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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545257/the-reactive-sulfur-species-concept-15-years-on
#1
REVIEW
Gregory I Giles, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Wesam Ali, Claus Jacob
Fifteen years ago, in 2001, the concept of "Reactive Sulfur Species" or RSS was advocated as a working hypothesis. Since then various organic as well as inorganic RSS have attracted considerable interest and stimulated many new and often unexpected avenues in research and product development. During this time, it has become apparent that molecules with sulfur-containing functional groups are not just the passive "victims" of oxidative stress or simple conveyors of signals in cells, but can also be stressors in their own right, with pivotal roles in cellular function and homeostasis...
May 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542590/the-mth1-inhibitor-th588-demonstrates-anti-tumoral-effects-alone-and-in-combination-with-everolimus-5-fu-and-gamma-irradiation-in-neuroendocrine-tumor-cells
#2
Elke Tatjana Aristizabal Prada, Michael Orth, Svenja Nölting, Gerald Spöttl, Julian Maurer, Christoph Auernhammer
Modulation of the redox system in cancer cells has been considered a promising target for anti-cancer therapy. The novel MTH1 inhibitor TH588 proved tremendous potential in terms of cancer cell eradication, yet its specificity has been questioned by recent reports, indicating that TH588 may also induce cancer cell death by alternative mechanisms than MTH1 inhibition. Here we used a panel of heterogeneous neuroendocrine tumor cells in order to assess cellular mechanisms and molecular signaling pathways implicated in the effects of TH588 alone as well as dual-targeting approaches combining TH588 with everolimus, cytotoxic 5-fluorouracil or γ-irradiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542477/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-arrests-host-cycle-at-the-g1-s-transition-to-establish-long-term-infection
#3
Bridgette M Cumming, Md Aejazur Rahman, Dirk A Lamprecht, Kyle H Rohde, Vikram Saini, John H Adamson, David G Russell, Adrie J C Steyn
Signals modulating the production of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) virulence factors essential for establishing long-term persistent infection are unknown. The WhiB3 redox regulator is known to regulate the production of Mtb virulence factors, however the mechanisms of this modulation are unknown. To advance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in WhiB3 regulation, we performed Mtb in vitro, intraphagosomal and infected host expression analyses. Our Mtb expression analyses in conjunction with extracellular flux analyses demonstrated that WhiB3 maintains bioenergetic homeostasis in response to available carbon sources found in vivo to establish Mtb infection...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542222/differential-expression-of-islet-glutaredoxin-1-and-5-with-high-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-a-mouse-model-of-diabesity
#4
Sebastian Friedrich Petry, Fatemeh Sharifpanah, Heinrich Sauer, Thomas Linn
The onset and progression of diabetes mellitus type 2 is highly contingent on the amount of functional beta-cell mass. An underlying cause of beta-cell decay in diabetes is oxidative stress, which markedly affects the insulin producing pancreatic cells due to their poor antioxidant defence capacity. Consequently, disturbances of cellular redox signaling have been implicated to play a major role in beta-cell loss in diabetes mellitus type 2. There is evidence suggesting that the glutaredoxin (Grx) system exerts a protective role for pancreatic islets, but the exact mechanisms have not yet been elucidated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541680/regulatory-mechanisms-and-novel-therapeutic-targeting-strategies-for-protein-tyrosine-phosphatases
#5
Zhi-Hong Yu, Zhong-Yin Zhang
An appropriate level of protein phosphorylation on tyrosine is essential for cells to react to extracellular stimuli and maintain cellular homeostasis. Faulty operation of signal pathways mediated by protein tyrosine phosphorylation causes numerous human diseases, which presents enormous opportunities for therapeutic intervention. While the importance of protein tyrosine kinases in orchestrating the tyrosine phosphorylation networks and in target-based drug discovery has long been recognized, the significance of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in cellular signaling and disease biology has historically been underappreciated, due to a large extent to an erroneous assumption that they are largely constitutive and housekeeping enzymes...
May 25, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540740/the-incomplete-glutathione-puzzle-just-guessing-at-numbers-and-figures
#6
Marcel Deponte
SIGNIFICANCE: Glutathione metabolism is comparable to a jigsaw puzzle with too many pieces. It supposably comprises (i) the reduction of disulfides, hydroperoxides, sulfenic acids and nitrosothiols, (ii) the detoxification of aldehydes, xenobiotics and heavy metals, and (iii) the synthesis of eicosanoids, steroids and iron-sulfur clusters. Furthermore, glutathione affects oxidative protein folding and redox signaling. Here, I review the relevance of glutathione-dependent pathways with an emphasis on quantitative data...
May 25, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538669/the-peroxisome-mitochondria-connection-how-and-why
#7
REVIEW
Marc Fransen, Celien Lismont, Paul Walton
Over the past decades, peroxisomes have emerged as key regulators in overall cellular lipid and reactive oxygen species metabolism. In mammals, these organelles have also been recognized as important hubs in redox-, lipid-, inflammatory-, and innate immune-signaling networks. To exert these activities, peroxisomes must interact both functionally and physically with other cell organelles. This review provides a comprehensive look of what is currently known about the interconnectivity between peroxisomes and mitochondria within mammalian cells...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533780/innate-immune-function-of-mitochondrial-metabolism
#8
REVIEW
David Sancho, Michel Enamorado, Johan Garaude
Sensing of microbe-associated molecular patterns or danger signals by innate immune receptors drives a complex exchange of information. Innate receptor signaling not only triggers transcriptional events but also induces profound changes in metabolic fluxes, redox balance, and metabolite abundance thereby influencing immune cell function. Mitochondria are at the core of metabolic adaptation to the changing environment. The close interaction between mitochondrial metabolism and immune signaling has emerged as a central regulator of innate sensing...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533752/protocatechuic-acid-a-phenolic-from-sansevieria-roxburghiana-leaves-suppresses-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-via-stimulating-glucose-metabolism-ameliorating-oxidative-stress-and-inhibiting-inflammation
#9
Niloy Bhattacharjee, Tarun K Dua, Ritu Khanra, Swarnalata Joardar, Ashis Nandy, Achintya Saha, Vincenzo De Feo, Saikat Dewanjee
Persistent hyperglycemia, impairment of redox status and establishment of inflammatory pathophysiology integrally play important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Present study examined the therapeutic potential of protocatechuic acid isolated from the Sansevieria roxburghiana rhizomes against DC employing rodent model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D was induced by high fat diet + a low-single dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p.). T2D rats exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) high fasting blood glucose level...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533171/chronicles-of-a-reductase-biochemistry-genetics-and-physio-pathological-role-of-gsnor
#10
REVIEW
Salvatore Rizza, Giuseppe Filomeni
S-nitrosylation is a major redox posttranslational modification involved in cell signaling. The steady state concentration of S-nitrosylated proteins depends on the balance between the relative ability to generate nitric oxide (NO) via NO synthase and to reduce nitrosothiols by denitrosylases. Numerous works have been published in last decades regarding the role of NO and S-nitrosylation in the regulation of protein structure and function, and in driving cellular activities in vertebrates. Notwithstanding an increasing number of observations indicates that impairment of denitrosylation equally affects cellular homeostasis, there is still no report providing comprehensive knowledge on the impact that denitrosylation has on maintaining correct physiological processes and organ activities...
May 19, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532757/redox-redux-and-nadph-oxidase%C3%A2-nox-even-more-complicated-than-we-thought%C3%A2-it%C3%A2-might-be
#11
Frank L Meyskens, Feng Liu-Smith
The NOX (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase) family includes seven unique members that are involved in a multitude of physiological functions, including extensive interaction with UVR and the skin. NOX1 is uniquely present and activated by UVB radiation with biphasic expression of the enzyme immediately and then after a several-hour delay. Specific inhibition of both early and late NOX1 activation leads to evidence of decreased photocarcinogenesis in in vitro keratinocytes and in well-characterized mouse models in which antitumor efficacy has been shown; inhibiting only late NOX activation does not exhibit such effects...
June 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532685/nitroxide-4-hydroxy-2-2-6-6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl-tempol-inhibits-the-reductase-activity-of-protein-disulfide-isomerase-via-covalent-binding-to-the-cys400-residue-on-cxxc-redox-motif-at-the-a-active-site
#12
Gérsika Bitencourt Santos, Lucia Gonzalez-Perilli, Mauricio Mastrogiovanni, Adrián Aicardo, Cláudio Daniel Cerdeira, Andrés Trostchansky, Maísa Ribeiro Pereira Lima Brigagão
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Oxidative stress arising from inflammatory processes is a serious cause of cell and tissue damage. Tempol is an efficient antioxidant with superoxide dismutase-like activity. The purpose of this paper is to address the inhibition of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an essential redox chaperone whose active sites contain the Cys-Gly-His-Cys (CXXC) motif, by the nitroxide Tempol. RESULTS: In the presence of Tempol (5-120 μM), the reductase activity of PDI was reversibly affected both in vitro and in activated mice neutrophils, with an IC50 of 22...
May 19, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530543/using-properties-of-tumor-microenvironments-for-controlling-local-on-demand-delivery-from-biopolymer-based-nanocarriers
#13
Abdullah K Alshememry, Suleiman S El-Tokhy, Larry D Unsworth
BACKGROUND: The 'tumor microenvironment' comprised of tumor cells, non-malignant stromal tissues, signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix. Tumor microenvironment has unique physical and physiological characteristics including vascular abnormalities, hypoxia, acidic pH, specific enzymes and growth factors upregulation and high reducing potential. It is these endogenous properties of the tumor environment that can be used to trigger the release of cancer therapeutics both locally and as a function of disease state...
May 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529499/exercise-and-glycemic-control-focus-on-redox-homeostasis-and-redox-sensitive-protein-signaling
#14
REVIEW
Lewan Parker, Christopher S Shaw, Nigel K Stepto, Itamar Levinger
Physical inactivity, excess energy consumption, and obesity are associated with elevated systemic oxidative stress and the sustained activation of redox-sensitive stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Sustained SAPK activation leads to aberrant insulin signaling, impaired glycemic control, and the development and progression of cardiometabolic disease. Paradoxically, acute exercise transiently increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet postexercise glycemic control and skeletal muscle function are enhanced...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528123/quantitative-biology-of-hydrogen-peroxide-signaling
#15
REVIEW
Fernando Antunes, Paula Matos Brito
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) controls signaling pathways in cells by oxidative modulation of the activity of redox sensitive proteins denominated redox switches. Here, quantitative biology concepts are applied to review how H2O2 fulfills a key role in information transmission. Equations described lay the foundation of H2O2 signaling, give new insights on H2O2 signaling mechanisms, and help to learn new information from common redox signaling experiments. A key characteristic of H2O2 signaling is that the ratio between reduction and oxidation of redox switches determines the range of H2O2 concentrations to which they respond...
May 8, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526338/redox-signaling-in-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-induced-cardioprotection-evidences-and-mechanisms
#16
REVIEW
Lovedeep Singh, Puneet Kaur Randhawa, Nirmal Singh, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi
Reactive oxygen species are the reactive molecules that are derived from molecular oxygen and play an important role as redox signaling molecules to confer cardioprotection. Various scientists have demonstrated the key role of redox signaling in cardioprotection by showing a transient increase in their levels during remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) phase. The transient increase in reactive oxygen species levels during remote preconditioning phase may take place either through activation of KATP channels or through increased nitric oxide (NO) production...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523458/the-respiratory-chain-inhibitor-rotenone-affects-peroxisomal-dynamics-via-its-microtubule-destabilising-activity
#17
Josiah B Passmore, Sonia Pinho, Maria Gomez-Lazaro, Michael Schrader
Peroxisomes and mitochondria in mammalian cells are closely linked subcellular organelles, which maintain a redox-sensitive relationship. Their interplay and role in ROS signalling are supposed to impact on age-related and degenerative disorders. Whereas the generation of peroxisome-derived oxidative stress can affect mitochondrial morphology and function, little is known about the impact of mitochondria-derived oxidative stress on peroxisomes. Here, we investigated the effect of the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone on peroxisomal and mitochondrial membrane dynamics...
May 18, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522335/comparative-analysis-of-transcriptomic-responses-to-repeated-dose-exposure-to-2-mcpd-and-3-mcpd-in-rat-kidney-liver-and-testis
#18
Thorsten Buhrke, Katharina Schultrich, Albert Braeuning, Alfonso Lampen
3-Chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and its isomer 2-chloro-1,3-propanediol (2-MCPD) are heat-induced food contaminants present in oil- and fat-containing foodstuff. Kidney and testes are among the main target organs of 3-MCPD. Almost no data on 2-MCPD toxicity are available. Here, transcriptomic responses following repeated-dose exposure of rats to non-toxic doses of 10 mg/kg body weight per day 2-MCPD or 3-MCPD for 28 days were characterized by microarray analysis of kidney, liver, and testes. 3-MCPD exerted more pronounced effects than 2-MCPD in all organs...
May 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521325/effect-of-high-salt-diet-on-age-related-high-blood-pressure-and-hypothalamic-redox-signaling
#19
Bilgen Basgut, Melissa A Whidden, Nataliya Kirichenko, Mary Woods, Benedek Erdos, Philip J Scarpace, Nihal Tümer
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a high salt (HS) diet on age-related changes in blood pressure (BP) and the possible role played by regulatory central mechanisms. METHODS: Young (5 months) and old (27 months) male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway (F344/BN) rats were fed standard chow or 8% HS diet for 12 days. BP and heart rate (HR) were measured by telemetry. RESULTS: Mean arterial BP (MAP) was significantly elevated in old rats during the day and night when compared with young animals...
May 19, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520765/an-integrative-analysis-of-tissue-specific-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-responses-to-short-term-dietary-methionine-restriction-in-mice
#20
Sujoy Ghosh, Laura A Forney, Desiree Wanders, Kirsten P Stone, Thomas W Gettys
Dietary methionine restriction (MR) produces a coordinated series of transcriptional responses in peripheral tissues that limit fat accretion, remodel lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue, and improve overall insulin sensitivity. Hepatic sensing of reduced methionine leads to induction and release of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which acts centrally to increase sympathetic tone and activate thermogenesis in adipose tissue. FGF21 also has direct effects in adipose to enhance glucose uptake and oxidation...
2017: PloS One
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