepatitis C is characterized by metabolic disorders and by a microenvironment in the liver dominated by oxidative stress, inflammation and regeneration processes that can in the long term lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunctions play a central role in these processes. However, how these dysfunctions are induced by the virus and whether they play a role in disease progression and neoplastic transformation remains to be determined...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619196/dual-targeting-of-the-cancer-antioxidant-network-with-1-4-naphthoquinone-fused-gold-i-n-heterocyclic-carbene-complexes
#16
R McCall, M Miles, P Lascuna, B Burney, Z Patel, K J Sidoran, V Sittaramane, J Kocerha, D A Grossie, J L Sessler, K Arumugam, J F Arambula
To achieve a systems-based approach to targeting the antioxidant pathway, 1,4-naphthoquinone annulated N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) [bis(1,3-dimesityl-4,5-naphthoquino-imidazol-2-ylidene)-gold(i)] [silver(i) dichloride] ( 1 ), [bis(1,3-dimesityl-4,5-naphthoquino-imidazol-2-ylidene)-gold(i)] chloride ( 2 ), and 1,3-dimesityl-4,5-naphthoquino-imidazol-2-ylidene)-gold(i) chloride ( 3 )) were designed, synthesized, and tested for biological activity in a series of human cancer cell lines. The solution phase of complexes 1-3 were assigned using several spectroscopy techniques, including NMR spectroscopic analysis...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615609/conformational-switching-within-dynamic-oligomers-underpins-toxic-gain-of-function-by-diabetes-associated-amyloid
#17
Melissa Birol, Sunil Kumar, Elizabeth Rhoades, Andrew D Miranker
Peptide mediated gain-of-toxic function is central to pathology in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and diabetes. In each system, self-assembly into oligomers is observed and can also result in poration of artificial membranes. Structural requirements for poration and the relationship of structure to cytotoxicity is unaddressed. Here we focus on islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) mediated loss-of-insulin secreting cells in patients with diabetes. Newly developed methods enable structure-function enquiry to focus on intracellular oligomers composed of hundreds of IAPP...
April 3, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614792/nitric-oxide-regulates-seedling-growth-and-mitochondrial-responses-in-aged-oat-seeds
#18
Chunli Mao, Yanqiao Zhu, Hang Cheng, Huifang Yan, Liyuan Zhao, Jia Tang, Xiqing Ma, Peisheng Mao
Mitochondria are the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells and play a central role in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycles; however, ROS production and regulation for seed germination, seedling growth, as well as mitochondrial responses to abiotic stress, are not clear. This study was conducted to obtain basic information on seed germination, embryo mitochondrial antioxidant responses, and protein profile changes in artificial aging in oat seeds ( Avena sativa L...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609807/nanoscale-domain-formation-of-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-in-the-plasma-and-vacuolar-membranes-of-living-yeast-cells
#19
Kan-Na Tomioku, Mikiko Shigekuni, Hiroki Hayashi, Akane Yoshida, Taiki Futagami, Hisanori Tamaki, Kenji Tanabe, Akikazu Fujita
In budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PtdIns(4)P serves as an essential signalling molecule in the Golgi complex, endosomal system, and plasma membrane, where it is involved in the control of multiple cellular functions via direct interactions with PtdIns(4)P-binding proteins. To analyse the distribution of PtdIns(4)P in yeast cells at a nanoscale level, we employed an electron microscopy technique that specifically labels PtdIns(4)P on the freeze-fracture replica of the yeast membrane. This method minimizes the possibility of artificial perturbation, because molecules in the membrane are physically immobilised in situ...
March 27, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606421/a-camp-pka-kinesin-1-axis-promotes-the-axonal-transport-of-mitochondria-in-aging-drosophila-neurons
#20
Alessio Vagnoni, Simon L Bullock
Mitochondria play fundamental roles within cells, including energy provision, calcium homeostasis, and the regulation of apoptosis. The transport of mitochondria by microtubule-based motors is critical for neuronal structure and function. This process allows local requirements for mitochondrial functions to be met and also facilitates recycling of these organelles [1, 2]. An age-related reduction in mitochondrial transport has been observed in neurons of mammalian and non-mammalian organisms [3-6], and has been proposed to contribute to the broader decline in neuronal function that occurs during aging [3, 5-7]...
March 20, 2018: Current Biology: CB
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