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Redox signaling

Pau B Esparza-Moltó, José M Cuezva
Cancer cells reprogram energy metabolism by boosting aerobic glycolysis as a main pathway for the provision of metabolic energy and of precursors for anabolic purposes. Accordingly, the relative expression of the catalytic subunit of the mitochondrial H+ -ATP synthase-the core hub of oxidative phosphorylation-is downregulated in human carcinomas when compared with its expression in normal tissues. Moreover, some prevalent carcinomas also upregulate the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1), which is the physiological inhibitor of the H+ -ATP synthase...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Styliani Vakrou, Ryuya Fukunaga, D Brian Foster, Lars Sorensen, Yamin Liu, Yufan Guan, Kirubel Woldemichael, Roberto Pineda-Reyes, Ting Liu, Jill C Tardiff, Leslie A Leinwand, Carlo G Tocchetti, Theodore P Abraham, Brian O'Rourke, Miguel A Aon, M Roselle Abraham
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) stems from mutations in sarcomeric proteins that elicit distinct biophysical sequelae, which in turn may yield radically different intracellular signaling and molecular pathologic profiles. These signaling events remain largely unaddressed by clinical trials that have selected patients based on clinical HCM diagnosis, irrespective of genotype. In this study, we determined how two mouse models of HCM differ, with respect to cellular/mitochondrial function and molecular biosignatures, at an early stage of disease...
March 22, 2018: JCI Insight
Jade Leahy, Schohraya Spahis, Eric Bonneil, Carole Garofalo, Guy Grimard, Sophia Morel, Caroline Laverdière, Maja Krajinovic, Simon Drouin, Edgard Delvin, Daniel Sinnett, Valérie Marcil, Emile Levy
BACKGROUND: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cALL) is the most prevalent form of cancer in children. Due to advances in treatment and therapy, young cALL subjects now achieve a 90% survival rate. However, this tremendous advance does not come without consequence since ~2/3 of cALL survivors are affected by long-term and late, severe complications. Although the metabolic syndrome is a very serious sequel of cALL, the mechanisms remain undefined. It is also surprising to note that the mitochondrion, a central organelle in metabolic functions and the main cellular energy generator, have not yet been explored...
March 18, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Thomas Roach, Wolfgang Stöggl, Theresa Baur, Ilse Kranner
Photosynthetic organisms suffering from light stress have to cope with an increased formation of reactive short-chain aldehydes. Singlet oxygen generated from highly-charged reaction centres can peroxidise the poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich thylakoid membranes they are embedded in. Lipid peroxides decay to release α,β-unsaturated aldehydes that are reactive electrophile species (RES). Acrolein is one of the most abundant and reactive RES produced in chloroplasts. Here, in the model chlorophyte alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a clear concentration-dependent "distress" induced by acrolein intoxication was observed in conjunction with depletion of the glutathione pool...
March 18, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Carmela R Guadagno, Brent E Ewers, Cynthia Weinig
A growing body of evidence demonstrates a significant relationship between cellular redox state and circadian rhythms. Each day these two vital components of plant biology influence one another, dictating the pace for metabolism and physiology. Diverse environmental stressors can disrupt this condition and, although plant scientists have made significant progress in re-constructing functional networks of plant stress responses, stress impacts on the clock-redox crosstalk is poorly understood. Inter-connected phenomena such as redox state and metabolism, internal and external environments, cellular homeostasis and rhythms can impede predictive understanding of coordinated regulation of plant stress response...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kiyomichi Imamura, Hikari Yoshitane, Kazuki Hattori, Mitsuo Yamaguchi, Kento Yoshida, Takenori Okubo, Isao Naguro, Hidenori Ichijo, Yoshitaka Fukada
Daily rhythms of behaviors and physiologies are generated by the circadian clock, which is composed of clock genes and the encoded proteins forming transcriptional/translational feedback loops (TTFLs). The circadian clock is a self-sustained oscillator and flexibly responds to various time cues to synchronize with environmental 24-h cycles. However, the key molecule that transmits cellular stress to the circadian clockwork is unknown. Here we identified apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK), a member of the MAPKKK family, as an essential mediator determining the circadian period and phase of cultured cells in response to osmotic changes of the medium...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dongsheng Zhang, Weixiang Li, Zhanfang Ma
An improved sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on the novel signal amplification strategy was developed. Methylene blue (MB) loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) with polydopamine coating (PDA) were employed as "smart" labels, while phytic acid doped polyaniline hydrogel (PANI) with high adsorption capacity was acted as substrate. In this strategy, amount of redox species (MB) encapsulated in MSN by PDA will be released under acidic condition and then absorbed stably by PANI...
March 13, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Stephanie Portillo-Ledesma, Lía M Randall, Derek Parsonage, Joaquín Dalla Rizza, P Andrew Karplus, Leslie B Poole, Ana Denicola, Gerardo Ferrer-Sueta
Two-cysteine peroxiredoxins (Prx) have a three-step catalytic cycle consisting of (1) reduction of peroxide and formation of sulfenic acid on the enzyme, (2) condensation of the sulfenic acid with a thiol to form disulfide, also known as resolution, and (3) reduction of the disulfide by a reductant protein. By following changes in protein fluorescence, we have studied the pH dependence of reaction 2 in human peroxiredoxins 1, 2 and 5, and in Salmonella typhimurium AhpC and obtained rate constants for the reaction and p Ka values of the thiol and sulfenic acid involved for each system...
March 19, 2018: Biochemistry
Markus H Hoffmann, Helen Griffiths
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are created in cells during oxidative phosphorylation by the respiratory chain in the mitochondria or by the family of NADPH oxidase (NOX) complexes. The first discovered and most studied of these complexes, NOX2, mediates the oxidative burst in phagocytes. ROS generated by NOX2 are dreadful weapons: while being essential to kill ingested pathogens they can also cause degenerative changes on tissue if production and release are not balanced by sufficient detoxification. In the last fifteen years evidence has been accumulating that ROS are also integral signalling molecules and are important for regulating autoimmunity and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases...
March 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Balaraman Kalyanaraman, Gang Cheng, Micael Hardy, Olivier Ouari, Marcos Lopez, Joy Joseph, Jacek Zielonka, Michael B Dwinell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Redox Biology
Claudia Kruger, Susan J Burke, J Jason Collier, Trang-Tiffany Nguyen, J Michael Salbaum, Krisztian Stadler
Early podocyte loss is characteristic of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in obesity and diabetes. Since treatments for hyperglycemia and hypertension do not prevent podocyte loss, there must be additional factors causing podocyte depletion. The role of oxidative stress has been implicated in CKD but it is not known how exactly free radicals affect podocyte physiology. To assess this relationship, we investigated the effects of lipid radicals on podocytes, as lipid peroxidation is a major form of oxidative stress in diabetes...
March 6, 2018: Redox Biology
Yutaka Ikeda, Yukio Nagasaki
Oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs as events in which living tissues contact certain materials. These events include cell cultures and implantation of materials. Because of the high reactivity of ROS, they damage cells by oxidizing DNA, lipids, and proteins. Conversely, ROS also act as signaling molecules regulating cellular morphology. In particular, mitochondrial ROS are involved in the regulation of cellular physiology, including differentiation, autophagy, metabolic adaptation, apoptosis, and immunity...
March 16, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Donatella Pietraforte, Eleonora Paulicelli, Clarice Patrono, Lucrezia Gambardella, Giuseppe Scorza, Antonella Testa, Paola Fattibene
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators of the cytotoxicity induced by the direct reaction of ionising radiation (IR) with all critical cellular components, such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. The derived oxidative damage may propagate in exposed tissues in a dose- and spatiotemporal dependent manner to other cell compartments, affecting intracellular signalling, and cell fate. To understand how cell damage is induced, we studied the oxidative events occurring immediately after cell irradiation by analysing the fate of IR-derived ROS, the intracellular oxidative damage, and the modification of redox environment accumulating in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) within 1 h after cell irradiation (dose range 0-10 Gy)...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
Sribalasubashini Muralimanoharan, Youn-Tae Kwak, Carole R Mendelson
Dysregulation of human trophoblast invasion and differentiation with placental hypoxia can result in preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Herein, we characterized the role and regulation of miR-1246, which is markedly induced during human syncytiotrophoblast differentiation. miR-1246 is known to target GSK3β and AXIN2, inhibitors of WNT/β-catenin signaling, which is crucial for placental development, and is predicted to target JARID2, which promotes silencing of developmentally regulated genes...
March 13, 2018: Endocrinology
Marco A Moro-García, Juan C Mayo, Rosa M Sainz, Rebeca Alonso-Arias
T lymphocytes, from their first encounter with their specific antigen as naïve cell until the last stages of their differentiation, in a replicative state of senescence, go through a series of phases. In several of these stages, T lymphocytes are subjected to exponential growth in successive encounters with the same antigen. This entire process occurs throughout the life of a human individual and, earlier, in patients with chronic infections/pathologies through inflammatory mediators, first acutely and later in a chronic form...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mohammad Golam Mostofa, Ajit Ghosh, Zhong-Guang Li, Md Nurealam Siddiqui, Masayuki Fujita, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Abiotic stresses are the most common harmful factors, adversely affecting all aspects of plants' life. Plants have to elicit appropriate responses against multifaceted effects of abiotic stresses by reprogramming various cellular processes. Signaling molecules play vital roles in sensing environmental stimuli to modulate gene expression, metabolism and physiological processes in plants to cope with the adverse effects. Methylglyoxal (MG), a dicarbonyl compound, is known to accumulate in cells as a byproduct of various metabolic pathways, including glycolysis...
March 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Nourdine Chakouri, Cyril Reboul, Doria Boulghobra, Adrien Kleindienst, Stéphane Nottin, Sandrine Gayrard, François Roubille, Stefan Matecki, Alain Lacampagne, Olivier Cazorla
BACKGROUND: The interplay between oxidative stress and other signaling pathways in the contractile machinery regulation during cardiac stress and its consequences on cardiac function remains poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of the crosstalk between β-adrenergic and redox signaling on post-translational modifications of sarcomeric regulatory proteins, Myosin Binding Protein-C (MyBP-C) and Troponin I (TnI). METHODS AND RESULTS: We mimicked in vitro high level of physiological cardiac stress by forcing rat hearts to produce high levels of oxidized glutathione...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
M Di Sanzo, R Chirillo, I Aversa, F Biamonte, G Santamaria, E D Giovannone, M C Faniello, G Cuda, F Costanzo
PURPOSE: The heavy subunit of the iron storage protein ferritin (FHC) is essential for the intracellular iron metabolism and, at the same time, it represents a central hub of iron-independent pathways, such as cell proliferation, angiogenesis, p53 regulation, chemokine signalling, stem cell expansion, miRNAs expression. In this work we have explored the ability of FHC to modulate gene expression in K562 cells, through the up-regulation of the lncRNA H19 and its cognate miR-675. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Targeted silencing of FHC was performed by lentiviral-driven shRNA strategy...
March 12, 2018: Gene
Barbara Demmig-Adams, Jared J Stewart, Christopher R Baker, William W Adams
We review the role of a family of transcription factors and their regulons in maintaining high photosynthetic performance across a range of challenging environments with a focus on extreme temperatures and water availability. Specifically, these transcription factors include CBFs (C-repeat binding factors) and DREBs (dehydration-responsive element-binding), with CBF/DREB1 primarily orchestrating cold adaptation and other DREBs serving in heat, drought, and salinity adaptation. The central role of these modulators in plant performance under challenging environments is based on (i) interweaving of these regulators with other key signaling networks (plant hormones and redox signals) as well as (ii) their function in integrating responses across the whole plant, from light-harvesting and sugar-production in the leaf to foliar sugar export and water import and on to the plant's sugar-consuming sinks (growth, storage, and reproduction)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shulian Wu, Yudian Huang, Qinggong Tang, Zhifang Li, Hannah Horng, Jiatian Li, Zaihua Wu, Yu Chen, Hui Li
Preoperative neoadjuvant treatment in locally advanced breast cancer is recognized as an effective adjuvant therapy, as it improves treatment outcomes. However, the potential complications remain a threat, so there is an urgent clinical need to assess both the tumor response and changes in its microenvironment using non-invasive and precise identification techniques. Here, two-photon microscopy was employed to detect morphological alterations in breast cancer progression and recession throughout chemotherapy...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
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