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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651317/effects-of-multi-environmental-factors-on-physiological-and-biochemical-responses-of-large-yellow-croaker-larimichthys-crocea
#1
Qian-Feng Wang, Wei-Liang Shen, Cheng Liu, Dan-Li Mu, Xiong-Fei Wu, Nian-Gang Guo, Jun-Quan Zhu
Land-based recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) and cage culture are important methods of Larimichthys crocea production. The effects of environmental factors on physiological and biochemical aspects of L. crocea require clarification. Temperature and salinity are controlled in RAS and directly affect L. crocea growth and survival. To explore optimal parameters, the oxygen consumption rate (RO), ammonium excretion rate (RN), and O/N ratio at different temperatures (8, 14, 20, 26, and 32 °C) and salinities (5, 15, 25, and 35‰) were determined...
June 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650095/sex-differences-in-brain-mitochondrial-metabolism-influence-of-endogenous-steroids-and-stroke
#2
REVIEW
P Gaignard, M Fréchou, P Liere, P Thérond, M Schumacher, A Slama, R Guennoun
Steroids are neuroprotective and growing body of evidence indicates that mitochondria are a potential target of their effects. The mitochondria are the site of cellular energy synthesis, regulate oxidative stress and play a key role in cell death after brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. After a summary of the literature on the general functions of mitochondria and the effects of sex steroid administrations on mitochondrial metabolism, we will summarize and discuss our recent findings concerning sex differences in brain mitochondrial function in physiological and pathological conditions...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649853/cationic-liposome-co-encapsulation-of-smac-mimetic-and-zvad-using-a-novel-lipid-bilayer-fusion-loaded-with-mlkl-pdna-for-tumor-inhibition-in-vivo
#3
Dan Sun, Linshu Zhao, Junzhong Lin, Yun Zhao, Yu Zheng
The increase in multidrug resistance among colon cancer cells presents a challenge for the development of effective therapies. Small-molecule analogs of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (SMAC) mimetic in association with mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL)-pDNA and z-VAD-fmk have shown ideal antitumor effects in colon cancer cells in vitro via induction of RIP3-dependent necroptosis. To achieve synergistic antitumor effects in vivo, liposomes loaded with SMAC mimetic, MLKL-pDNA and z-VAD-fmk have been developed using novel lipid fusion methods to co-localize the molecules of interest within the tumor cells...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649426/conserved-and-species-specific-molecular-denominators-in-mammalian-skeletal-muscle-aging
#4
Evi M Mercken, Miriam Capri, Bethany A Carboneau, Maria Conte, Juliana Heidler, Aurelia Santoro, Alejandro Martin-Montalvo, Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Husam Khraiwesh, José A González-Reyes, Ruin Moaddel, Yongqing Zhang, Kevin G Becker, José M Villalba, Julie A Mattison, Ilka Wittig, Claudio Franceschi, Rafael de Cabo
Aging is a complex phenomenon involving functional decline in multiple physiological systems. We undertook a comparative analysis of skeletal muscle from four different species, i.e. mice, rats, rhesus monkeys, and humans, at three different representative stages during their lifespan (young, middle, and old) to identify pathways that modulate function and healthspan. Gene expression profiling and computational analysis revealed that pathway complexity increases from mice to humans, and as mammals age, there is predominantly an upregulation of pathways in all species...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649367/nitric-oxide-signalling-and-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-the-heart-under-stress
#5
REVIEW
Yin Hua Zhang
Nitric oxide (NO) is an imperative regulator of the cardiovascular system and is a critical mechanism in preventing the pathogenesis and progression of the diseased heart. The scenario of bioavailable NO in the myocardium is complex: 1) NO is derived from both endogenous NO synthases (endothelial, neuronal, and/or inducible NOSs [eNOS, nNOS, and/or iNOS]) and exogenous sources (entero-salivary NO pathway) and the amount of NO from exogenous sources varies significantly; 2) NOSs are located at discrete compartments of cardiac myocytes and are regulated by distinctive mechanisms under stress; 3) NO regulates diverse target proteins through different modes of post-transcriptional modification (soluble guanylate cyclase [sGC]/cyclic guanosine monophosphate [cGMP]/protein kinase G [PKG]-dependent phosphorylation, S-nitrosylation, and transnitrosylation); 4) the downstream effectors of NO are multidimensional and vary from ion channels in the plasma membrane to signalling proteins and enzymes in the mitochondria, cytosol, nucleus, and myofilament; 5) NOS produces several radicals in addition to NO (e...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647857/ros-modulated-therapeutic-approaches-in-cancer-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Muhammad Hassan Raza, Sami Siraj, Abida Arshad, Usman Waheed, Fahad Aldakheel, Shatha Alduraywish, Muhammad Arshad
PURPOSE: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in cancer cells as a result of increased metabolic rate, dysfunction of mitochondria, elevated cell signaling, expression of oncogenes and increased peroxisome activities. Certain level of ROS is required by cancer cells, above or below which lead to cytotoxicity in cancer cells. This biochemical aspect can be exploited to develop novel therapeutic agents to preferentially and selectively target cancer cells. METHODS: We searched various electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed english-language articles...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646906/modulation-of-oxidative-phosphorylation-and-redox-homeostasis-in-mitochondrial-ndufs4-deficiency-via-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Marlen Melcher, Katharina Danhauser, Annette Seibt, Özer Degistirici, Fabian Baertling, Arun Kumar Kondadi, Andreas S Reichert, Werner J H Koopman, Peter H G M Willems, Richard J Rodenburg, Ertan Mayatepek, Roland Meisel, Felix Distelmaier
BACKGROUND: Disorders of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system represent a large group among the inborn errors of metabolism. The most frequently observed biochemical defect is isolated deficiency of mitochondrial complex I (CI). No effective treatment strategies for CI deficiency are so far available. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to modulate metabolic function in fibroblast cell models of CI deficiency. METHODS: We used human and murine fibroblasts with a defect in the nuclear DNA encoded NDUFS4 subunit of CI...
June 24, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644025/a-mitochondria-targeted-cryptocyanine-based-photothermogenic-photosensitizer
#8
Hyo Sung Jung, Jae Hong Lee, Kyutae Kim, Seyoung Koo, Peter Verwilst, Jonathan L Sessler, Chulhun Kang, Jong Seung Kim
Cryptocyanine-based probes exhibit highly efficient photothermal conversion and represent a new class of photothermal agents for use in photothermal therapy (PTT). With the thermal susceptibility of mitochondria in mind, we have prepared a mitochondria-targeted, NIR-absorbing cryptocyanine probe (Mito-CCy) and evaluated its photophysical properties, photothermal conversion efficiency, biological compatibility, cytotoxicity, and mitochondrial localization in HeLa cells. Upon subjecting 0.5 mL of a PBS buffer solution (10 mM, pH 7...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641777/role-of-parl-pink1-parkin-pathway-in-adipocyte-differentiation
#9
Ming-Yuh Shiau, Pin-Shen Lee, Ying-Jyun Huang, Ching-Ping Yang, Chiao-Wan Hsiao, Kai-Yun Chang, Huan-Wen Chen, Yih-Hsin Chang
OBJECTIVE: Adipogenesis determines the number of adipocytes which is increased when individuals become obese. Mitochondria undergo remarkable morphological and functional changes during adipogenesis. PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is pivotal to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis in neural cells. The present study aimed at investigating effects of PINK1 on adipogenesis and energy metabolism. METHODS: Expression of presenilin associated rhomboid-like protein (PARL), PINK1 and Parkin, as well as the interaction among these proteins was temporally examined during adipogenesis...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641368/glomerular-hyperfiltration-in-obese-african-american-hypertensive-patients-is-associated-with-elevated-urinary-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number
#10
Alfonso Eirin, Ahmed Saad, John R Woollard, Luis A Juncos, David A Calhoun, Hui Tang, Amir Lerman, Stephen C Textor, Lilach O Lerman
BACKGROUND: Glomerular hyperfiltration may contribute to the high incidence of renal disease in Obese African Americans essential hypertensive (ObAAEH) patients, but the precise mechanisms responsible for renal injury have not been elucidated. Mitochondria are important determinants of renal injury in hypertension, and increased levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the urine may indicate renal mitochondrial injury. We hypothesized that urine mtDNA copy numbers would be higher in ObAAEH compared to Caucasian essential hypertensive (CEH) patients...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640448/overview-of-the-muscle-cytoskeleton
#11
Christine A Henderson, Christopher G Gomez, Stefanie M Novak, Lei Mi-Mi, Carol C Gregorio
Cardiac and skeletal striated muscles are intricately designed machines responsible for muscle contraction. Coordination of the basic contractile unit, the sarcomere, and the complex cytoskeletal networks are critical for contractile activity. The sarcomere is comprised of precisely organized individual filament systems that include thin (actin), thick (myosin), titin, and nebulin. Connecting the sarcomere to other organelles (e.g., mitochondria and nucleus) and serving as the scaffold to maintain cellular integrity are the intermediate filaments...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638803/peptide-nucleic-acid-knockdown-and-intra-host-cell-complementation-of-ehrlichia-type-iv-secretion-system-effector
#12
Pratibha Sharma, Omid Teymournejad, Yasuko Rikihisa
Survival of Ehrlichia chaffeensis depends on obligatory intracellular infection. One of the barriers to E. chaffeensis research progress has been the inability, using conventional techniques, to generate knock-out mutants for genes essential for intracellular infection. This study examined the use of Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) technology to interrupt type IV secretion system (T4SS) effector protein expression in E. chaffeensis followed by intracellular complementation of the effector to determine its requirement for infection...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638095/mitochondria-localization-induced-self-assembly-of-peptide-amphiphiles-for-cellular-dysfunction
#13
M T Jeena, L Palanikumar, Eun Min Go, Inhye Kim, Myoung Gyun Kang, Seonik Lee, Sooham Park, Huyeon Choi, Chaekyu Kim, Seon-Mi Jin, Sung Chul Bae, Hyun Woo Rhee, Eunji Lee, Sang Kyu Kwak, Ja-Hyoung Ryu
Achieving spatiotemporal control of molecular self-assembly associated with actuation of biological functions inside living cells remains a challenge owing to the complexity of the cellular environments and the lack of characterization tools. We present, for the first time, the organelle-localized self-assembly of a peptide amphiphile as a powerful strategy for controlling cellular fate. A phenylalanine dipeptide (FF) with a mitochondria-targeting moiety, triphenyl phosphonium (Mito-FF), preferentially accumulates inside mitochondria and reaches the critical aggregation concentration to form a fibrous nanostructure, which is monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638045/treatment-of-sarcopenia-and-glucose-intolerance-through-mitochondrial-activation-by-5-aminolevulinic-acid
#14
Chikako Fujii, Kazutoshi Miyashita, Masanori Mitsuishi, Masaaki Sato, Kentaro Fujii, Hiroyuki Inoue, Aika Hagiwara, Sho Endo, Asuka Uto, Masaki Ryuzaki, Motowo Nakajima, Tohru Tanaka, Masanori Tamaki, Ayako Muraki, Toshihide Kawai, Hiroshi Itoh
Recently, sarcopenia has attracted attention as therapeutic target because it constitutes a risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We focused 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) which act as electron carriers in the mitochondrial electron transport system. The mice that received ALA for 8 weeks gained muscle strength and endurance, and exhibited increased muscle mass and mitochondrial amount. Administration of ALA to sarcopenia mice aged 100 weeks and chronic kidney disease (CKD) model mice also increased muscle mass and improved physical performance...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637353/hallmarks-of-pulmonary-hypertension-mesenchymal-and-inflammatory-cell-metabolic-reprogramming
#15
Angelo D'Alessandro, Karim El Kasmi, Lydie Plecita-Hlavata, Petr Jezek, Min Li, Hui Zhang, Sachin A Gupte, Kurt Randall Stenmark
The molecular events that promote the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) are complex and incompletely understood. The complex interplay between the pulmonary vasculature and its immediate microenvironment involving cells of immune system (i.e. macrophages) promotes a persistent inflammatory state, pathological angiogenesis and fibrosis that is driven by metabolic reprogramming of mesenchymal and immune cells. Consistent with previous findings in the field of cancer metabolism, increased glycolytic rates, incomplete glucose and glutamine oxidation to support anabolism and anaplerosis, altered lipid synthesis/oxidation ratios, increased one-carbon metabolism and activation of the pentose phosphate pathway to support nucleoside synthesis are but some of the key metabolic signatures of vascular cells in PH...
June 22, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634272/the-secreted-msp-domain-of-c-elegans-vapb-homolog-vpr-1-patterns-the-adult-striated-muscle-mitochondrial-reticulum-via-smn-1
#16
Jessica Schultz, Se-Jin Lee, Tim Cole, Hieu D Hoang, Jack Vibbert, Pauline A Cottee, Michael A Miller, Sung Min Han
The major sperm protein domain (MSPd) has an extracellular signaling function implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Secreted MSPds derived from the C. elegans VAPB homolog VPR-1 promote mitochondrial localization to actin-rich I-bands in body wall muscle. Here we show that the nervous system and germ line are key MSPd secretion tissues. MSPd signals are transduced through the CLR-1 Lar-like tyrosine phosphatase receptor. We show that CLR-1 is expressed throughout the muscle plasma membrane, where it is accessible to MSPd within the pseudocoelomic fluid...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628299/dihydropyrimidine-thiones-and-clioquinol-synergize-to-target-%C3%AE-amyloid-cellular-pathologies-through-a-metal-dependent-mechanism
#17
Daniel F Tardiff, Lauren E Brown, Xiaohui Yan, Richard Trilles, Nathan T Jui, M Inmaculada Barrasa, Kim A Caldwell, Guy A Caldwell, Scott E Schaus, Susan Lindquist
The lack of therapies for neurodegenerative diseases arises from our incomplete understanding of their underlying cellular toxicities and the limited number of predictive model systems. It is critical that we develop approaches to identify novel targets and lead compounds. Here, a phenotypic screen of yeast proteinopathy models identified dihydropyrimidine-thiones (DHPM-thiones) that selectively rescued the toxicity caused by β-amyloid (Aβ), the peptide implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Rescue of Aβ toxicity by DHPM-thiones occurred through a metal-dependent mechanism of action...
June 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627410/current-and-upcoming-mitochondrial-targets-for-cancer-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Hyoung Kyu Kim, Yeon Hee Noh, Bernd Nilius, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Nari Kim, Jin Han
Mitochondria are essential intracellular organelles that regulate energy metabolism, cell death, and signaling pathways that are important for cell proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, mitochondria are fundamentally implicated in cancer biology, including initiation, growth, metastasis, relapse, and acquired drug resistance. Based on these implications, mitochondria have been proposed as a major therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In addition to classical view of mitochondria in cancer biology, recent studies found novel pathophysiological roles of mitochondria in cancer...
June 13, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626071/nlrx1-dampens-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-tissue-injury-via-control-of-mitochondrial-activity
#19
Geurt Stokman, Lotte Kors, Pieter J Bakker, Elena Rampanelli, Nike Claessen, Gwendoline J D Teske, Loes Butter, Harmen van Andel, Marius A van den Bergh Weerman, Per W B Larsen, Mark C Dessing, Coert J Zuurbier, Stephen E Girardin, Sandrine Florquin, Jaklien C Leemans
Mitochondrial dysfunction is the most prominent source of oxidative stress in acute and chronic kidney disease. NLRX1 is a receptor of the innate immune system that is ubiquitously expressed and localized in mitochondria. We investigated whether NLRX1 may act at the interface of metabolism and innate immunity in a model of oxidative stress. Using a chimeric mouse model for renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, we found that NLRX1 protects against mortality, mitochondrial damage, and epithelial cell apoptosis in an oxidative stress-dependent fashion...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624767/effects-of-nrf1-on-steroidogenesis-and-apoptosis-in-goat-luteinized-granulosa-cells
#20
Guo-Min Zhang, Ming-Tian Deng, Zhi-Hai Lei, Yong-Jie Wan, Hai-Tao Nie, Zi-Yu Wang, Yi-Xuan Fan, Feng Wang, Yan-Li Zhang
During goat follicular development, abnormal expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) in granulosa cells may drive follicular atresia with unknown regulatory mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the effects of NRF1 on steroidogenesis and cell apoptosis by overexpressing or silencing it in goat luteinized granulosa cells (LGCs). Results showed that knockdown of NRF1 expression significantly inhibited the expression of STAR and CYP19A1, which are involved in sex steroid hormones synthesis, and led to lower estrogen levels...
August 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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