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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149687/pyrrolidinyl-pna-polypyrrole-silver-nanofoam-electrode-as-a-novel-label-free-electrochemical-mirna-21-biosensor
#1
Tawatchai Kangkamano, Apon Numnuam, Warakorn Limbut, Proespichaya Kanatharana, Tirayut Vilaivan, Panote Thavarungkul
A label-free electrochemical miRNA biosensor was developed based on a pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA)/polypyrrole (PPy)/silver nanofoam (AgNF) modified electrode. The AgNF was electrodeposited as redox indicator on a gold electrode, which was then functionalized with an electropolymerized layer of PPy, a conducting polymer, to immobilize the PNA probes. The fabrication process was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biosensor was used to detect miRNA-21, a biomarker abnormally expressed in most cancers...
November 6, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147904/the-multifaceted-roles-of-dj-1-as-an-antioxidant
#2
Prahlad V Raninga, Giovanna Di Trapani, Kathryn F Tonissen
The DJ-1 protein was originally linked with Parkinson's disease and is now known to have antioxidant functions. The protein has three redox-sensitive cysteine residues, which are involved in its dimerisation and functional properties. A mildly oxidised form of DJ-1 is the most active form and protects cells from oxidative stress conditions. DJ-1 functions as an antioxidant through a variety of mechanisms, including a weak direct antioxidant activity by scavenging reactive oxygen species. DJ-1 also regulates a number of signalling pathways, including the inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-induced apoptosis under oxidative stress conditions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146308/-molecular-habituation-as-a-potential-mechanism-of-gradual-homeostatic-loss-with-age
#3
Alvaro Martinez Guimera, Ciaran M Welsh, Carole J Proctor, Anne McArdle, Daryl P Shanley
The ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to cause molecular damage has meant that chronic oxidative stress has been mostly studied from the point of view of being a source of toxicity to the cell. However, the known duality of ROS molecules as both damaging agents and cellular redox signals implies another perspective in the study of sustained oxidative stress. This is a perspective of studying oxidative stress as a constitutive signal within the cell. In this work, we adopt a theoretical perspective as an exploratory and explanatory approach to examine how chronic oxidative stress can interfere with signal processing by redox signalling pathways in the cell...
November 13, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146186/human-soluble-thrombomodulin-induced-blockade-of-peripheral-hmgb1-dependent-allodynia-in-mice-requires-both-the-lectin-like-and-egf-like-domains
#4
Yusuke Hayashi, Ryuichi Tsujita, Maho Tsubota, Haruka Saeki, Fumiko Sekiguchi, Goichi Honda, Atsufumi Kawabata
Thrombomodulin (TM), an endothelial protein with anti-coagulant activity, is composed of 5 domains, D1-D5. Recombinant human soluble TM (TMα) consisting of D1-D3, which is generated in CHO cells, suppresses inflammatory and nociceptive signals by inactivating high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), one of damage-associated molecular patterns. TMα sequesters HMGB1 with the lectin-like D1 and promotes its degradation by thrombin binding to the EGF-like D2. We prepared TM's D123, D1 and D2 by the protein expression system of yeast, and evaluated their effects on HMGB1 degradation in vitro and on the allodynia caused by HMGB1 in distinct redox forms in mice in vivo...
November 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145191/antioxidants-maintain-cellular-redox-homeostasis-by-elimination-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#5
Long He, Ting He, Shabnam Farrar, Linbao Ji, Tianyi Liu, Xi Ma
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by living cells as normal cellular metabolic byproduct. Under excessive stress conditions, cells will produce numerous ROS, and the living organisms eventually evolve series of response mechanisms to adapt to the ROS exposure as well as utilize it as the signaling molecules. ROS molecules would trigger oxidative stress in a feedback mechanism involving many biological processes, such as apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. Growing evidences have suggested that ROS play a critical role as the signaling molecules throughout the entire cell death pathway...
November 17, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138681/cell-signaling-with-extracellular-thioredoxin-and-thioredoxin-like-proteins-insight-into-their-mechanisms-of-action
#6
REVIEW
Thierry Léveillard, Najate Aït-Ali
Thioredoxins are small thiol-oxidoreductase enzymes that control cellular redox homeostasis. Paradoxically, human thioredoxin (TXN1) was first identified as the adult T cell leukemia-derived factor (ADF), a secreted protein. ADF has been implicated in a wide variety of cell-to-cell communication systems acting as a cytokine or a chemokine. TRX80 is a truncated TXN1 protein with cytokine activity. The unconventional secretion mechanism of these extracellular thioredoxins is unknown. The thioredoxin system is relying on glucose metabolism through the pentose phosphate pathway that provides reducing power in the form of NADPH, the cofactor of thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD)...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138276/metabolic-reprogramming-ensures-cancer-cell-survival-despite-oncogenic-signaling-blockade
#7
Hui-Wen Lue, Jennifer Podolak, Kevin Kolahi, Larry Cheng, Soumya Rao, Devin Garg, Chang-Hui Xue, Juha K Rantala, Jeffrey W Tyner, Kent L Thornburg, Ann Martinez-Acevedo, Jen-Jane Liu, Christopher L Amling, Charles Truillet, Sharon M Louie, Kimberly E Anderson, Michael J Evans, Valerie B O'Donnell, Daniel K Nomura, Justin M Drake, Anna Ritz, George V Thomas
There is limited knowledge about the metabolic reprogramming induced by cancer therapies and how this contributes to therapeutic resistance. Here we show that although inhibition of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling markedly decreased glycolysis and restrained tumor growth, these signaling and metabolic restrictions triggered autophagy, which supplied the metabolites required for the maintenance of mitochondrial respiration and redox homeostasis. Specifically, we found that survival of cancer cells was critically dependent on phospholipase A2 (PLA2) to mobilize lysophospholipids and free fatty acids to sustain fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation...
November 14, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136853/electrochemical-strategy-for-pyrophosphatase-detection-based-on-the-peroxidase-like-activity-of-g-quadruplex-cu-2-dnazyme
#8
Yonghong Wang, Yaohui Wu, Wen Liu, Lei Chu, Zhibin Liao, Wentao Guo, Gao-Qiang Liu, Xiaoxiao He, Kemin Wang
A new simple and highly sensitive electrochemical method for pyrophosphatase (PPase) activity detection was developed based on the peroxidase-like activity of G-quadruplex-Cu(2+) DNAzyme. In the absence of PPase, Cu(2+) could coordinate with pyrophosphate (PPi) to form Cu(2+)-PPi compound. While in the presence of PPase, it could destroy the coordinate compound because PPase catalyzed the hydrolysis of PPi into inorganic phosphate and produced free Cu(2+), which then could be coupled with G-rich DNA to form G-quadruplex-Cu(2+) DNAzyme...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134420/co-localization-and-interaction-of-pax5-with-iba1-in-brain-of-mice
#9
Shashank Kumar Maurya, Rajnikant Mishra
The Pax5, a B-cell-Specific Activator Protein (BSAP) and redox-sensitive transcription factor, is expressed in the immune-privileged brain, B-lymphocytes, lymph nodes and spleen. PAX5-mediated immune pathway has also been described in the progression of Glioblastoma multiforme. However, the status of Pax5 and its role in brain immunity are not yet elucidated. In silico analysis of Pax5 interacting proteins predicts its interaction with proteins of cell proliferation, differentiation of hematopoietic cells, neurogenesis and several cell signalling pathways...
November 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133150/structure-and-function-of-per-arnt-sim-domains-and-their-possible-role-in-the-life-cycle-biology-of-trypanosoma-cruzi
#10
REVIEW
Maura Rojas-Pirela, Daniel J Rigden, Paul A Michels, Ana J Cáceres, Juan Luis Concepción, Wilfredo Quiñones
Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) domains of proteins play important roles as modules for signalling and cellular regulation processes in widely diverse organisms such as Archaea, Bacteria, protists, plants, yeasts, insects and vertebrates. These domains are present in many proteins where they are used as sensors of stimuli and modules for protein interactions. Characteristically, they can bind a broad spectrum of molecules. Such binding causes the domain to trigger a specific cellular response or to make the protein containing the domain susceptible to responding to additional physical or chemical signals...
November 10, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132320/histologic-chorioamnionitis-does-not-modulate-the-oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-status-in-pregnancies-complicated-by-spontaneous-preterm-delivery
#11
Laura Fernandes Martin, Natália Prearo Moço, Moisés Diôgo de Lima, Jossimara Polettini, Hélio Amante Miot, Camila Renata Corrêa, Ramkumar Menon, Márcia Guimarães da Silva
BACKGROUND: Infection induced-inflammation and other risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) and preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) may cause a redox imbalance, increasing the release of free radicals and consuming antioxidant defenses. Oxidative stress, in turn, can initiate intracellular signaling cascades that increase the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The objective of this study was to evaluate the oxidative damage to proteins and antioxidant capacity profiles in amniochorion membranes from preterm birth (PTB) and preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) and to determine the role of histologic chorioamnionitis in this scenario...
November 13, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132227/oxidative-stress-in-hiv-infection-and-alcohol-use-role-of-redox-signals-in-modulation-of-lipid-rafts-and-abc-transporters
#12
Samikkannu Thangavel, Carmen T Mulet, Venkata S R Atluri, Marisela Agudelo, Rhonda Rosenberg, Jessy G Devieux, Madhavan P N Nair
AIMS: HIV infection induces oxidative stress and alcohol use accelerates disease progression subsequently causing immune dysfunction. However, HIV and alcohol impact on lipid rafts-mediated immune dysfunction remains unknown. In this study, we investigate the modulation by which oxidative stress induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) affecting redox expression, lipid rafts caveiloin-1, ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporters, and transcriptional SREBP gene and protein modification and how these mechanisms are associated with arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in HIV positive alcohol users, and how they escalate immune dysfunction...
November 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132214/chemical-probes-for-redox-signaling-and-oxidative-stress
#13
Masahiro Abo, Eranthie Weerapana
SIGNIFICANCE: Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate redox signaling cascades that are critical to numerous physiological and pathological processes. Analytical methods to monitor cellular ROS levels and proteomic platforms to identify oxidative post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins are critical to understanding the triggers and consequences of redox signaling. Recent advances: The prevalence and significance of redox signaling has recently been illuminated through the use of chemical probes that allow for sensitive detection of cellular ROS levels and proteomic dissection of oxidative PTMs directly in living cells...
November 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130312/protein-s-nitrosylation-determinants-of-specificity-and-enzymatic-regulation-of-s-nitrosothiol-based-signaling
#14
Colin T Stomberski, Douglas T Hess, Jonathan Stamler
SIGNIFICANCE: Protein S-nitrosylation, the oxidative modification of cysteine by nitric oxide (NO) to form protein S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), mediates redox-based signaling that largely conveys the ubiquitous influence of NO on cellular function. S-nitrosylation regulates protein activity, stability, localization and protein-protein interactions across myriad physiological processes, and aberrant S-nitrosylation is associated with diverse pathophysiologies. Recent Advances: It is recently recognized that S-nitrosylation endows SNO-proteins with trans-S-nitrosylase activity, i...
November 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128826/redox-sensitive-gfp-fusions-for-monitoring-the-catalytic-mechanism-and-inactivation-of-peroxiredoxins-in-living-cells
#15
Verena Staudacher, Madia Trujillo, Tim Diederichs, Tobias P Dick, Rafael Radi, Bruce Morgan, Marcel Deponte
Redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein 2 (roGFP2) is a valuable tool for redox measurements in living cells. Here, we demonstrate that roGFP2 can also be used to gain mechanistic insights into redox catalysis in vivo. In vitro enzyme properties such as the rate-limiting reduction of wild type and mutant forms of the model peroxiredoxin PfAOP are shown to correlate with the ratiometrically measured degree of oxidation of corresponding roGFP2 fusion proteins. Furthermore, stopped-flow kinetic measurements of the oxidative half-reaction of PfAOP support the interpretation that changes in the roGFP2 signal can be used to map hyperoxidation-based inactivation of the attached peroxidase...
October 26, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128334/a-map-of-human-mitochondrial-protein-interactions-linked-to-neurodegeneration-reveals-new-mechanisms-of-redox-homeostasis-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#16
Ramy H Malty, Hiroyuki Aoki, Ashwani Kumar, Sadhna Phanse, Shahreen Amin, Qingzhou Zhang, Zoran Minic, Florian Goebels, Gabriel Musso, Zhuoran Wu, Hosam Abou-Tok, Michael Meyer, Viktor Deineko, Sandy Kassir, Vishaldeep Sidhu, Matthew Jessulat, Nichollas E Scott, Xuejian Xiong, James Vlasblom, Bhanu Prasad, Leonard J Foster, Tiziana Alberio, Barbara Garavaglia, Haiyuan Yu, Gary D Bader, Ken Nakamura, John Parkinson, Mohan Babu
Mitochondrial protein (MP) dysfunction has been linked to neurodegenerative disorders (NDs); however, the discovery of the molecular mechanisms underlying NDs has been impeded by the limited characterization of interactions governing MP function. Here, using mass spectrometry (MS)-based analysis of 210 affinity-purified mitochondrial (mt) fractions isolated from 27 epitope-tagged human ND-linked MPs in HEK293 cells, we report a high-confidence MP network including 1,964 interactions among 772 proteins (>90% previously unreported)...
November 7, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123984/transmembrane-thioredoxin-related-protein-tmx1-is-reversibly-oxidized-in-response-to-protein-accumulation-in-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#17
Yoshiyuki Matsuo, Kiichi Hirota
Numerous secretory and membrane proteins undergo post-translational modifications in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the formation of disulfide bonds is a modification that is critical for proper protein folding. The mammalian ER contains a large family of oxidoreductases that are considered to catalyze thiol/disulfide exchange and ensure the maintenance of a redox environment within the ER. Disruption of ER homeostasis causes an accumulation of misfolded and unfolded proteins, a condition termed ER stress...
November 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123322/hypoxia-induced-reactive-oxygen-species-mediate-n-cadherin-and-serpine1-expression-egfr-signalling-and-motility-in-mda-mb-468-breast-cancer-cells
#18
Iman Azimi, Rosalie M Petersen, Erik W Thompson, Sarah J Roberts-Thomson, Gregory R Monteith
One of the hallmarks of the tumour microenvironment is hypoxia resulting from increased oxygen consumption by proliferative cancer cells and altered vasculature. Hypoxic tension initiates various cellular signals and can drive epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process important in cancer progression. In this study, using the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), we show that hypoxia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells, selectively regulate hypoxia-induced increases in N-cadherin and SERPINE1, two proteins involved in cell adhesion...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123070/redox-sensitive-alteration-of-replisome-architecture-safeguards-genome-integrity
#19
Kumar Somyajit, Rajat Gupta, Hana Sedlackova, Kai John Neelsen, Fena Ochs, Maj-Britt Rask, Chunaram Choudhary, Jiri Lukas
DNA replication requires coordination between replication fork progression and deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP)-generating metabolic pathways. We find that perturbation of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) in humans elevates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are detected by peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2). In the oligomeric state, PRDX2 forms a replisome-associated ROS sensor, which binds the fork accelerator TIMELESS when exposed to low levels of ROS. Elevated ROS levels generated by RNR attenuation disrupt oligomerized PRDX2 to smaller subunits, whose dissociation from chromatin enforces the displacement of TIMELESS from the replisome...
November 10, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122554/physiological-roles-of-ask-family-members-in-innate-immunity-and-their-involvement-in-pathogenesis-of-immune-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Atsushi Matsuzawa
Cells are always exposed to various types of stress, including physical, chemical, and biological stresses, and are required to sense immediately and respond appropriately to these stresses. The apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK) family members are stress-responsive kinases, which are activated by not only physicochemical stresses, such as oxidative stress, osmotic pressure, calcium overload, and anti-cancer drugs, but also biological stresses, such as inflammatory cytokines and pathogen infection. Recently, we found that ASK1, a member of ASK family, is activated by bacterial components, such as lipopolysaccharide, in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner, demonstrating that ASK1 is required for the innate immune response and plays a critical role in the regulation of innate immune signaling...
October 19, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
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