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Jaime Galindo, Pedro Amariles, Héctor F Mueses-Marín, Jaime A Hincapié, Sebastián González-Avendaño, Ximena Galindo-Orrego
BACKGROUND: Generic drug policies are often associated with concerns about the quality and effectiveness of these products. Phase IV clinical trials may be a suitable design to assess the effectiveness and safety of generic drugs. The objective of this study was to describe the effectiveness and the safety of the generic abacavir/lamivudine and efavirenz in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients. METHODS: A monocentric, nonrandomized, open-label, phase IV study in treatment naïve HIV-infected patients 18 years or older with indication to receive abacavir/lamivudine and efavirenz were recruited from a program that provides comprehensive outpatient consultation and continuing care...
October 3, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Nada A Abdelrahim, Hiba I Ahmed, Imad M Fadl-Elmula, Magdi A Bayoumi, Mamoun M Homeida
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major health threats affecting people globally; however, the burden of STIs is greatest in low-income countries. Since they are physiologically more vulnerable, women are mostly affected. The risk is increased dramatically during pregnancy leading to serious health complications that may affect the newborn. Underprivileged pregnant women attending antenatal clinics for routine checkups in displaced camps, a women's prison and several peripheral health centres were clinically and laboratory screened for trichomoniasis, chlamydial infections, gonorrhea and syphilis...
August 31, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Callinice D Capo-Chichi, Blanche Aguida, Nicodème W Chabi, Jocelyn Acapko-Ezin, Jonas Sossah-Hiffo, Vidéhouénou K Agossou, Toussain Anagbla, Marcel Zannou, Fabien Houngbé, Ambaliou Sanni
BACKGROUND: High risk oncologic Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is one of the leading causes of cervical cancer worldwide. We investigated HPV genotypes among women living or not with Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) in two major hospitals in the south of the republic of BENIN in the city of Cotonou. Our objective is to investigate the association of high risk-HPV to cervical dysplasia among women under stringent anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment and in controls without HIV. METHODS: The investigation was carried out within 1 year period in two groups of adult women: one group with HIV1 infection and under ARV therapy in the National University Hospital (CNHU-HKM) designated as CH group (n = 86); and one control group without HIV infection and attending the hospital Mènontin for routine gynecologic checkup and designated as ME group (n = 86)...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Sheila M Keating, Reshma Kassanjee, Mila Lebedeva, Shelley N Facente, Jeffrey C MacArthur, Eduard Grebe, Gary Murphy, Alex Welte, Jeffrey N Martin, Susan Little, Matthew A Price, Esper G Kallas, Michael P Busch, Christopher D Pilcher
OBJECTIVE: HIV seroconversion biomarkers are being used in cross-sectional studies for HIV incidence-estimation. Bio-Rad Geenius HIV1/2 Supplemental Assay is an immunochromatographic single-use assay that measures antibodies (Ab) against multiple HIV-1/2 antigens. The objective of this study was to determine whether the Geenius assay could additionally be used for recency estimation. DESIGN: This assay was developed for HIV-1/2 confirmation; however, quantitative data acquired gives information on increasing concentration and diversity of antibody responses over time during seroconversion...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Fahd Benjelloun, Zeliha Oruc, Nicole Thielens, Bernard Verrier, Gael Champier, Nadine Vincent, Nicolas Rochereau, Alexandre Girard, Fabienne Jospin, Blandine Chanut, Christian Genin, Michel Cogné, Stephane Paul
Mucosal HIV-1-specific IgA have been described as being able to neutralize HIV-1 and to block viral transcytosis. In serum and saliva, the anti-HIV IgA response is predominantly raised against the envelope of HIV-1. In this work, we describe the in vivo generation of gp41-specific IgA1 in humanized α1KI mice to produce chimeric IgA1. Mice were immunized with a conformational immunogenic gp41-transfected cell line. Among 2300 clones screened by immunofluorescence microscopy, six different gp41-specific IgA with strong recognition of gp41 were identified...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Xiaotao Cao, Xia Cao, Huijuan Guo, Tao Li, Yang Jie, Ning Wang, Zhong Lin Wang
A sensitive and in situ selective label-free DNA sensor based on a Schottky-contacted ZnO nanowire (NW) device has been developed and utilized to detect the human immunodeficiency virus 1 gene in this work. Piezotronic effect on the performance of the DNA sensor is studied by measuring its output current under different compressive strains and target complementary DNA concentrations. By applying a -0.59% compressive strain to a ZnO NW-based DNA sensor, the relative current response is greatly enhanced by 454%...
August 23, 2016: ACS Nano
Massimo De Paschale, Maria Teresa Manco, Luisa Belvisi, Debora Cagnin, Teresa Cerulli, Alessia Paganini, Olivia Arpino, Annalisa Cianflone, Carlo Agrappi, Paola Mirri, Pierangelo Clerici
The aim of this study was to compare the data obtained using the new LIAISON® XL chemiluminescence system to search for HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV1-2/p24 Ag with those obtained using the VITROS system currently adopted by the Microbiology Unit of the Hospital of Legnano. Routine samples of patients who were referred by practitioners for the determination of HBsAg (1000 samples) and/or anti-HCV (1002 samples) and/or anti-HIV1-2 (995 samples) were simultaneously analysed using both systems. The concordant positive and discordant samples were re-examined for confirmation by means of an HBsAg neutralisation assay, anti-HCV immunoblot, or anti-HIV1-2 Western blot; HBV-DNA, or HCV-RNA or HIV-RNA was also sought in the discordant samples...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Igor Z Barjaktarevic, Ronald G Crystal, Robert J Kaner
Rationale. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression is upregulated in alveolar macrophages (AM) of HIV1(+) smokers who develop emphysema. Knowing that lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of HIV1(+) smokers contains increased levels of inflammatory cytokines compared to HIV1(-) smokers, we hypothesized that upregulation of lung cytokines in HIV1(+) smokers may be functionally related to increased MMP-9 expression. Methods. Cytokine arrays evaluated cytokine protein levels in ELF obtained from 5 groups of individuals: HIV1(-) healthy nonsmokers, HIV1(-) healthy smokers, HIV1(-) smokers with low diffusing capacity (DLCO), HIV1(+) nonsmokers, and HIV1(+) smokers with low DLCO...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Yuan Hu, Sandeep Patel
Efficient delivery of pharmaceutically active molecules across cellular membranes using cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), such as the cationic human immunodeficiency virus-1 trans-acting activator of transcription peptide (HIV-1 TAT), continues to attract scientific attention in drug design and disease treatment. Experimental results show that the TAT peptide is not only capable of directly penetrating the biological membrane in a passive manner, but also forming physical, membrane-spanning pores that may facilitate transport...
August 10, 2016: Soft Matter
W S Nambei, D Rawago-Mandjiza, E Gbangbangai
The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HIV, the hepatitis B and C viruses, and syphilis as well the risk factors for these diseases among blood donors in Bangui, Central Africa Republic. This cross-sectional study examined samples from donors giving blood in August and September, 2013. HIV1/2 antibodies was screened with the Determine and Unigold HIV tests. Hepatitis B surface antigens were detected by sandwich immunochromatographic methods (DIAspot HBsAg test), and antibodies to HCV by the DIAspot test strip...
May 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Santosh Kumar Upadhyay
The thermodynamics of DNA-ligand binding is important as it provides useful information to understand the details of binding processes. HIV-1 REV response element (RRE) located in the env coding region of the viral genome is reported to be well conserved across different HIV-1 isolates. In this study, the binding characteristics of Calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) and REV peptide from HIV1 were investigated using spectroscopic (UV-visible, fluorescence and circular dichroism) and isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) techniques...
June 29, 2016: Biopolymers
Andrea Zbinden, Roland Dürig, Cyril Shah, Jürg Böni, Jörg Schüpbach
BACKGROUND: HIV-2 is primarily endemic in West Africa and India, however, in time of global migration, a possible HIV-2 infection or co-infection with HIV-1 should be recognized right at the time of HIV diagnosis, in order to enable optimized antiretroviral treatment. Laboratory HIV testing consists of a combined HIV1/2/O antibody + antigen screening test and subsequent confirmation and type differentiation by a serological test formatted as a multi-line or multi-spot assay. CDC has proposed a revised alternative HIV diagnostic strategy which, in case of a reactive result in a combined HIV1/2/O antibody + antigen screening test, comprises an HIV-1 nucleic acid test (NAT) for HIV confirmation instead of an antibody differentiation immunoassay (ADI)...
2016: PloS One
Rui Soares, Graça Rocha, António Meliço-Silvestre, Teresa Gonçalves
Over the last 30 years, research into HIV has advanced the knowledge of virus genetics and the development of efficient therapeutic strategies. HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) is a specialized and multifunctional protein that plays important roles at multiple stages of the HIV-1 viral life cycle. This protein interacts with a number of cellular and viral proteins and with multiple activities including nuclear transport of the pre-integration complex (PIC) to the nucleus, transcriptional activation, cell cycle arrest at G2/M transition phase and induction of cell death via apoptosis...
September 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Jerel A Fields, Cassia Overk, Anthony Adame, Jazmin Florio, Michael Mante, Andrea Pineda, Paula Desplats, Edward Rockenstein, Cristian Achim, Eliezer Masliah
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to be a common morbidity associated with chronic HIV infection. It has been shown that HIV proteins (e.g., gp120) released from infected microglial/macrophage cells can cause neuronal damage by triggering inflammation and oxidative stress, activating aberrant kinase pathways, and by disrupting mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Previous studies have shown that FK506, an immunophilin ligand that modulates inflammation and mitochondrial function and inhibits calcineurin, is capable of rescuing the neurodegenerative pathology in models of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Kazunori Watanabe, Hayato Fujiwara, Mizuki Kitamatsu, Takashi Ohtsuki
A novel molecule, TatBim-Alexa, consisting of the HIV1 Tat cell-penetrating peptide, the Bim apoptosis-inducing peptide, and Alexa Fluor 546 was synthesized for photoinducion of apoptosis. The Alexa Fluor 546 was used as a photosensitizer and covalently attached at the C-terminus of TatBim peptide by the thiol-maleimide reaction. Photo-dependent cytosolic internalization of TatBim-Alexa and photo-dependent apoptosis using TatBim-Alexa were demonstrated in several kinds of mammalian cells including human cancer cell lines...
July 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
B-A Diatta, M Diallo, S Diadie, B Faye, M Ndiaye, H Hakim, S Diallo, B Seck, S-O Niang, A Kane, M-T Dieng
BACKGROUND: In Senegal, reported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis are often due to Leishmania major. Immunosuppression related to HIV infection contributes to the emergence of leishmaniasis in humans and to cutaneous localization of viscerotropic species. We report the first observed case in Senegal of opportunistic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum associated with HIV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 5-year-old boy presented crusted ulcerative lesions of the scalp and left forearm, together with axillary and cervical lymphadenopathy present for two months...
May 3, 2016: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Vivian Black, Brian G Williams, Venessa Maseko, Frans Radebe, Helen V Rees, David A Lewis
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care tests provide immediate results with the opportunity for same-day interventions with improved public health outcomes. A dual HIV/syphilis test enables early treatment of both diseases. METHODS: We conducted a field evaluation of the Standard Diagnostics' SD Bioline HIV/Syphilis Duo test (SD Bioline) among female sex workers. SD Bioline was conducted on finger-prick blood according to manufacturer's instructions and compared with (i) Genscreen HIV1/2 (third generation) and Vironostika Ag/Ab (fourth generation) assays for HIV, and (ii) Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) assays for syphilis...
May 6, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Remco Arts, Ilona den Hartog, Stefan E Zijlema, Vito Thijssen, Stan H E van der Beelen, Maarten Merkx
Antibody detection is of fundamental importance in many diagnostic and bioanalytical assays, yet current detection techniques tend to be laborious and/or expensive. We present a new sensor platform (LUMABS) based on bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) that allows detection of antibodies directly in solution using a smartphone as the sole piece of equipment. LUMABS are single-protein sensors that consist of the blue-light emitting luciferase NanoLuc connected via a semiflexible linker to the green fluorescent acceptor protein mNeonGreen, which are kept close together using helper domains...
April 19, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Clémence Hollande, Vincent Mallet, Stéphane Darbeda, Anaïs Vallet-Pichard, Hélène Fontaine, Virginie Verkarre, Philippe Sogni, Benoit Terris, Hervé Gouya, Stanislas Pol
HIV-associated obstructive portopathy (HIVOP) is an obstruction of the hepatic microvasculature of unknown origin. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and paraclinical presentation of the disease and its impact in terms of morbidity. Twenty-nine HIV1-infected patients (average 12 years of infection, nadir of CD4 210/mm, including 7 patients with a history of opportunistic infection) with a biopsy-proven or likely HIVOP have been followed up for an average of 6.1 years. Modes of revelation of the HIVOP were: cytolysis and/or cholestasis (60%), occult (14%) or symptomatic (37%) portal hypertension (esophageal varices 17%, ascites 10%, cytopenia 10%), or fortuitous (8%)...
March 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Michael P Smith, Holly Brunton, Emily J Rowling, Jennifer Ferguson, Imanol Arozarena, Zsofia Miskolczi, Jessica L Lee, Maria R Girotti, Richard Marais, Mitchell P Levesque, Reinhard Dummer, Dennie T Frederick, Keith T Flaherty, Zachary A Cooper, Jennifer A Wargo, Claudia Wellbrock
Once melanomas have progressed with acquired resistance to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-targeted therapy, mutational heterogeneity presents a major challenge. We therefore examined the therapy phase before acquired resistance had developed and discovered the melanoma survival oncogene MITF as a driver of an early non-mutational and reversible drug-tolerance state, which is induced by PAX3-mediated upregulation of MITF. A drug-repositioning screen identified the HIV1-protease inhibitor nelfinavir as potent suppressor of PAX3 and MITF expression...
March 14, 2016: Cancer Cell
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