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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916848/pancreas-transplantation-in-type-2-diabetes-expanding-the-criteria
#1
Talal M Al-Qaoud, Jon S Odorico, Robert R Redfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pancreas transplantation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) candidates remains disproportionately lower than in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM); however, outcomes in carefully selected patients mirrors that of T1DM. Despite the 2014 United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) eligibility criteria for simultaneous pancreas/kidney transplant (SPK) transplantation in T2DM patients, an expected increase in the number of transplants was not observed. RECENT FINDINGS: In an updated International Pancreas and Transplant Registry (IPTR) analysis, 1514 primary deceased donor pancreas transplants were performed in T2DM recipients [1995-2015, SPK 88%, pancreas after kidney (PAK) 9%, pancreas transplant alone (PTA) 3%]...
June 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916739/why-expectations-will-determine-the-future-of-artificial-pancreas
#2
Laurel H Messer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916296/ccpg1-a-cargo-receptor-required-for-reticulophagy-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-proteostasis
#3
Matthew D Smith, Simon Wilkinson
The importance of selective macroautophagy/autophagy in cellular health is increasingly evident. The selective degradation of portions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), or reticulophagy, is an emerging example but requires further mechanistic detail and broad evidence of physiological relevance. In a recent study, we identified CCPG1, an ER-resident transmembrane protein that can bind to Atg8-family proteins and, independently and discretely, to RB1CC1/FIP200. Both of these interactions are required to facilitate CCPG1's function as a reticulophagy cargo receptor...
June 19, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915694/histology-of-24-organs-from-asian-elephant-calves-elephas-maximus
#4
Chatchote Thitaram, Pitchaya Matchimakul, Wanpitak Pongkan, Wasan Tangphokhanon, Raktham Maktrirat, Jaruwan Khonmee, Anucha Sathanawongs, Piyamat Kongtueng, Korakot Nganvongpanit
Background: Elephants are the largest and heaviest living terrestrial animals, but information on their histology is still lacking. This study provides a unique insight into the elephant's organs and also provides a comparison between juvenile Asian elephants and adult Asian elephants or other species. Here we report on the histological structure of 24 organs, including the skin, brain (cerebrum, cerebellar hemisphere, vermis, thalamus, midbrain), spinal cord, sciatic nerve, striated skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, bone (flat bone and long bone), cartilage (hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage), heart (right atrium, right ventricle), blood vessels (aorta, pulmonary artery and caudal vena cava), trunk, trachea, lung, tongue, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum), liver and pancreas, kidney, ovary, uterus (body and horn) and spleen of two juvenile Asian elephants...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915428/a-precision-oncology-approach-to-the-pharmacological-targeting-of-mechanistic-dependencies-in-neuroendocrine-tumors
#5
Mariano J Alvarez, Prem S Subramaniam, Laura H Tang, Adina Grunn, Mahalaxmi Aburi, Gabrielle Rieckhof, Elena V Komissarova, Elizabeth A Hagan, Lisa Bodei, Paul A Clemons, Filemon S Dela Cruz, Deepti Dhall, Daniel Diolaiti, Douglas A Fraker, Afshin Ghavami, Daniel Kaemmerer, Charles Karan, Mark Kidd, Kyoung M Kim, Hee C Kim, Lakshmi P Kunju, Ülo Langel, Zhong Li, Jeeyun Lee, Hai Li, Virginia LiVolsi, Roswitha Pfragner, Allison R Rainey, Ronald B Realubit, Helen Remotti, Jakob Regberg, Robert Roses, Anil Rustgi, Antonia R Sepulveda, Stefano Serra, Chanjuan Shi, Xiaopu Yuan, Massimo Barberis, Roberto Bergamaschi, Arul M Chinnaiyan, Tony Detre, Shereen Ezzat, Andrea Frilling, Merten Hommann, Dirk Jaeger, Michelle K Kim, Beatrice S Knudsen, Andrew L Kung, Emer Leahy, David C Metz, Jeffrey W Milsom, Young S Park, Diane Reidy-Lagunes, Stuart Schreiber, Kay Washington, Bertram Wiedenmann, Irvin Modlin, Andrea Califano
We introduce and validate a new precision oncology framework for the systematic prioritization of drugs targeting mechanistic tumor dependencies in individual patients. Compounds are prioritized on the basis of their ability to invert the concerted activity of master regulator proteins that mechanistically regulate tumor cell state, as assessed from systematic drug perturbation assays. We validated the approach on a cohort of 212 gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), a rare malignancy originating in the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract...
June 18, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915103/-francisella-marina-sp-nov-etiologic-agent-of-systemic-disease-in-cultured-spotted-rose-snapper-lutjanus-guttatus-in-central-america
#6
Esteban Soto, Matt J Griffin, Juan Alberto Morales, Elías Barquero Calvo, Fernanda de Alexandre Sebastião, Adrián Lopez Porras, Xindy Víquez-Rodríguez, Stephen R Reichley, Thomas G Rosser, Cynthia Ware, Barbara A Byrne, Julio C García, Benjamin R LaFrentz, Alvin C Camus
Historically, piscine francisellosis in various warm, temperate and coldwater fish hosts has been attributed to Francisella noatunensis From 2015-2016, an undescribed Francisella sp. was recovered during mortality events in cultured spotted rose snapper ( Lutjanus guttatus ) off the Pacific coast of Central America. Despite high mortality and emaciation, limited gross findings were observed in affected fish. Histological examination revealed multifocal granulomatous lesions, with the presence of numerous small, pleomorphic coccobacilli, predominantly in the peritoneum, spleen, kidneys, liver, pancreas, heart, and intestine...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914234/post-pancreatitis-diabetes-mellitus-and-gastroparesis-driven-together
#7
Fuchsia D Gold-Smith, Shayal K Chand, Maxim S Petrov
Post-pancreatitis diabetes mellitus (PPDM) is a sub-type of diabetes of the exocrine pancreas that develops after acute or chronic inflammation of the pancreas. While pro-inflammatory mileu, glucose metabolism, and lipid metabolism in PPDM have been investigated, little is known about gastrointestinal function in post-pancreatitis setting. This article overviews studies on epidemiology and impact of gastroparesis in the setting of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, with a view to estimating the possible burden of gastrointestinal dysfunction in PPDM...
June 14, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914168/association-of-low-fecal-elastase-1-and-non-ulcer-dyspepsia
#8
Mustafa Tahtaci, Huseyin Koseoglu, Murat Alisik, Oyku Tayfur Yurekli, Gozde Tahtaci, Ozcan Erel, Osman Ersoy
Non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) is a term used to define a set of symptoms that are believed to originate from the gastroduodenal region, and no underlying organic, systemic, or metabolic reason can be found. The majority of patients suffer from chronic symptoms although half of the patients report improvement in symptoms with time. The potential role exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in NUD patients has not been clarified yet. We aimed to identify exocrine pancreas function with pancreatic fecal elastase-1 in patients diagnosed with non-ulcer dyspepsia and no typical exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) symptoms...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913098/radiofrequency-radiation-emitted-from-wi-fi-2-4-ghz-causes-impaired-insulin-secretion-and-increased-oxidative-stress-in-rat-pancreatic-islets
#9
Ali Masoumi, Narges Karbalaei, S M J Mortazavi, Mohammad Shabani
PURPOSE: There is a great concern regarding the possible adverse effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). This study investigated the effects of EMR induced by Wi-Fi (2.45GHz) on insulin secretion and antioxidant redox systems in the rat pancreas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in the weight range of 230 to 260 g were divided into control, sham, Wi-Fi exposed groups. After long term exposure (4 h/day for 45 days) to Wi-Fi electromagnetic radiation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test were measured...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912856/melatonin-attenuates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-acute-pancreatitis
#10
Qian Zhao, Xinyue Tang, Junhua Huang, Jiajia Li, Qinfen Chen, Yangjie Sun, Jiansheng Wu
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to explore the effect of melatonin on endoplasmic reticulum stress in acute pancreatitis (AP) and the molecular mechanism. METHODS: Acute pancreatitis was induced in vivo in Sprague-Dawley rats by the retrograde injection of 5% taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct and in vitro by treating AR42J cells with cerulein (10 nmol/L) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 mg/L). The rats and cells were treated with melatonin (50 mg/kg in rats and 0...
June 16, 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912852/emodin-attenuates-autophagy-response-to-protect-the-pancreas-from-acute-pancreatitis-failure
#11
Xiaozheng Yu, Chunyun Li, Hechao Song, Xueyan Wang, Yinan Guo, Lijian Cui, Xiaoya Liu, Cheng Chi, Ruixia Liu, Chenghong Yin
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of emodin on attenuating autophagy response in acute pancreatitis (AP) models. METHODS: Acute pancreatitis was induced in Wistar rats by injecting 3% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct. Emodin (40 mg/kg per day) was then given intragastrically, administrated 2 hours after AP induction. Rats were killed 24 hours after AP induction. The pancreatic injury was assessed using biochemical and histological approaches...
June 16, 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912201/application-of-end-to-end-anastomosis-in-robotic-central-pancreatectomy
#12
Rong Liu, Zi-Zheng Wang, Yuan-Xing Gao, Yong Xu
Central pancreatectomy is carried out for the treatment of benign or low-malignant potential tumors located in the pancreatic neck or proximal part of pancreatic body. With technological development, the robotic surgical system has shown its advantage in minimally invasive surgery and been increasingly applied in central pancreatectomy. However, reconstruction of the continuity of pancreas with end-to-end anastomosis after robotic central pancreatectomy has not been applied. In this study, we report surgical techniques for robotic central pancreatectomy with end-to-end anastomosis...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912186/generation-of-scaffold-free-three-dimensional-insulin-expressing-pancreatoids-from-mouse-pancreatic-progenitors-in-vitro
#13
Marissa A Scavuzzo, Jessica Teaw, Diane Yang, Malgorzata Borowiak
The pancreas is a complex organ composed of many different cell types that work together to regulate blood glucose homeostasis and digestion. These cell types include enzyme-secreting acinar cells, an arborized ductal system responsible for the transportation of enzymes to the gut, and hormone-producing endocrine cells. Endocrine beta-cells are the sole cell type in the body that produce insulin to lower blood glucose levels. Diabetes, a disease characterized by a loss or the dysfunction of beta-cells, is reaching epidemic proportions...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912000/neoplasms-of-the-neuroendocrine-pancreas-an-update-in-the-classification-definition-and-molecular-genetic-advances
#14
Julie M Guilmette, Vania Nosé
This review focuses on discussing the main modifications of the recently published 2017 WHO Classification of Neoplasms of the Neuroendocrine Pancreas (panNEN). Recent updates separate pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors into 2 broad categories: well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNET) and poorly differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (panNEC), and incorporates a new subcategory of "well-differentiated high-grade NET (G3)" to the well-differentiated NET category. This new classification algorithm aims to improve the prediction of clinical outcomes and survival and help clinicians select better therapeutic strategies for patient care and management...
June 14, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911915/targeting-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-receptor-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#15
Mahip K Verma, Rajan Goel, Nandakumar Krishnadas, Kumar V S Nemmani
Incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) exert pleiotropic effects on the endocrine pancreas and nervous system. Expression of GIP and GIP receptor (GIPR) in neurons, their roles in neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, neurotransmission and neuromodulation, uniquely positions GIPR for therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative disorders. GIP analogues acting as GIPR agonists attenuate neurobehavioral and neuropathological sequelae of neurodegenerative disorders in preclinical models, e...
June 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911459/a-case-of-linezolid-induced-toxicity
#16
Philip E Tobias, Christy A Varughese, Amy P Hanson, Payal K Gurnani
Adverse effects of linezolid are typically limited to diarrhea, nausea, and headache when shorter durations are used; however, as extended durations of linezolid therapy are increasingly more common, additional monitoring parameters should be considered in these patients. We describe a unique case of hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, and pancreatitis related to an extended duration of linezolid therapy. A 52-year-old woman presented with altered mental status, abdominal pain, and hypotension following six weeks of linezolid and ertapenem therapy...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910119/secretagogin-protects-pdx1-from-proteasomal-degradation-to-control-a-transcriptional-program-required-for-%C3%AE-cell-specification
#17
Katarzyna Malenczyk, Edit Szodorai, Robert Schnell, Gert Lubec, Gábor Szabó, Tomas Hökfelt, Tibor Harkany
OBJECTIVE: Specification of endocrine cell lineages in the developing pancreas relies on extrinsic signals from non-pancreatic tissues, which initiate a cell-autonomous sequence of transcription factor activation and repression switches. The steps in this pathway share reliance on activity-dependent Ca2+ signals. However, the mechanisms by which phasic Ca2+ surges become converted into a dynamic, cell-state-specific and physiologically meaningful code made up by transcription factors constellations remain essentially unknown...
June 5, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909684/hydatid-cyst-of-the-pancreas-causing-both-acute-pancreatitis-and-splenic-vein-thrombosis
#18
O Ozsay, F Gungor, Serkan Karaisli, Ibrahim Kokulu, Osman Nuri Dilek
Hydatid cyst of the pancreas is a rarely seen entity even in endemic countries. Cyst may causes several symptoms due to external compression or fistulisation to pancreaticobiliary tract or small bowel. A 23-year-old female patient was referred with a complaint of abdominal pain. Preoperative imaging revealed an undefined cyst in the tail of pancreas. She underwent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis due to cystopancreatic duct fistula and also left-sided portal hypertension due to splenic vein thrombosis...
June 18, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909661/rectal-varices-due-to-chronic-inferior-mesenteric-vein-thrombosis-caused-by-external-compression-in-a-large-hiatus-hernia-containing-the-pancreas
#19
H A Rudman, M C Stott, M Y Loh, E C Clark
A 79-year-old woman presented with a large fresh rectal bleed. Computed tomography revealed that she had a large type IV hiatus hernia, which contained the stomach and pancreas. Compression of the inferior mesenteric vein and splenic vein had led to thrombosis within these vessels and retrograde flow within the inferior mesenteric vein. This had led to the formation of portosystemic rectal varices. Ectopic varices occasionally form in the rectum, often in the context of liver cirrhosis. At the time of writing, ours is the first reported case of portosystemic rectal varices formulated in response to obstruction of vessels within a hiatus hernia...
June 18, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909574/the-possible-antidiabetic-effects-of-vitamin-d-receptors-agonist-in-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#20
Wafaa M Abdel-Rehim, Rasha A El-Tahan, Mennatullah A El-Tarawy, Rowaida R Shehata, Maher A Kamel
Vitamin D3 deficiency was found to be tightly linked to many health problems including metabolic syndrome, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In our study, we tested the possible antidiabetic effects of one of vitamin D3 analogs, alfacalcidol, solely or in a combination with metformin on type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetic model rats were induced by feeding high-fat diet for 4 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. In addition to the control group, the diabetic rats were divided into four groups: untreated, metformin-treated, alfacalcidol-treated, and combination-treated group (metformin + alfacalcidol) for 4 weeks...
June 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
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